Franz Schubert

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Franz Schubert
(portrait of Wilhelm August Rieder , 1875, based on a watercolor from 1825)
Schubert's glasses

Franz Peter Schubert (born January 31, 1797 in the municipality of Himmelpfortgrund , today a district of Vienna in the district of Alsergrund ; †  November 19,  1828 in Wieden , now also a district of Vienna) was an Austrian composer .

Although Franz Schubert died at the age of 31, he left behind a rich and varied body of work. He composed over 600 songs , secular and sacred choral music , seven complete and five unfinished symphonies , overtures , stage works, piano music and chamber music .

During his lifetime, the number of his admirers was still limited. Mendelssohn , Schumann , Liszt , Brahms and other Romantic composers discovered and praised the work of their predecessor. Today, Schubert's rank as an outstanding representative of early Romanticism is undisputed.



Birthplace at Himmelpfortgrund , today Nußdorfer Straße 54
From 1801 the Schubert family lived at pillar street 3 in the suburb of Himmelpfortgrund
Schubert was baptized in the Lichtental parish church

Franz Peter Schubert was born the thirteenth of twenty children. Of these, only nine survived to adulthood. Schubert's father Franz Theodor (* 1763 in Neudorf in Nordmören , today Vysoká ; † July 9, 1830) was a teacher and headmaster. His mother Elisabeth Vietz (* 1756 in Zuckmantel, Austrian Silesia , today Zlaté Hory ; † May 28, 1812) was a cook in a Viennese family before the wedding.

At the age of five, Schubert received his first regular musical lessons: his father taught him to play the violin. At the age of six he went to school in the Viennese suburb of Lichtental . At the age of seven he received organ lessons from Michael Holzer, the conductor of the Lichtental parish church .

Because of his beautiful voice, in October 1808 he was accepted as a choir boy in the Vienna court band and in the imperial seminary . Schubert met many of his later long-term friends there – such as Joseph von Spaun , Albert Stadler and Anton Holzapfel. In addition to composition lessons from Wenzel Ruzicka and later Antonio Salieri , he enjoyed a variety of musical stimulation in the Konvikt. He not only acted as a soloist in singing, but also got to know the instrumental works of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , since he was second violinist in the Konviktorchester.

His talent for composition soon became apparent. A piano fantasy in G major for four hands is dated 8 April – 1 May 1810. A string quartet , another fantasy in G minor, songs and other pieces followed the next year. String quartet evenings were regularly organized in the family on Sundays and public holidays, at which his father played the cello, he himself played the viola and his brothers played the violin.


Young Schubert ( Josef Abel )

While his academic performance was good at first, he deteriorated over time, especially in mathematics and Latin. He rejected the possibility of extending his foundation position and returned to his parents' home in October 1813. It was at this time that he composed his Symphony No. 1 in D major .

After attending a teacher training college, he became his father's school assistant at the end of 1814, a post he held for two years and again for a short time in late 1817/early 1818. In addition, he received lessons from Antonio Salieri until 1816 and composed productively: his first opera Des Teufels Lustschloß and his Mass No. 1 in F major (the premiere on September 25, 1814 in the Lichtental parish church was the first public performance of one of his works ) both date from 1814, as well as several string quartets, shorter instrumental works, the first movement of his Symphony No. 2 in B flat major and more than twenty songs, including masterpieces such as Gretchen am Spinnrade (from Goethe's Faust ) and interesting experiments such as the ballad Der Diver (after Schiller ).

He composed an even larger number of works in 1815. Despite his work as a teacher, he completed two symphonies (No. 2 in B flat major, No. 3 in D major ), two masses ( No. 2 in G major , No. 3 in B flat major ), the operas The Four Year Post , Fernando and Claudine from Villa Bella , and two other unfinished ones. There was also the string quartet in G minor, four sonatas and a few other compositions for piano, as well as almost 150 songs, some of them of considerable length, of which he sometimes wrote several a day.

In view of the increasing incompatibility of his teaching position with composing, Schubert made numerous attempts to establish himself as a composer. But the publishers refused to publish his works. In the spring of 1816 he applied unsuccessfully for the post of Kapellmeister in Laibach/ Ljubljana . Through his friend Joseph von Spaun he came into contact with Franz von Schober in Vienna . At his suggestion, Schubert left his teaching post and moved into Schober's apartment for eight months to spend more time composing. The only compositions from this year are the Goethe ballad Erlkönig , the Prometheus cantata , the two symphonies No. 4 in C minor (the “Tragic”) and No. 5 in B flat major , and Mass No. 4 in C major mentioned.

During this whole time his circle of friends kept expanding. The poet Johann Mayrhofer , whom he had met in December 1814, wrote him two libretti . Schober introduced him to the baritone Johann Michael Vogl , one of the most important singers at the Vienna Court Opera , who was soon singing his songs in the literary salons , thereby introducing him to the public. The pianist Josef von Gahy played his sonatas and fantasies. The musical middle-class Sonnleithner family, especially their eldest son, Leopold von Sonnleithner , organized musical gatherings in his honor, which were called Schubertiaden from 1821 (and still take place in a similar, but also completely differently organized form).

Schubertiade , known under the title Ein Schubert-Abend bei Joseph von Spaun , with Franz Schubert at the piano ( sepia drawing by Moritz von Schwind , 1868, Wien Museum , Vienna)
Schubert and Kupelwieser in the nonsense society

Along with Mayrhofer and Johann Chrysostomus Senn , around 1818/19 Schubert also belonged to the Viennese fraternity group (“Sennscher Kreis”), which was finally dissolved by the police in 1820.

Schubert had no actual income because he had given up his teaching position, public appearances brought nothing, and publishers were not yet interested in his music. His friends partly had to take care of his livelihood. In a so-called nonsense society of young artists, he maintained close contact with the Kupelwieser brothers, his later librettist Joseph Kupelwieser and the painter Leopold Kupelwieser , who - as one of the few - painted authentic contemporary portraits of Schubert, alongside Wilhelm August Rieder (watercolor 1825) and Anton Depauly (whose 1828 portrait was originally and erroneously attributed to Joseph Willibrord Mähler or Franz Eybl ). When Schubert was released from teaching for the first time in 1817, he devoted himself in particular to the piano sonata (A minor D 537, A flat major D 557, E minor D 566, D flat major D 567, F sharp minor D 570, B major D 575). Some of his best-known songs also came into being during this period (such as Ganymede , Death and the Maiden and The Trout ).

In January/January 1818, Schubert's first composition, the song Erlafsee (D 586), was published (as a supplement to the anthology published by Franz Sartori "Mahler's paperback for friends of interesting regions. Natural and artistic oddities of the Austrian monarchy").

Country residence of the Esterházy family in Zselíz

From early July to mid-November 1818 (and also in the summer of 1824) he was employed by the family of Count Johann Carl Esterházy , whom he had already looked after musically in his city palace in Vienna, as singing and piano master on their estate in Zselíz / Zelis in Hungary (now Slovakia ) engaged. For the Countess Marie and Caroline, the Count's daughters, he wrote pieces and songs for four hands. In the same year he created his Symphony No. 6 in C major .

When he returned to Vienna in the late autumn of 1818, Schubert no longer found accommodation with Schober and lived with Johann Mayrhofer in his room for two years. His life now went back to the old way: every morning he got up and started composing, ate at two o'clock, went for a walk and then turned to composition again or visited friends. His decision against the teaching profession was now final.

He had his first appearance as a song composer on February 28, 1819 in the hall of the hotel "Zum Römeren Kaiser" ( Freyung No. 145, today Renngasse 1) with Schäfer's Lamentation . In the summer of the same year he went on vacation with Vogl in Upper Austria . In the autumn he sent three of his songs to Goethe , but - as far as is known - without success.

maturing years

In the years that followed, Schubert's output declined quantitatively, but the compositions of 1820 show a further development of his style. In February he began work on the unfinished oratorio Lazarus , later he wrote, in addition to smaller pieces, a setting of the 23rd psalm for choir with piano accompaniment, the singing of the spirits and the quartet movement in C minor.

Franz Schubert in the circle of friends , drawing by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller , Albertina Vienna .

Two of Schubert's operas were performed for the first time this year: the one-act Singspiel Die Zwillingsbrüder on June 14 at the Theater am Kärntnertor and Die Zauberharfe on August 19 at the Theater an der Wien . Until then, his larger compositions – with the exception of the masses – had not progressed beyond the amateur orchestra in the Gundelhof , which had emerged from the domestic quartet events. Since both plays were passable successes, he was now able to appeal to a wider audience. But only after Vogl had sung Erlkönig in a public concert could the publisher Anton Diabelli be persuaded to publish some of Schubert's works on commission.

Commemorative plaque at the Göttweiger Hof in Spiegelgasse
Schubert on July 10, 1821, portrait drawing by Leopold Kupelwieser

In 1821 the friendship with Moritz von Schwind began . Schubert temporarily lived again with his friend Franz von Schober , around 1822 in the Göttweiger Hof, where, among other things, the Unfinished and the Wanderer Fantasy were created. Schubertiaden took place in the circle of friends, including in Atzenbrugg Castle in Lower Austria , where Schober's uncle was the estate manager. A number of poem settings, such as Jäger's Liebeslied , refer to the friendship with Schober.

Franz Schubert at the piano, watercolor by Leopold Kupelwieser ( Der Lebensfall , 1821, Wien Museum , Vienna).

As with Schubert's relationship with Mayrhofer, various documents and a detailed work analysis by Christoph Schwandt also point to a homosexual relationship.

In 1821/22 Schubert earned about 800 fl . As a school assistant he had only received 80 fl. a year from his father in addition to board and lodging. Otto Erich Deutsch estimated Schubert's further income from publications, fees and gifts between 1822 and 1828 at about 7000 fl.

Encouraged by the successes, Schubert now tried to establish himself as a stage composer, but his hopes were dashed. Both Alfonso and Estrella - composed between September 1821 and February 1822 - as well as The Conspiracy by Ignaz Franz Castelli (April 1823) were rejected by the theater, and Fierrabras (autumn 1823) was canceled after the first rehearsals. The incidental music for Helmina by Chézys Rosamunde was well received, but the piece itself was canceled after two evenings.

Schubert's state of health gave rise to speculation. As he grew older, he became more corpulent and tended towards alcoholic excesses. The first authentically reported illness struck him in December 1822. A stay in hospital in the autumn of 1823 brought improvement, but the illness seems to have had a particularly heavy psychological impact on the composer the following spring ("I feel like the most unhappy, miserable person in the world". he wrote to Leopold Kupelwieser ). According to the current view of Schubert research, Schubert had contracted a venereal disease , probably syphilis , because in January (January) 1823 he was being treated in the Vienna General Hospital for syphilitic ulcers.

Various legends circulate about Schubert's way of life at this time. It is said that Schubert spent most of the money he earned on teaching or selling compositions on evenings with friends in the old Viennese inns, which did not exactly help his reputation. According to an unsecured anecdote, the innkeeper occasionally even accepted a song in payment that Schubert often composed right at the inn table if he couldn't pay the bill in cash. It is also said about Schubert's eagerness to work that he always kept his usual glasses on at night so that he could start composing in the morning without wasting any time.

Despite his occupation with the stage and later with his official duties, he found time for many other compositions during these years. In 1822, Mass No. 5 in A flat major was completed and the B minor symphony began. His first famous song cycle, Die Schöne Müllerin , dates from 1823, the variations on Trockne Blumen and two string quartets in A minor ( Rosamunde ) and D minor ( Death and the Maiden ) are from 1824.

In the spring of 1824 he wrote his Octet in F major . From the end of May to mid-October 1824 he was engaged in Zelis for the second time. He dedicated the three songs "Impatience", "Morgengruß" and "Des Müllers Blumen" from Die Schönen Müllerin to the 19-year-old Countess Caroline Esterházy . There Schubert also notated the two-handed Mélodie hongroise D 817 and worked it out in the finale of the four-handed divertissement à la Hongroise D 818, which was probably written after returning from Zelis. The four-hand piano sonata D 812, the Grand Duo , was also written in Zelis . At the suggestion of Countess Rosine Esterházy, he set the “Prayer” by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué to music as a vocal quartet.

Franz Schubert in May 1825,
heliogravure after the watercolor by Wilhelm August Rieder,
signed by Rieder and Schubert at the bottom
Franz Schubert's face mask. It is disputed whether it is a death mask or a living mask.

In 1825 Schubert had another happier phase, during which he traveled through the Archduchy of Austria above the Enns (with the Salzburg district ) to take a cure in Bad Gastein . There and in Gmunden he worked on what later became known as the Gmunden-Gastein Symphony and wrote his Piano Sonata in D major (D 850); the Piano Sonata in A minor (D 845) had probably been written shortly before, and he was able to publish it at a very high price. He became friends with Eduard von Bauernfeld . He also maintained his contacts with Anselm Hüttenbrenner and Johann Baptist Jenger , his friends in Styria.

the last few years

Franz Schubert, painted around 1827 by Anton Depauly

From 1826 to 1828 Schubert stayed in Vienna and its suburbs, apart from a short stay in Graz in the house of Marie Pachler-Koschak . The position of Vice Kapellmeister at the Imperial Court Orchestra, for which he applied in 1826, was not given to him but to Joseph Weigl . On March 26, 1828 he gave the only public concert of his career, which earned him 800 guilders in Vienna currency (320 fl. convention coin). Numerous songs and piano works had meanwhile been printed.

He wrote the final version of the String Quartet in D minor with the variations on Death and the Maiden during the winter of 1825/1826. In 1826 followed the String Quartet in G major, the Rondeau brilliant for piano and violin, the Piano Sonata in G major and Schubert's best-known sacred work, the Deutsche Messe .

In 1827 he composed the song cycle Winterreise , the Impromptus , the Fantasy for piano and violin, and the two Piano Trios in B flat major and E flat major . In 1828 he wrote the Mass No. 6 in E flat major , the String Quintet in C major (D 956), the related last three piano sonatas (D 958–960) and a collection of songs published after his death and called Schwanengesang . He also sketched three movements for a symphony in D major.


Grave of honor erected in 1888 in the Vienna Central Cemetery, design: Theophil Hansen

After two weeks of continuous fever, Franz Schubert died on November 19, 1828 at 3 p.m. in the apartment of his brother Ferdinand Schubert in the house "Auf der Neue Wieden N° 694" (today Kettenbrückengasse 6 in the Wieden district , ). He was still suffering from uncured syphilis , but the cause of death may have been an acute infectious disease, probably typhus . This disease was then called “nervous fever”.

Schubert was buried in the Währing Cemetery near Ludwig van Beethoven's grave. In 1888 his bones were transferred to a grave of honor in Vienna's central cemetery (group 32 A, number 28).

reception and aftermath

Caricature, around 1825, text: " Michael Vogl and Franz Schubert go out to fight and win"

In literature, Schubert is traditionally portrayed as an unrecognized genius who created his masterpieces unnoticed by the public. It is true that Schubert's major works - such as his symphonies - did not have a great impact and that he did not achieve the longed-for breakthrough with his operas. A major reason for this was that he himself did not seek publicity and, unlike Mozart and Beethoven , it was not until 1827 that his friends persuaded him to give his own concert, which was a great success.

On the other hand, Schubert was well known nationwide. As a singer, Vogl in particular ensured the dissemination of his songs, and towards the end of his life the publishers also began to take an interest in them. Around 100 of his works were published in print during his lifetime - measured against the number of around 600 songs only a small proportion, but more than many of his contemporaries published.

After Schubert's death, Diabelli published numerous songs and other small compositions in the years that followed. However, it took a long time before the symphonies, masses and operas became accessible to the public. During a stay in Vienna, Robert Schumann visited Ferdinand Schubert , who showed him some compositions from the estate. Schumann was immediately enthusiastic about the Great Symphony in C major and championed it. It premiered on March 21, 1839 under Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy in the Leipzig Gewandhaus . It was not until 1865 that the Unfinished Symphony , which belonged to Anselm Hüttenbrenner , came into the hands of the conductor Johann von Herbeck , who premiered it on December 17 in Vienna.

Despite his short life, Schubert created extraordinary things in all genres of his time and, alongside Beethoven, is regarded in today's musicology as the founder of romantic music in the German-speaking world. Unlike the composers of the Viennese Classicism , in whose tradition he worked, he also gave the smaller forms (piano pieces such as Deutsche Tänze, Moments musicaux or Impromptus) a wide space in his work, which continued in the oeuvres of many romantic composers, starting with Mendelssohn and Schumann and into the 20th century ( Hugo Wolf , Alexander Scriabin ).

Musicological research agrees that Schubert's most important contribution to European music history is his lieder. The art song genre actually only came about in its binding new form through him. “Franz Schubert transformed a world of poetry into music. He took the art song to an unprecedented level.” This is how Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau , one of the most important song interpreters in the second half of the 20th century, begins his book on Schubert's songs, which is rich in material and knowledge. Schubert's predecessors in Viennese Classicism , Haydn , Mozart and Beethoven (as well as the many Kleinmeisters) did not have a particularly strong relationship to the lied, although they did occasionally compose lieder. What is special about Schubert's songs is something that was foreign to them: Schubert does indeed compose “A World of Poetry”, or more precisely: the language form of over 600 poems in music. This means that it is not a musical idea that is guiding (as is shown, for example, in the compositional eloquence of Mozart's arias or ensembles in the operas), but the linguistic specification.

In doing so, Schubert succeeds in finding the best musical means with which he can understand the given linguistic and lyrical form of a poem. He is so sure of it that among his approximately 600 songs there are very few mistakes, even in his early work. His means of musically following the given melodic and metric-rhythmic form of speech are also external means such as targeted repetitions of text (or precisely the omission of an expected repetition, as for example at the end of the last song of the Winterreise , the Leiermann ). Change of pitch in a song, dominant - tonic - cadences in fortissimo as rhetorical confirmations as well as - and this is exactly what Schubert succeeds amazingly well - the piano imitation of real sound phenomena such. B. rippling water, barking dogs, the turning movement of a spinning wheel, weather events, the sound of other musical instruments, especially the lute, etc. The increasing renunciation of the strophic song in favor of the through-composed song is striking, since the individual stanzas of a poem in their Messages can be so different that the same music does not always fit.

Schubert's song output differs not only from the songs of his predecessors, such as those of Zelter , but also from his contemporaries and successors. Even Robert Schumann , who devoted himself to the art song with comparable commitment, did not share Schubert's linguistic approach in the strict sense. Even in Schumann's rightly famous songs, such as the Eichendorff songs, it is not so much the language-lyrical specification that is represented musically, but rather the special "mood" that is created by the poem. The music conceived for this mood dominates, not the linguistic specification that created this mood. This becomes even clearer in later song compositions such as those by Brahms or Richard Strauss . While Schubert conveys poems to us musically, Schumann, Brahms, Loewe or Strauss convey musical ideas to us through poems.

The biographical literature on Schubert, which is particularly extensive, as in the case of Mozart, does not explicitly discuss this fundamental issue, but stems from a strong emotional bond with this composer, which in turn is an echo of the particularly lyrically committed form of Schubert's song compositions.

While the 19th century admired Schubert above all as the actual creator of the art song, his instrumental music also gained central importance in the concert repertoire in the 20th century. Schubert's instrumental compositions, especially the chamber music ones, reflect his special method and therefore often appear like "songs without words". The chants of the German Mass are very common and popular in everyday church life, especially in Austria, to this day. Only his operas lead a shadowy existence, mainly because of the often confused and theatrically unproductive librettos .


Schubert monument in Vienna Stadtpark

In 1869 Moritz von Schwind created a Schubert bezel with motifs from works by Schubert in the new kk Hofoper Wien . In 1872, a monument designed by Carl Kundmann was erected in Schubert's memory in Vienna's Stadtpark .

The Schubert year 1928 was celebrated in Austria; innumerable monuments, commemorative plaques and Schubert linden trees were unveiled in towns, markets and villages in Austria, mostly with the inscription "To the German song prince Franz Schubert".

Due to Schubert's great popularity, numerous traffic areas were named after him. In Vienna these are still Schubertring in the 1st district ( Inner Stadt ), Schubertgasse in the 9th district ( Alsergrund ), Franz-Schubert-Strasse in the 14th district ( Penzing ) and Franz-Schubert-Weg in the 18th district. district ( Währing ). Before the respective incorporation into Vienna (1890/1892 or 1938) there were also Schubertgassen in Ottakring (today : Dampfbadgasse ) , Atzgersdorf (today: Vertexgasse ), Erlaa (today: Welingergasse ) and Liesing (today: Josef-Bühl-Gasse ) as well as Schubertstrasse in Oberlaa (today: Hasenöhrlstrasse ) and Essling (today: Ibachstrasse ). There are also Schubert lanes , Schubert streets , Schubert squares , Schubert paths , Schubert avenues and Schubert rings in many Austrian and German communities.

A large impact crater on the planet Mercury is named after Franz Schubert. The same applies to Schubert Inlet , a bay on the coast of West Antarctic Alexander I Island.

Schubert's instruments

Among the pianos that Schubert had access to were a fortepiano by Benignus Seidner - owned by his brother Ignaz - which is now on display in Schubert's birthplace in Vienna, and a fortepiano by Anton Walter & Sohn, which is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna located. Schubert was also familiar with the instruments made by the Viennese piano maker Conrad Graf, but he probably never owned his own piano.


In November 2015, the Austrian Academy of Sciences announced that it had compiled more than 1000 handwritten and printed sources by Schubert. It is said to be the largest digital Schubert collection in the world; it can be accessed free of charge at

The numbering of Schubert's works according to the German index is denoted by the abbreviation D. The first complete edition of Schubert's works was published by Breitkopf & Härtel in 1884 . Work on the new Schubert edition, published by Bärenreiter Verlag , began in 1965.

Religious music

stage works

choral songs and chants

  • Numerous choral songs and polyphonic songs for women, men or mixed voices, some a cappella, but mostly with piano accompaniment, sometimes with other instruments. A setting of Schiller 's An die Freude (D 189), Nachtgesang im Walde (D 913, with horn quartet), the 8-part setting of Goethe's Lied der Geister über den Wassern (D 714, with strings), Mirjam's Siegesgesang are just a few examples (D 942, with solo soprano) or The Night (D 983c). A Prometheus cantata for soloists, choir and orchestra (D 451) composed in 1816 has been lost.
  • In 1813, on the occasion of his father's name day, Schubert wrote a trio for two tenors, bass and guitar.


Erlkönig , simpler version without triplets in the right hand

About 600 songs, including

Among the numerous complete recordings of Schubert's lieder, there are two that deserve special mention. An older recording, however, only of the expressly male songs appeared in the years 1969/1970 with Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone) and the piano accompanist Gerald Moore on the Deutsche Grammophongesellschaft label , first on LPs, today on 18 CDs. A recording with various international singers and piano accompanist Graham Johnson , supplemented by explicit women's songs , was released between 1987 and 2005 on the British label Hyperion Records on a total of 37 CDs.

Beginning in Schubert's lifetime, numerous arrangements of his songs with guitar accompaniment were published.

Franz Schubert, lithograph by C. Helfert after Josef Kriehuber (posthumously)

orchestral works


12 symphonies (five of which are unfinished)

The counting of the symphonies has changed several times and thus occasionally causes confusion. The first six completed symphonies are indisputable. A symphony occasionally counted as No. 7, the so-called Gmunden-Gasteiner , was considered lost. According to current research, however, it has been proven that it is identical to the "Great Symphony in C major". The so-called " Unfinished " was formerly referred to as the 8th, now as the 7th . The " Great Symphony in C major " was originally counted as the 7th, later as the 9th symphony; according to current research, it counts as his 8th symphony. To avoid confusion, the two works are now commonly referred to as the "Unfinished" (or "Symphony in B Minor") and the "Great Symphony in C Major" (or "Great C Major" for short).

The fragments are very different in scope. In the meantime, however, all of them have been brought into a performable state and recorded on record or CD.


Other Orchestral Works

  • Orchestral pieces (fragments) D 71c and D 94a
  • Concert piece (“Concerto”) for violin and orchestra in D major, D 345
  • Rondo for violin and string orchestra (string quartet) in A major, D 438
  • Polonaise for violin and orchestra in B flat major, D 580
Autograph of the octet in F major D 803
Piano trio in E flat major op. 100 (D 929), 2nd movement (autograph)

chamber music

piano music

  • 21 sonatas , 12 of them completed, the unfinished relic in C major (D 840) and A minor (D 845), D major (D 850), G major (D 894) and the last ones written in the year of his death are particularly outstanding three in C minor, A major, B flat major (D 958–960), see Piano Sonatas Nos. 19 to 21 (Schubert)
  • Eight Impromptus in Two Cycles (D 899 and D 935)
  • Six moments musicaux D. 780 (op. 94)
  • The "Five Piano Pieces" (so published in 1843, actually an unfinished piano sonata in E major D 459 and three piano pieces D 459A) and "Three Piano Pieces" (D 946)
  • the pianistically very demanding " Wanderer Fantasy " (D 760)
  • numerous works for piano four hands, including the Fantasia in F minor (D 940) and the famous military march ? / i (D733)
  • 13 Variations on a Theme by Anselm Hüttenbrenner in A minor (D 576)
  • 12 Ländler (D 790)
  • many smaller pieces for piano solo such as the Allegretto in C (D 915) or the "Grazer Galopp" (D 925), including a number of unfinished works and fragments


  • Paul Badura Skoda . Franz Schubert "Fantasy Pour le Pianoforte". Conrad Graf 1824, fortepiano.
  • Kristian Bezuidenhout (piano), J.Kobow (voice). F.Schubert (1797-1828) : Chant du Cygne D.957 - F.Mendelssohn (1809-1847) : Six songs on the text of Heinrich Heine. Fortepiano after Conrad Graf 1819 by Paul McNulty.
  • Viviana Sofronitsky . Franz Schubert "Wanderer Fantasy, Impromptus opp. 90 & 142". Fortepiano after Conrad Graf 1819 by Paul McNulty.
  • Alexei Lyubimov . Franz Schubert "Impromptus". Matthias Müller 1810 and Joseph Schantz 1830, fortepianos.
  • Andreas Staier , Alexandr Melnikov . Franz Schubert "Fantasy in F Minor". Fortepiano after Conrad Graf by Christopher Clarke.
  • Penelope Crawford. Schubert, Mendelsohn, Schumann "Viennese Romantic Piano". Conrad Graf 1835, fortepiano.
  • Andras Schiff . Franz Schubert "C Major Fantasies". Fortepiano by Franz Brodmann 1820.

See also

Literature (selection)

  • Werner Aderhold, Walther Dürr , Walburga Litschauer (ed.): Franz Schubert - years of crisis 1818 to 1823. (Festschrift Arnold Feil .) Bärenreiter, Kassel 1985, ISBN 3-7618-0758-9 .
  • Manfred Wagner , Franz Schubert - work and life, Verlag Holzhausen, Vienna 1996, online
  • Veronika Beci : Franz Schubert. I moved in as a stranger . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2003, ISBN 3-538-07151-9 .
  • Werner Bodendorff : The smaller church works of Franz Schubert. Augsburg: Wißner 1997. ISBN 3-89639-089-9
  • Otto Erich Deutsch , Werner Aderhold, Walther Dürr, Arnold Feil (eds.): Franz Schubert catalog raisonné. Little German . dtv/Bärenreiter, 1983. ISBN 3-423-03261-8
  • Friedrich Dieckmann : Franz Schubert. An approximation . Insel, Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig 1996, ISBN 3-458-16804-4
  • Walther Dürr, Arnold Feil: Reclam's music guide Franz Schubert . Reclam, 1991 or 2002 with updated list of references. ISBN 3-379-20049-2
  • Alfred Einstein : Schubert. A musical portrait , Zurich 1952
  • Herbert Eulenberg : Schubert and the women . Three owls publishing house Dusseldorf 1946
  • Hans-Jürgen Fröhlich : Schubert , Munich [u. a.] Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 1978
  • Harry Goldschmidt : Franz Schubert - A life picture , 7th edition, German publisher for music, Leipzig 1980
  • Gernot Gruber : Schubert. Schubert? Life and Music , Kassel 2010 ISBN 978-3-7618-2123-7
  • Peter Gülke : Franz Schubert and his time , Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2002, ISBN 3-89007-537-1
  • Peter Hardling : Schubert. 12 moments musicaux and a novel . dtv, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-423-13137-3
  • Ernst Hilmar : Franz Schubert . Reinbeck 1997.
  • Hans Joachim Hinrichsen: Franz Schubert . Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-62135-2 .
  • Ernst Křenek : Franz Schubert - A portrait, annual gift of the International Franz Schubert Institute, Vienna and the German Schubert Society e. V., Duisburg, Verlag Hans Schneider , 1990, ISBN 978-3-7952-0623-9
  • Andrea Lindmayr-Brandl: Franz Schubert. The Fragmentary Work . (= Schubert: Perspectives - Studies , Vol. 2) Steiner, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-515-08250-6
  • Frieder Reininghaus : Schubert and the Inn . Music under Metternich, Berlin 1980
  • Christoph Schwandt : Inexpressible, incomprehensible'. Evidence and arguments from life and work for the probable homosexuality of Franz Peter Schubert. In: Franz Schubert "Todesmusik" , Verlag edition text + kritik, 1997 (= music concepts 97/98), pp. 112-194.
  • Rita Steblin : The nonsense society: Franz Schubert, Leopold Kupelwieser and their circle of friends. Böhlau 1998, ISBN 3-205-98820-5
  • Rita Steblin: Franz Schubert - the thirteenth child. In: Wiener Geschichtsblatt , Vienna 2001, Issue 3, pp. 245-265
  • Paul Stefan : Franz Schubert . Berlin 1928
  • Walther Vetter : The Classic Schubert . 2 volumes. Leipzig 1953
  • 1997).
  • Elmar Worgull : A representative youthful portrait of Schubert. Schubert's outward appearance in contemporary documents as a basis for an isoproportional analysis via the portrait . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 12 (1994), pp. 55-89.
  • Elmar Worgull : Two Misattributions in Schubert Iconography . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute. Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 16/17 (1996), pp. 158-171.
  • Elmar Worgull : Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller outlines Franz Schubert in the circle of friends . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 18 (1997), pp. 103-124.
  • Elmar Worgull : Schubert without glasses. Schubert's face mask as a model for the painting in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 20 (1998), pp. 133-149.
  • Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert's face mask and its role model function in drawings by Moritz von Schwind . In: Biblos: Contributions to books, libraries and writing / Austrian National Library Vienna. ( Dedicated to Werner König on the occasion of his 65th birthday ). Böhlau Verlag Vienna et al. 1997, pp. 345-388.
  • Elmar Worgull : Schubert's unknown neighbor in Kupelwieser's watercolor The Fall of Man . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna . Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 26 (2001), pp. 101-108.
  • Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert in pictorial documents of his friends and contemporaries. Art-historical observations on Schubert iconography . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2018, ISBN 978-3-88462-388-6 .

Basic scientific works

German directory 1951

University theses

  • Reinhard Fiedler: Studies on the melody of the late Schubert: aesthetic prerequisites and analytical findings (= Are Edition , Volume 2255; Music in the Focus of Science, Volume 2). Are Musik Verlag, Mainz 2014, ISBN 978-3-924522-55-1 (dissertation University of Frankfurt am Main 2014, 485 pages).
  • Christian Jungblut: Compositional Schubert reception in the second half of the 20th century. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8260-4506-6 (dissertation, State University of Music and Performing Arts Mannheim 2010, 274 pages).
  • Astrid Tschense-Oesterle: Goethe poems in Schubert's settings: composition as text interpretation. von Bockel, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 978-3-932696-54-1 (dissertation University of Bonn 2003, 547 pages).
  • Ira Schulze-Ardey: The composer as producing reader: on the relationship between text and music structure in the piano-accompanied solo song using the example of Friedrich von Matthisson's poetry in the settings by Franz Schubert (= Europäische Hochschulschriften , series 36; musicology , volume 233), Lang, Frankfurt am Main and others 2003, ISBN 3-631-51119-1 (dissertation University of Bochum 2002, 361 pages).
  • Christian Strehk: On the way to the quintet: studies on Franz Schubert's mature string chamber music 2000, DNB 96096942X (dissertation University of Kiel 2000, 477 pages).


  • Werner Bodendorff: Franz Schubert - the texts of his songs composed in one voice and polyphony and their poets (total and critical ed., Vol. 3), Hildesheim 2006 ISBN 3-487-10330-3
  • Otto Erich Deutsch (ed.): Schubert. The documents of his life. Collected and Explained . Bärenreiter, Kassel and others 1964 (NGA VIII.5)
  • Otto Erich Deutsch (ed.): Schubert. The memories of his friends. Collected and Explained . Leipzig 1957 and 1966
  • Ernst Hilmar, Otto Brusatti (ed., with an introduction by Walter Obermaier ): Franz Schubert. Exhibition by the Vienna City and State Library on the 150th anniversary of the composer's death. catalog . Vienna 1978.
  • Ernst Hilmar: Schubert . Graz 1989 (photo biography)
  • Ernst Hilmar (ed.): Franz Schubert. Documents 1801–1830. First volume. Addendum and Commentary . (Publications of the IFSI, 10/2), Tutzing 2003
  • Maximilian and Lilly Schochow: Franz Schubert: the texts of his songs composed in unison and their poets completely collected . Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1974
  • Till Gerrit Waidelich (ed., preparatory work by Renate Hilmar-Voit and Andreas Mayer ): Franz Schubert. Documents 1817–1830. Volume One: Texts. Programs, Reviews, Advertisements, Obituary, Music Supplements and Other Printed Sources (Publications of the IFSI, 10/1), Tutzing 1993

Schubert bibliographies

  • Willi Kahl: Directory of the literature on Franz Schubert 1828-1928 , Regensburg 1938.
  • Ernst Hilmar (collaboration with Werner Bodendorff): Building blocks for a new Schubert bibliography, mainly of the writings from 1929 to 2000. Part I: Alphabetical order by author. In: Schubert durch die Brille No. 25 (2000), pp. 95-303; Additions and indices in Schubert through the glasses Nos. 26, 27.

Entries in reference works

Periodicals (current)


Schubert can often be seen in pictures as a handsome young man. In fiction and film scripts, he was often portrayed in an unauthentic, awkward, and sentimental way. Many writings about Schubert's travels etc. are hardly in accordance with the documented facts. Most of the stories are fictitious and only adapted to Schubert's real life with a few basic data, such as the names of his friends etc.

stage works

Schubert societies, associations and institutions

The celebration of Franz Schubert's 100th birthday in heaven , silhouette by Otto Böhler

web links

Commons : Franz Schubert  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Franz Schubert  - sources and full texts
Wikiquote: Franz Schubert  – Quotations

Literature by and about Schubert





  1. Heinz Schöny: "Franz Schubert: origin and relationship", in: studies on family and coat of arms, yearbook of the Heraldic-Genealogical Society "Adler" , Vienna 1978; Rita Steblin : "Franz Schubert - the thirteenth child", in: Wiener Geschichtsblatt 3 , pp. 245-265.
  2. W. Dürr, A. Feil: Franz Schubert . Music guide, Leipzig: Reclam 2002, p. 20
  3. Helge Dvorak: Biographical Encyclopedia of the German Fraternity. Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , pp. 624–628.
  4. see: Elmar Worgull : Schubert without glasses in the bibliography
  5. Walther Dürr, Andreas Krause (eds.): Schubert Handbuch , Bärenreiter/Metzler, Kassel et al. or Stuttgart et al., 2nd edition 2007, ISBN 978-3-7618-2041-4 , p. 68
  6. Dietmar Grieser: The uncle from Prussia. On Austrian Trails through Slovakia , Amalthea-Verlag, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-85002-684-0 , p. 184
  7. see Elmar Worgull : Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller outlines Franz Schubert in the circle of friends in the bibliography and Schubert 200 years : [on the occasion of the Schubert 200 exhibition in Achberg Castle and in the Lindau City Museum, May 3rd to September 7th 1997]: Illja Dürhammer, Gerrit Waidelich (scientific work). Publisher: Ravensburg district office, cultural office of the city of Lindau: exhibition catalogue. Edition Braus, Heidelberg 1997. ISBN 3-89466-193-3 . p. 159 ff.
  8. s. Elmar Worgull : Schubert's unknown neighbor in Kupelwieser's watercolor The Fall of Man (2001 ) in the bibliography.
  9. Steblin , Rita (2001): Schubert's Problematic Relationship with Johann Mayrhofer: New Documentary Evidence . Barbara Haggh (ed.): Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman . Paris-Tours: Minerve, pp. 465-495.
  10. Cf. Schwandt, Christoph (1997): "Unspeakable, ununderstood". Evidence and arguments from life and work for the probable homosexuality of Franz Schubert . In: Music Concepts, H. 97/98 (Franz Schubert Death Music), pp. 112-194.
  11. The big taboo around Franz Schubert
  12. Love of pleasure and ignorance of the world
  13. Myths become people
  14. Andreas Otte, Konrad Wink: Kerner's illnesses of great musicians , Schattauer, Stuttgart/New York, 6th edition 2008, ISBN 978-3-7945-2601-7 , p. 169
  15. a b Walther Dürr, Andreas Krause (ed.): Schubert Handbuch , Bärenreiter/Metzler, Kassel et al. or Stuttgart et al., 2nd edition 2007, ISBN 978-3-7618-2041-4 , p. 31
  16. Otte/Wink, p. 165
  17. Richard Gerlach: Zeitgeiz . In: Bergland, issue 12 (1935), p. 55
  18. Grieser, p. 186
  19. Grieser, p. 189
  20. Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert's face mask and its role model function in drawings by Moritz von Schwind . In: Elmar Worgull: Franz Schubert in pictorial documents of his friends and contemporaries. Art-historical observations on Schubert iconography . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2018, ISBN 978-3-88462-388-6 . pp. 55-79.
    Peter Gülke: Franz Schubert and his time . Laaber, Laaber-Verlag, 1991, ISBN 3-89007-266-6 .
  21. Schubert's relations to Linz, Steyr and Upper Austria. In:  Daily Post , April 3, 1915, p. 17f. (online at ANNO ).Template:ANNO/Maintenance/tpt
  22. see: Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert's face mask and its role model function in drawings by Moritz von Schwind (1997) in the bibliography.
  23. see: Elmar Worgull : Schubert without glasses in the bibliography.
  24. Otte/Wink, p. 176 f.
  25. In the death list of the Wiener Zeitung for November 19, 1828 in the November 25, 1828 edition , "nervous fever" was given as the cause of death (top right column).
  26. Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, In the footsteps of the Schubert songs. Becoming - beings - worlds , dtv/Bärenreiter Munich 1976, p. 9.
  27. Cf. the basic work on Schubert's song compositions by Thrasybulos Georgiades , Schubert - Musik und Lyrik , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1967, in numerous references in the introduction to the work, pp. 17-45. Walter Jelinek (Vienna 1939) and Erdmute Schwarmath (Tutzing 1969) also deal intensively with this question.
  28. Georgiades, ibid., p. 38: "Not the substance itself [of the lyrical template] is musically realized, it does not appear as music, but the mere mood, the mere feeling that the poem triggers is expressed."
  29. Not only musicologists, but also outspoken writers like Annette Kolb (Erlenbach/Zurich 1947) contributed to monographs on Franz Schubert.
  30. Franz Schubert in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature of the IAU (WGPSN) / USGS
  31. Jeffrey Dane The Composer's pianos . 2001
  33. ^ Report in the daily newspaper Salzburger Nachrichten , Salzburg, November 18, 2015, p. 8, and on the newspaper's website
  34. Information on the New Schubert Edition ( Memento from April 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Jürgen Libbert : An unknown work by the Bohemian guitarist Wenzel Matiegka. With a historical-biographical outline and a catalog raisonné. In: Guitar & Lute 1, 1979, 5, ISSN  0172-9683 , pp. 14–24; here: p. 22.
  36. Abel Nagytothy-Toth: Franz Schubert: Songs with guitar accompaniment. In: Guitar & Lute 6, 1984, Issue 2, pp. 57-61.
  37. ^ Status of the edition , New Schubert Edition , V/3: Symphony No. 7 in h, Kassel: Bärenreiter 1997 (BA 5542)