Franz Schubert

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Franz Schubert
(portrait of Wilhelm August Rieder , 1875, based on a watercolor from 1825)
signature
Schubert's glasses

Franz Peter Schubert (born January 31, 1797 in the municipality of Himmelpfortgrund , today a district of Vienna in the Alsergrund district ; †  November 19,  1828 in Wieden , today also a district of Vienna) was an Austrian composer .

Although Franz Schubert died at the age of 31, he left behind a rich and varied work. He composed over 600 songs , secular and sacred choral music , seven complete and five unfinished symphonies , overtures , stage works, piano music and chamber music .

During his lifetime, the number of his admirers was still limited. Mendelssohn , Schumann , Liszt , Brahms and other Romantic composers discovered and praised the work of their predecessor. Today Schubert's position as an outstanding representative of early Romanticism is undisputed.

biography

childhood

Birthplace on Himmelpfortgrund , today Nußdorfer Straße 54
From 1801 the Schubert family lived at Säulengasse 3 in the suburb of Himmelpfortgrund
Schubert was baptized in the Lichtental parish church

Franz Peter Schubert was born the thirteenth of twenty children to his father, only nine of whom reached adulthood. Schubert's father Franz Theodor (* 1763 in Neudorf in North Moravia , today Vysoká ; † July 9, 1830) was a teacher and headmaster. His mother Elisabeth Vietz (* 1756 in Zuckmantel, Austrian Silesia , today Zlaté Hory ; † May 28, 1812) was a cook in a Viennese family before the wedding.

At the age of five, Schubert received his first regular musical lessons: his father taught him to play the violin. At the age of six he went to school in the Vienna suburb of Lichtental . At the age of seven he was already receiving organ lessons from Michael Holzer, the Kapellmeister of the Lichtental parish church .

Because of his beautiful voice, he was accepted as a choirboy in the Viennese court music band and in the imperial Konvikt in October 1808 . It was there that Schubert met many of his long-term friends - such as Joseph von Spaun , Albert Stadler and Anton Holzapfel. In addition to the composition lessons from Wenzel Ruzicka and later Antonio Salieri, he enjoyed a variety of musical stimuli in the Konvikt . He not only worked as a soloist in singing, but also got to know the instrumental works of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , since he was the second violinist in the Konviktorchester.

Soon his talent for composition showed. A piano fantasy in G major for four hands is dated April 8 - May 1, 1810. A string quartet , another fantasy in G minor, songs and other pieces followed the next year . String quartet evenings were regularly held in the family on Sundays and public holidays, with his father playing the cello, he himself the viola and his brothers the violin.

youth

The young Schubert ( Josef Abel )

While his academic performance was good in the beginning, he got worse over time, especially in mathematics and Latin. He turned down the possibility of extending his foundation and returned to his parents' house in October 1813. At this time he was composing his Symphony No. 1 in D major .

After attending a teacher training college, he became his father's school assistant at the end of 1814, an office that he held for two years and again for a short time at the end of 1817 / beginning of 1818. In addition, he received lessons from Antonio Salieri until 1816 and composed productively: his first opera Des Teufels Lustschloß and his Mass No. 1 in F major (the premiere on September 25, 1814 in the Lichtental parish church was the first public performance of one of his works ) both date from 1814, as do several string quartets, shorter instrumental works, the first movement of his Symphony No. 2 in B flat major and more than twenty songs, including masterpieces such as Gretchen am Spinnrade (from Goethe's Faust ) and interesting experiments such as the ballad Der Divers (after Schiller ).

He composed an even larger number of works in 1815. Despite his work as a teacher, he finished two symphonies (No. 2 in B flat major, No. 3 in D major ), two masses ( No. 2 in G major , No. 3 in B flat ) Major ), the operas The Four Year Old Post , Fernando and Claudine von Villa Bella and two other unfinished operas . There was also the string quartet in G minor, four sonatas and a few other compositions for piano, as well as almost 150 songs, some of which were considerable, of which he sometimes wrote several per day.

In view of the increasing incompatibility of his teaching post with composing, Schubert made numerous attempts to establish himself as a composer. But the publishers refused to publish his works. In the spring of 1816 he applied unsuccessfully for the post of Kapellmeister in Ljubljana / Ljubljana . Through his friend Joseph von Spaun he came into contact with Franz von Schober in Vienna . At his suggestion, Schubert left his teaching position and moved into Schober's apartment for eight months in order to spend more time composing. Of the compositions from this year, only the Goethe ballad Erlkönig , the Prometheus cantata , the two symphonies No. 4 in C minor (the “tragic”) and No. 5 in B flat major, and the Mass No. 4 in C major mentioned.

All this time, his circle of friends grew steadily. The poet Johann Mayrhofer , whom he met in December 1814, wrote two librettos for him . Schober introduced him to the baritone Johann Michael Vogl , one of the most important singers at the Vienna Court Opera , who soon sang his songs in literary salons and thus introduced him to the public. The pianist Josef von Gahy played his sonatas and fantasies. The musical bourgeois family Sonnleithner, especially their eldest son, Leopold von Sonnleithner , organized musical gatherings in his honor, which were called Schubertiads from 1821 (and which still take place in a similar, but also completely different, form).

Schubertiade , known as A Schubert Evening with Joseph von Spaun , with Franz Schubert at the piano ( sepia drawing by Moritz von Schwind , 1868, Wien Museum , Vienna)
Schubert and Kupelwieser in the nonsense society

With Mayrhofer and Johann Chrysostomus Senn , Schubert also belonged to the Vienna fraternity circle ("Sennscher Kreis") around 1818/19 , which was finally dissolved in 1820 by the police.

Schubert had no real income, because he had given up his teaching position, public appearances brought nothing, the publishers were not yet interested in his music. Some of his friends had to provide for his livelihood. In a so-called nonsense society of young artists, he maintained close contacts with the Kupelwieser brothers, his later librettist Joseph Kupelwieser and the painter Leopold Kupelwieser , who - as one of the few - painted authentic contemporary portraits of Schubert, alongside Wilhelm August Rieder (watercolor 1825) and Anton Depauly (whose portrait from 1828 was originally and erroneously attributed to Joseph Willibrord Mähler or Franz Eybl ). When Schubert was exempted from teaching for the first time in 1817, he devoted himself in particular to the piano sonata (A minor D 537, A flat major D 557, E minor D 566, D flat major D 567, F sharp minor D 570, B- Major D 575). Some of his most famous songs were also composed during this period (such as Ganymede , Death and the Maiden and The Trout ).

In January / January 1818, Schubert's song Erlafsee (D 586) appeared in print (as a supplement to the anthology published by Franz Sartori , "Mahler's pocket book for friends of interesting regions. Natural and artistic curiosities of the Austrian monarchy").

Estate of the Esterházy family in Zselíz

From the beginning of July to mid-November 1818 (and also in the summer of 1824) he was with the family of Count Johann Carl Esterházy , whom he had already looked after musically in his city palace in Vienna, as singing and piano master on their estate in Zselíz / Zelis in Hungary (now Slovakia ) committed. He wrote four-hand pieces and songs for Countess Marie and Caroline, the count's daughters. In the same year he composed his Symphony No. 6 in C major .

When he returned to Vienna in the late autumn of 1818, Schubert could no longer stay with Schober and lived with Johann Mayrhofer in his room for two years. His life went back to the old way: every morning after getting up he started composing, ate at two o'clock, went for a walk and then turned back to composing or visited friends. His decision against the teaching profession was now final.

He had his first appearance as a song composer on February 28, 1819 in the hall of the hotel "Zum Roman Kaiser" ( Freyung No. 145, today Renngasse 1) with Schäfer's lament . In the summer of the same year he went on vacation with Vogl in Upper Austria . In autumn he sent three of his songs to Goethe , but - as far as is known - without success.

Maturity years

In the following years, Schubert's work declined quantitatively, but the compositions of 1820 show a further development of his style. In February he began with the unfinished oratorio Lazarus , later he wrote, in addition to smaller pieces, a setting of the 23rd Psalm for choir with piano accompaniment, the song of the spirits and the quartet in C minor.

Franz Schubert in the Circle of Friends , drawing by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller , Albertina Vienna .

Two of Schubert's operas were performed for the first time this year: the one-act singspiel Die Zwillingsbrüder on June 14th at the Theater am Kärntnertor and Die Zauberharfe on August 19th in the Theater an der Wien . Until then, his larger compositions - with the exception of the masses - had not gotten beyond the amateur orchestra in the Gundelhof , which had emerged from the quartet events at home. Since both pieces were passable successes, he could now address a broader public. But it was not until Vogl had sung the Erlkönig in a public concert that the publisher Anton Diabelli could be persuaded to publish some of Schubert's works on commission.

Memorial plaque at the Göttweiger Hof in Spiegelgasse
Schubert on July 10, 1821, portrait drawing by Leopold Kupelwieser

The friendship with Moritz von Schwind began in 1821 . Schubert lived temporarily again with his friend Franz von Schober , around 1822 in the Göttweiger Hof, where, among other things, the Unfinished and the Wanderer Fantasy were created. Schubertiaden took place in the Freundeskreis, including in Atzenbrugg Castle in Lower Austria , where Schober's uncle was the estate manager. Several poetry settings, such as Jäger's love song , refer to the friendship with Schober.

Franz Schubert at the piano, watercolor by Leopold Kupelwieser ( The Fall of Man , 1821, Wien Museum , Vienna).

As with Schubert's relationship with Mayrhofer, various documents and a detailed work analysis by Christoph Schwandt also point to a homosexual relationship here.

In 1821/22 Schubert earned around 800 florins convention coin for the publication of Opus 1–7 and 10–12 . As a school assistant, he received only 80 florins a year from his father in addition to board and lodging. Otto Erich Deutsch estimated Schubert's further income from publications, fees and gifts between 1822 and 1828 at around 7,000 florins convention coin.

Encouraged by the success, Schubert tried to establish himself as a stage composer, but was disappointed in his hopes. Both Alfonso and Estrella - composed between September 1821 and February 1822 - and The Conspirators According to Ignaz Franz Castelli (April 1823) were rejected by the theater, Fierrabras (autumn 1823) removed after the first rehearsals. The incidental music to Helmina von Chézys Rosamunde was well received, but the piece itself was canceled after two evenings.

Schubert's health gave rise to speculation. With age, he became more corpulent and prone to alcoholic excesses. The first authentically transmitted disease attacked him in December 1822. A hospital stay in the autumn of 1823 brought improvement, but by the next spring the illness seemed to have put the composer under particularly severe psychological stress ("I feel like the most unhappy, most miserable person in the world" he wrote to Leopold Kupelwieser ). According to the current view of Schubert research, Schubert had contracted a venereal disease at that time , probably syphilis , because he was in January 1823 for inpatient treatment at the Vienna General Hospital for syphilitic ulcers.

Various legends circulate about Schubert's way of life at that time. It is said that Schubert spent most of the money he earned for school service or sold compositions on evenings with friends in the old Viennese inns, which was not exactly conducive to his reputation. According to an unsecured anecdote, the landlord even accepted a song in payment every now and then, which Schubert often composed right at the pub when he couldn't pay the bill in cash. It is also said of Schubert's zeal for work that he always kept his usual glasses on at night so that he could start composing in the morning without wasting time.

Despite his preoccupation with the stage and later with his official duties, he found the time for many other compositions during these years. In 1822 Mass No. 5 in A flat major was finished and the symphony in B minor began. His first famous song cycle, Die Schöne Müllerin , dates from 1823, the Variations on Dry Flowers and two string quartets in A minor ( Rosamunde ) and D minor ( Death and the Maiden ) are from 1824.

In the spring of 1824 he wrote his octet in F major . From the end of May to the middle of October 1824 he was engaged in Zelis for the second time. He dedicated the three songs "Impatience", "Morning greeting" and "The miller's flowers" from the beautiful miller's wife to the 19-year-old Countess Caroline Esterházy . There Schubert also noted the two-handed Mélodie hongroise D 817 and worked it out in the finale of the four-handed divertissement à la Hongroise D 818, which was probably made after returning from Zelis. The four-hand piano sonata D 812, the Grand Duo , was also composed in Zelis . At the suggestion of Countess Rosine Esterházy, he set Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué's “Prayer” to music as a vocal quartet.

Franz Schubert in May 1825,
heliogravure after the watercolor by Wilhelm August Rieder,
signed below by Rieder and Schubert
Franz Schubert's face mask. It is controversial whether it is a death mask or a living mask.

In 1825 Schubert had another happier phase, in which a trip through the Archduchy of Austria fell on the Enns (with the Salzburg district ) for a cure in Bad Gastein . There and in Gmunden he worked on the later so-called Gmunden-Gastein Symphony and wrote his piano sonata in D major (D 850); The Piano Sonata in A minor (D 845), which he was able to publish for a very high price, had probably already been written shortly before. He became friends with Eduard von Bauernfeld . Furthermore, he maintained his contacts with Anselm Hüttenbrenner and Johann Baptist Jenger , the friends in Styria.

The last few years

Franz Schubert, painted around 1827 by Anton Depauly

From 1826 to 1828 Schubert stayed - apart from a short stay in Graz in the house of Marie Pachler-Koschak - in Vienna and its suburbs. The position of vice conductor at the imperial court orchestra, for which he applied in 1826, was not awarded to him, but to Joseph Weigl . On March 26, 1828, he gave the only public concert of his career, which earned him 800 gulden Viennese currency (320 fl. Convention coin). Numerous songs and piano works had meanwhile been printed.

He wrote the final version of the string quartet in D minor with the variations on Death and the Maiden during the winter of 1825/1826. The string quartet in G major, the Rondeau brilliant for piano and violin, the piano sonata in G major and Schubert's most famous sacred work, the Deutsche Messe, followed in 1826 .

In 1827 he composed the song cycle Winterreise , the Impromptus , the Fantasia for piano and violin and the two piano trios in B flat major and E flat major . In 1828 he wrote the Mass No. 6 in E flat major , the string quintet in C major (D 956), the last three piano sonatas (D 958–960) and a collection of songs that was published after his death and called Schwanengesang . He also sketched three movements for a symphony in D major.

death

Honorary grave erected in 1888 in Vienna's central cemetery, design: Theophil Hansen

After two weeks of continuous fever, Franz Schubert died on November 19, 1828 at 3 o'clock in the afternoon in the apartment of his brother Ferdinand Schubert in the house "Auf der neue Wieden N ° 694" (today Kettenbrückengasse 6 in the Wieden district ). He still suffered from unhealed syphilis , but the cause of death was probably an acute infectious disease, probably typhoid . This disease was then called "nerve fever".

Schubert was buried in the Währing cemetery near Ludwig van Beethoven's grave. In 1888 his bones were transferred to a grave of honor in the Vienna Central Cemetery (group 32 A, number 28).

Reception and aftermath

Caricature, around 1825, text: " Michael Vogl and Franz Schubert set out to fight and win"

In literature, Schubert is traditionally portrayed as a misunderstood genius who created his masterpieces unnoticed by the public. It is true that Schubert's major works - such as his symphonies - did not have a great impact and that his operas did not make the breakthrough he had longed for. A major reason for this was that he did not seek publicity himself and, unlike Mozart and Beethoven, could not be persuaded by his friends to give his own concert until 1827, which was then also a great success.

On the other hand, Schubert was well known nationwide. As a singer, Vogl in particular was responsible for the distribution of his songs, and towards the end of his life the publishers also began to take an interest in them. Around 100 of his works were published in print during his lifetime - only a small proportion of the total of around 600 songs, but more than many of his contemporaries published.

After Schubert's death, Diabelli published numerous songs and other small compositions in the years that followed. It took a long time, however, before the symphonies, masses and operas were also made available to the public. During a stay in Vienna, Robert Schumann visited Ferdinand Schubert , who showed him some compositions from the estate. Schumann was immediately enthusiastic about the Great Symphony in C major and stood up for it. It was premiered on March 21, 1839 under Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy in the Leipzig Gewandhaus . It was not until 1865 that the unfinished symphony came from the possession of Anselm Hüttenbrenner into the hands of the conductor Johann von Herbeck , who premiered it on December 17th in Vienna.

Despite his short life, Schubert created extraordinary things in all genres of his time and is regarded in today's musicology, alongside Beethoven, as the founder of romantic music in German-speaking countries. Unlike the composers of the Viennese Classic , in whose tradition he worked, he also gave the smaller forms (piano pieces such as Deutsche Tänze, Moments musicaux or Impromptus) a large space in his work, which continued in the oeuvres of many romantic composers, starting with Mendelssohn and Schumann and into the 20th century ( Hugo Wolf , Alexander Skrjabin ).

Musicological research agrees that Schubert's most significant contribution to European music history is his lied work. The genre of art song actually emerges in its binding new form through him. “Franz Schubert transformed a world from poetry into music. He took the art song to an unprecedented level. ”This is how Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau , one of the most important song interpreters of the second half of the 20th century, begins his material and knowledgeable book on Schubert's songs. Schubert's predecessors in the Viennese classical music, Haydn , Mozart and Beethoven (as well as the numerous small masters) did not have a particularly pronounced relationship with the song, even if they composed songs from time to time. The special thing about Schubert's songs is something that was alien to them: Schubert does indeed compose “A World of Poetry”, more precisely: the language of over 600 poems in music. This means that it is not a musical idea that is decisive (as is shown, for example, in the compositional eloquence of Mozart's arias or ensembles in the operas), but the linguistic specification.

In doing so, Schubert succeeds in finding the best musical means with which he can understand the given linguistic-lyrical form of a poem. He is so sure of this that, among his 600 or so songs, mistakes are very rare, even in his early work. His means of musically following the given melodic and metrical-rhythmic form of speech are also external means such as deliberate repetitions of text (or precisely the omission of an expected repetition, e.g. in the end of the last song of the Winterreise , the lyre man ), frequent Changing the tone gender in a song, dominant - tonic cadences in fortissimo as rhetorical confirmations and - this is precisely what Schubert does amazingly well - the piano imitation of real sound phenomena such as B. splashing water, barking dogs, the turning movement of a spinning wheel, weather events, the sound of other musical instruments, especially the lute, etc. The increasing turn away from the verse song in favor of the well-composed song is noticeable, since the individual stanzas of a poem are in theirs Messages can be so different that it is by no means always the same music that goes with them.

Schubert's song work differs not only from the songs of his predecessors such as Zelter's , but also from his contemporaries and successors. Even Robert Schumann , who is equally committed to the art song, does not share Schubert's linguistic approach in the strict sense. Even in justifiably famous songs by Schumann, such as the Eichendorff songs, it is less the linguistic and lyrical specifications that are represented musically than the special “mood” created by the poem. The music designed for this mood dominates, not the linguistic specifications that created this mood. This becomes even clearer in later song compositions such as those by Brahms or Richard Strauss . While Schubert conveys poetry to us musically, Schumann, Brahms, Loewe or Strauss convey musical ideas to us through poetry.

Similar to Mozart's case, the particularly extensive biographical literature on Schubert does not discuss this fundamental issue expressis verbis, but comes from a strong emotional bond that this composer has, which in turn echoes the particularly linguistically obligatory form of Schubert's lied compositions.

While the 19th century in Schubert especially admired the actual creator of the art song, in the 20th century his instrumental music also gained central importance in the concert repertoire. The instrumental compositions of Schubert, especially the chamber music ones, reflect his special method and therefore often appear like “songs without words”. The chants of the Deutsche Messe are very widespread and popular in everyday church life, especially in Austria, to this day. Only his operas eke out a shadowy existence to this day, mainly because of the often confused and theatrically unproductive textbooks .

Honors

Schubert monument in Vienna's city park
Schubert fountain in the
Alsergrund district of Vienna

In 1869 Moritz von Schwind created a Schubert lunette with motifs from works by Schubert in the new kk Hofoper Vienna . In 1872 a monument designed by Carl Kundmann was erected in Vienna's Stadtpark in memory of Schubert .

The Schubert year 1928 was celebrated in Austria; Countless monuments, memorial plaques and Schubert linden trees were unveiled in cities, markets and villages in Austria, mostly with the inscription "Dem Deutschen Liederfürsten Franz Schubert".

Due to Schubert's great popularity, numerous traffic areas were named after him. In Vienna it is still today the Schubertring in the 1st district ( Innere Stadt ), the Schubertgasse in the 9th district ( Alsergrund ), the Franz-Schubert-Straße in the 14th district ( Penzing ) and the Franz-Schubert-Weg in the 18th district. District ( Währing ). Before each incorporation to Vienna (1890/1892 and 1938) there was also Schubert streets in Ottakring (now Turkish alley ) Atzgersdorf (now Vertex alley ) Erlaa (now Welingergasse ) and Liesing (now Josef-Bühl-Gasse ) as well as Schubertstrasse in Oberlaa (today: Hasenöhrlstrasse ) and Essling (today: Ibachstrasse ). There are also Schubertgassen , Schubertstraßen , Schubertplatz , Schubertweg , Schubertalleen and Schubertringe in many Austrian and German communities.

A large impact crater on the planet Mercury is named after Franz Schubert. The same applies to the Schubert Inlet , a bay on the coast of the West Antarctic Alexander I Island.

Schubert's instruments

The pianos to which Schubert had access included a fortepiano by Benignus Seidner, which - owned by his brother Ignaz - is now on display in Schubert's birthplace in Vienna, and a fortepiano by Anton Walter & Sohn, which is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna is located. Schubert was also familiar with instruments made by the Viennese piano maker Conrad Graf, but must never have owned his own piano.

factories

The Austrian Academy of Sciences announced in November 2015 that it had compiled more than 1,000 handwritten and printed sources from Schubert. It is said to be the largest digital Schubert collection in the world; it can be accessed free of charge at www.schubert-online.at.

The numbering of Schubert's works according to the German directory is denoted by the abbreviation D. The first complete edition of Schubert's works was published by Breitkopf & Härtel from 1884 onwards . Work on the New Schubert Edition, which is published by Bärenreiter-Verlag , began in 1965.

Religious music

Stage works

Choral songs and chants

  • Numerous choral songs or polyphonic chants for women, men or mixed voices, some a cappella, but mainly with piano accompaniment, sometimes with other instruments. A setting of Schiller's An die Freude (D 189), Nachtgesang im Walde (D 913, with horn quartet), the 8-part setting of Goethe's Gesang der Geister über den Wassern (D 714, with strings), Mirjam's victory song are just a few examples (D 942, with solo soprano) or Die Nacht (D 983c). A Prometheus cantata for soli, choir and orchestra (D 451) composed in 1816 has been lost.
  • On the occasion of his father's name day, Schubert wrote a trio for two tenors, bass and guitar in 1813.

Songs

Erlkönig , simpler version without triplets in the right hand

Around 600 songs, including

Among the numerous complete recordings of Schubert's lied works, there are two that can be emphasized. An older recording of the explicit male songs was released in 1969/1970 with Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone) and piano accompanist Gerald Moore on the Deutsche Grammophongesellschaft label , first on LPs, now on 18 CDs. A recording with various international singers and the piano accompanist Graham Johnson , supplemented by the express female songs , was released between 1987 and 2005 on the British label Hyperion Records on a total of 37 CDs.

Beginning during Schubert's lifetime, numerous arrangements of his songs with guitar accompaniment appeared.

Franz Schubert, lithograph by C. Helfert after Josef Kriehuber (posthumous)

Orchestral works

Symphonies

12 symphonies (five of which are unfinished)

The counting of the symphonies has changed several times and therefore occasionally leads to confusion. The first six completed symphonies are indisputable. A symphony occasionally counted as No. 7, the so-called Gmunden-Gasteiner , was considered lost. According to current research, however, it has been proven that it is identical to the "Great Symphony in C major". The so-called " unfinished " was previously called the 8th, now the 7th . The “ Great Symphony in C major ” was originally counted as the 7th, later as the 9th symphony; According to current research, it counts as his 8th symphony. In order to cause less confusion, the two works are now mostly referred to as “Unfinished” (or “B minor symphony”) and “Great Symphony in C major” (or “Great C major” for short).

The fragments are very different in scope. In the meantime, however, they have all been brought into a performable condition and recorded on record or CD.

Overtures

Other orchestral works

  • Orchestral pieces (fragments) D 71c and D 94a
  • Concert piece (“Concerto”) for violin and orchestra in D major, D 345
  • Rondo for violin and string orchestra (string quartet) in A major, D 438
  • Polonaise for violin and orchestra in B flat major, D 580
Autograph of the octet in F major D 803
Piano trio in E flat major op.100 (D 929), 2nd movement (autograph)

Chamber music

Piano music

  • 21 sonatas , of which 12 were completed, outstanding above all the unfinished relic in C major (D 840) as well as A minor (D 845), D major (D 850), G major (D 894) and the last ones composed in the year of death three in C minor, A major, B major (D 958–960), see Piano Sonatas No. 19 to 21 (Schubert)
  • Eight Impromptus in two cycles (D 899 and D 935)
  • Six Moments musicaux D. 780 (op.94)
  • The "Five Piano Pieces" (published in 1843, actually an unfinished piano sonata in E major D 459 and three piano pieces D 459A) and "Three Piano Pieces" (D 946)
  • the pianistically very demanding " Wanderer Fantasy " (D 760)
  • numerous works for piano four hands, including the Fantasia in F minor (D 940) and the famous military march ? / i (D 733)Audio file / audio sample
  • 13 variations on a theme by Anselm Hüttenbrenner in A minor (D 576)
  • 12 Lander (D 790)
  • many smaller pieces for piano solo such as the Allegretto in C (D 915) or the “Grazer Galopp” (D 925), including several unfinished works and fragments

Recordings

  • Paul Badura-Skoda . Franz Schubert "Fantaisie Pour le Piano-forte". Conrad Graf 1824, fortepiano.
  • Kristian Bezuidenhout (piano), J.Kobow (voice). F.Schubert (1797-1828): Chant du Cygne D.957 - F.Mendelssohn (1809-1847): Six lieder sur des textes de Heinrich Heine. Fortepiano after Conrad Graf 1819 by Paul McNulty.
  • Viviana Sofronitsky . Franz Schubert "Wanderer Fantasy, Impromptus opp. 90 & 142". Fortepiano after Conrad Graf 1819 by Paul McNulty.
  • Alexei Lyubimov . Franz Schubert "Impromptus". Matthias Müller 1810 and Joseph Schantz 1830, fortepianos.
  • Andreas Staier , Alexandr Melnikov . Franz Schubert "Fantasy in F Minor". Fortepiano after Conrad Graf by Christopher Clarke.
  • Penelope Crawford. Schubert, Mendelsohn, Schumann "Viennese Romantic Piano". Conrad Graf 1835, fortepiano.
  • András ship . Franz Schubert "C Major Fantasies". Fortepiano by Franz Brodmann 1820.

See also

Literature (selection)

  • Werner Aderhold, Walther Dürr , Walburga Litschauer (eds.): Franz Schubert - Years of Crisis 1818 to 1823. (Festschrift Arnold Feil .) Bärenreiter, Kassel 1985, ISBN 3-7618-0758-9 .
  • Manfred Wagner , Franz Schubert - Work and Life, Verlag Holzhausen, Vienna 1996, online
  • Veronika Beci : Franz Schubert. I moved in as a stranger . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2003, ISBN 3-538-07151-9 .
  • Werner Bodendorff : The smaller church works of Franz Schubert. Augsburg: Wißner 1997. ISBN 3-89639-089-9
  • Otto Erich Deutsch , Werner Aderhold, Walther Dürr, Arnold Feil (eds.): Franz Schubert catalog raisonné. The little German . dtv / Bärenreiter, 1983. ISBN 3-423-03261-8
  • Friedrich Dieckmann : Franz Schubert. An approximation . Insel, Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig 1996, ISBN 3-458-16804-4
  • Walther Dürr, Arnold Feil: Reclam's music leader Franz Schubert . Reclam, 1991 and 2002 with an updated list of references. ISBN 3-379-20049-2
  • Alfred Einstein : Schubert. A musical portrait , Zurich 1952
  • Herbert Eulenberg : Schubert and the women . Drei Eulen Verlag Düsseldorf 1946
  • Hans-Jürgen Fröhlich : Schubert , Munich [u. a.] Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 1978
  • Harry Goldschmidt : Franz Schubert - A picture of life , 7th edition, Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1980
  • Gernot Gruber : Schubert. Schubert? Life and Music , Kassel 2010 ISBN 978-3-7618-2123-7
  • Peter Gülke : Franz Schubert and his time , Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2002, ISBN 3-89007-537-1
  • Peter Härtling : Schubert. 12 moments musicaux and a novel . dtv, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-423-13137-3
  • Ernst Hilmar : Franz Schubert . Reinbek 1997.
  • Hans-Joachim Hinrichsen: Franz Schubert . Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-62135-2 .
  • Ernst Křenek : Franz Schubert - A portrait, annual edition of the International Franz Schubert Institute, Vienna and the German Schubert Society e. V., Duisburg, Verlag Hans Schneider , 1990, ISBN 978-3-7952-0623-9
  • Andrea Lindmayr-Brandl: Franz Schubert. The fragmentary work . (= Schubert: Perspektiven - Studien , Vol. 2) Steiner, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-515-08250-6
  • Frieder Reininghaus : Schubert and the tavern . Music under Metternich, Berlin 1980
  • Christoph Schwandt : Inexpressible, uncomprehended. Evidence and arguments from life and work for the probable homosexuality of Franz Peter Schubert. In: Franz Schubert “Todesmusik” , publisher edition text + kritik, 1997 (= Musik-Konzept 97/98), pp. 112–194.
  • Rita Steblin : The nonsense society: Franz Schubert, Leopold Kupelwieser and their circle of friends. Böhlau 1998, ISBN 3-205-98820-5
  • Rita Steblin: Franz Schubert - the thirteenth child. In: Wiener Geschichtsblätter , Vienna 2001, No. 3, pp. 245–265
  • Paul Stefan : Franz Schubert . Berlin 1928
  • Walther Vetter : The classic Schubert . 2 volumes. Leipzig 1953
  • 1997).
  • Elmar Worgull : A representative portrait of Schubert's youth. Schubert's external appearance in contemporary documents as the basis for an isoproportional analysis of the portrait . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 12: 55-89 (1994).
  • Elmar Worgull : Two misspellings in Schubert's iconography . In: Schubert through the glasses. Communications / International Franz Schubert Institute. Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 16/17 (1996), pp. 158-171.
  • Elmar Worgull : Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller sketches Franz Schubert in a circle of friends . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 18 (1997), pp. 103-124.
  • Elmar Worgull : Schubert without glasses. Schubert's face mask as a model for the painting in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna. Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 20 (1998), pp. 133-149.
  • Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert's face mask and its role model function in Moritz von Schwind's drawings . In: Biblos: Contributions to books, libraries and writing / Austrian National Library Vienna. ( Dedicated to Werner König on the occasion of his 65th birthday ). Böhlau Verlag Vienna and others 1997, pp. 345-388.
  • Elmar Worgull : Schubert's unknown neighbor in Kupelwieser's watercolor The Fall of Man . In: Schubert through the glasses. Announcements / International Franz Schubert Institute Vienna . Hans Schneider, Tutzing. 26 (2001), pp. 101-108.
  • Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert in photo documents of his friends and contemporaries. Art historical considerations on Schubert's iconography . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2018, ISBN 978-3-88462-388-6 .

Basic scientific works

German directory 1951

College work

  • Reinhard Fiedler: Studies on the melody of the late Schubert: aesthetic requirements and analytical findings (= Are Edition , Volume 2255; Music in the Focus of Science, Volume 2). Are Musik Verlag, Mainz 2014, ISBN 978-3-924522-55-1 (Dissertation University of Frankfurt am Main 2014, 485 pages).
  • Christian Jungblut: Compositional reception of Schubert in the second half of the 20th century. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8260-4506-6 (Dissertation State University for Music and Performing Arts Mannheim 2010, 274 pages).
  • Astrid Tschense-Oesterle: Goethe poems in Schubert's settings: composition as text interpretation. von Bockel, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 978-3-932696-54-1 (Dissertation University of Bonn 2003, 547 pages).
  • Ira Schulze-Ardey: The composer as a producing reader: on the relationship between text and music structure in the piano-accompanied solo song using the example of Friedrich von Matthisson's poetry in the settings of Franz Schubert (= Europäische Hochschulschriften , series 36; musicology , volume 233), Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al 2003, ISBN 3-631-51119-1 (Dissertation University of Bochum 2002, 361 pages).
  • Christian Strehk: On the way to becoming a quintet: Studies on Franz Schubert's mature chamber music for strings 2000, DNB 96096942X (Dissertation University of Kiel 2000, 477 pages).

Documentation

  • Werner Bodendorff: Franz Schubert - the texts of his unanimously and polyphonically composed songs and their poets (total and critical ed., Vol. 3), Hildesheim 2006 ISBN 3-487-10330-3
  • Otto Erich Deutsch (Ed.): Schubert. The documents of his life. Collected and explained . Bärenreiter, Kassel and others 1964 (NGA VIII, 5)
  • Otto Erich Deutsch (Ed.): Schubert. The memories of his friends. Collected and explained . Leipzig 1957 and 1966
  • Ernst Hilmar, Otto Brusatti (ed., With an introduction by Walter Obermaier ): Franz Schubert. Exhibition by the Vienna City and State Library on the 150th anniversary of the composer's death. Catalog . Vienna 1978.
  • Ernst Hilmar: Schubert . Graz 1989 (pictorial biography)
  • Ernst Hilmar (Ed.): Franz Schubert. Documents 1801-1830. First volume. Addenda and comment . (IFSI publications, 10/2), Tutzing 2003
  • Maximilian and Lilly Schochow: Franz Schubert: the texts of his unanimously composed songs and their poets completely collected . Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1974
  • Till Gerrit Waidelich (ed., Preliminary work by Renate Hilmar-Voit and Andreas Mayer ): Franz Schubert. Documents 1817-1830. First volume: texts. Programs, reviews, advertisements, necrologist, music supplements and other printed sources (IFSI publications, 10/1), Tutzing 1993

Schubert Bibliographies

  • Willi Kahl: Directory of the literature about Franz Schubert 1828–1928 , Regensburg 1938.
  • Ernst Hilmar (collaboration with Werner Bodendorff): Building blocks for a new Schubert bibliography, primarily of the writings from 1929 to 2000. Part I: Alphabetical order according to authors. In: Schubert durch die Brille No. 25 (2000), pp. 95-303; Additions and indices in Schubert through glasses nos. 26, 27.

Entries in reference books

Periodicals (current)

Filmography

Schubert can often be seen in pictures as a handsome young man. In the fiction literature and in screenplays for films, he was often depicted in an unauthentic, clumsy and sentimental way. Many of the writings about Schubert's travels etc. are hardly consistent with the facts that can be documented. Most of the stories are fictitious and only adapted to Schubert's real life with a few basic data, such as the names of his friends, etc.

Stage works

Schubert societies, associations and institutions

The celebration of Franz Schubert's 100th birthday in heaven , silhouette of Otto Böhler

Web links

Commons : Franz Schubert  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Franz Schubert  - Sources and full texts

Literature by and about Schubert

Recordings

grades

miscellaneous

Individual evidence

  1. Heinz Schöny: "Franz Schubert: origin and relationship", in: Studies on the Family and heraldry, Yearbook of Heraldic and Genealogical Society "Adler" , Vienna 1978; Rita Steblin : "Franz Schubert - the thirteenth child", in: Wiener Geschichtsblätter 3 , pp. 245–265.
  2. ^ W. Dürr, A. Feil: Franz Schubert . Music guide, Leipzig: Reclam 2002, p. 20
  3. Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume II: Artists. Winter, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-8253-6813-5 , pp. 624–628.
  4. see: Elmar Worgull : Schubert without glasses in the bibliography
  5. Walther Dürr, Andreas Krause (eds.): Schubert Handbook , Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel and others. and Stuttgart et al., 2nd edition 2007, ISBN 978-3-7618-2041-4 , p. 68
  6. Dietmar Grieser: The uncle from Pressburg. On Austrian tracks through Slovakia , Amalthea-Verlag, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-85002-684-0 , p. 184
  7. see Elmar Worgull : Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller sketches Franz Schubert in the circle of friends in the bibliography and Schubert 200 years : [on the occasion of the Schubert 200 exhibition in Achberg Castle and in the Lindau City Museum, May 3 to September 7, 1997]: Illja Dürhammer, Gerrit Waidelich (scientific processing). Ed .: Landratsamt Ravensburg, Kulturamt der Stadt Lindau: Exhibition catalog. Edition Braus, Heidelberg 1997. ISBN 3-89466-193-3 . P. 159 ff.
  8. see Elmar Worgull : Schubert's unknown neighbor in Kupelwieser's watercolor Der Sündenfall (2001 ) in the bibliography.
  9. ^ Steblin , Rita (2001): Schubert's Problematic Relationship with Johann Mayrhofer: New Documentary Evidence . Barbara Haggh (ed.): Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman . Paris-Tours: Minerve, pp. 465–495.
  10. See Schwandt, Christoph (1997): "Inexpressible, ungracious". Evidence and arguments from life and work for the probable homosexuality of Franz Schubert . In: Music Concepts, H. 97/98 (Franz Schubert Todesmusik), pp. 112–194.
  11. srf.ch: The great taboo about Franz Schubert
  12. NMZ.de: Love of pleasure and ignorance of the world
  13. Zeit.de: Myths become people
  14. Andreas Otte, Konrad Wink: Kerner's Diseases of Great Musicians , Schattauer, Stuttgart / New York, 6th edition 2008, ISBN 978-3-7945-2601-7 , p. 169
  15. a b Walther Dürr, Andreas Krause (eds.): Schubert Handbook , Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel and others. and Stuttgart et al., 2nd edition 2007, ISBN 978-3-7618-2041-4 , p. 31
  16. Otte / Wink, p. 165
  17. Richard Gerlach: Time avarice . In: Bergland, Heft 12 (1935), p. 55
  18. Grieser, p. 186
  19. Grieser, p. 189
  20. Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert's face mask and its role model function in Moritz von Schwind's drawings . In: Elmar Worgull: Franz Schubert in image documents of his friends and contemporaries. Art-historical considerations on Schubert's iconography . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2018, ISBN 978-3-88462-388-6 . Pp. 55-79.
    Peter Gülke: Franz Schubert and his time . Laaber, Laaber-Verlag, 1991, ISBN 3-89007-266-6 .
  21. ^ Schubert's relations with Linz, Steyr and Upper Austria. In:  Tages-Post , April 3, 1915, p. 17f. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / tpt
  22. see: Elmar Worgull : Franz Schubert's face mask and its role model function in Moritz von Schwind's drawings (1997) in the bibliography.
  23. see: Elmar Worgull : Schubert without glasses in the bibliography.
  24. Otte / Wink, p. 176 f.
  25. In the list of the dead of the Wiener Zeitung for November 19, 1828 in the November 25, 1828 edition , “nerve fever” was given as the cause of death (right column above).
  26. Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, In the footsteps of the Schubert songs. Becoming - beings - worlds , dtv / Bärenreiter Munich 1976, p. 9.
  27. See the basic work on Schubert's song compositions by Thrasybulos Georgiades , Schubert - Musik und Lyrik , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1967, in numerous references in the introduction to the work, pp. 17–45. Walter Jelinek (Vienna 1939) and Erdmute Schwarmath (Tutzing 1969) also devote themselves intensively to this question.
  28. Georgiades, ibid., P. 38: "It is not the substance itself [of the linguistic and lyric model] that is realized musically, it does not appear as music, but the mere mood, the mere feeling that triggers the poem."
  29. Not only musicologists, but also outspoken writers like Annette Kolb (Erlenbach / Zurich 1947) participated in monographs on Franz Schubert.
  30. ^ Franz Schubert in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature of the IAU (WGPSN) / USGS
  31. Jeffrey Dane The Composer's pianos . 2001
  32. schubert-online.at
  33. ^ Announcement of the daily newspaper Salzburger Nachrichten , Salzburg, November 18, 2015, p. 8, and on the website of the paper
  34. Information on the New Schubert Edition ( Memento from April 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Jürgen Libbert : An unknown work by the Bohemian guitarist Wenzel Matiegka. With a historical-biographical outline and a catalog raisonné. In: Guitar & Laute 1, 1979, 5, ISSN  0172-9683 , pp. 14-24; here: p. 22.
  36. Abel Nagytothy-Toth: Franz Schubert: songs with guitar accompaniment. In: Guitar & Laute 6, 1984, No. 2, pp. 57-61.
  37. Status of the edition , New Schubert Edition , V / 3: Symphony No. 7 in h, Kassel: Bärenreiter 1997 (BA 5542)