Calendar overview 1797
First Coalition War ends with the Peace of Campo Formio .
Venice , Ludovico Manin ,
John Jervis and Horatio Nelson defeat
the Spanish fleet in the sea battle at Cape St. Vincent .
|1797 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1245/46 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1789/90 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1202/03 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2340/41 (southern Buddhism); 2339/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1159/60 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4130/31 (October 2-3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||Year V./VI. of the Republic (September 21/22)|
|Islamic calendar||1211/12 (turn of the year 25/26 June)|
|Jewish calendar||5557/58 (September 20-21)|
|Coptic calendar||1513/14 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2107/08 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2108/09 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1853/54 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 7th : The Italian tricolor is proposed as a national symbol at a cispadan congress in Reggio nell'Emilia .
- January 14 : In the battle of Rivoli , the French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte prevail against the Austrian corps under Joseph Alvinczy von Berberek, which had advanced to relieve Mantua . The besieged therefore surrender later and the way for the French to march on Vienna is cleared.
- February 2 : In Mantua, during the First Coalition War, the enclosed Austrian troops, under the command of Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, surrender to the French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte.
- February 14th : Great Britain . Admiral Sir John Jervis and Commodore Horatio Nelson defeat the Spanish fleet in the sea battle at Cape St. Vincent .
- February 19 : Napoleon Bonaparte and his troops enforce the Treaty of Tolentino with Pope Pius VI. which means for the Papal States cession of territory to France .
- February 22nd : At Fishguard in Wales , the last invasion of Great Britain takes place during the First Coalition War . 1,400 French soldiers arrived on four warships, however, feast on captured alcohol and become incapable of fighting.
- March 10 : After the Italian campaign , Napoleon Bonaparte and his troops turned to the war opponent Austria in the First Coalition War and began to march into hostile territory on the Tagliamento River .
- April 7th : Austria concludes an armistice in the First Coalition War with Napoleon Bonaparte after his victorious Italian campaign in Leoben .
- April 17th : Beginning of the Pasque Veronesi , it is put down on April 25th .
- April 18 : The agreed preliminary peace between Leoben and France includes Austria's renunciation of the Duchy of Milan , which will be integrated into the newly emerging Cisalpine Republic . Napoleon Bonaparte's successful campaign in Italy was finally concluded with the Peace of Campo Formio on October 17th .
- April / May: Mutiny by Spithead and Nore
- May 12 : The last Doge of Venice , Ludovico Manin , abdicates and the Grand Council of the lagoon city holds its last meeting. On the mainland in front of the city lie the troops of Napoleon Bonaparte who invaded the Republic of Venice . The era of the Serenissima is drawing to a close, Venice later becomes Austrian property in the Peace of Campo Formio . With the end of the Republic of Venice and the beginning of French rule, Venice took over the beginning of the year on January 1st instead of the beginning of the year on March 1st More Veneto .
- May 27th : During the French Revolution , the agitator François Noël Babeuf and the revolutionary Augustin Alexandre Darthé are executed in Vendôme . The day before, a newly formed court found both critics of the Board of Directors guilty of conspiracy and preparation for a rebellion and sentenced them to death .
- June 4th : The Libro d'Oro is burned in Venice after the entry of French revolutionary troops . For centuries this golden book reserved the participation in the “ Great Council ” of the city for registered noble patrician families .
- June 14th : Under French pressure, the Ligurian Republic is proclaimed in Genoa , replacing the aristocratic city-republic .
- June 29th : The Cisalpine Republic in Northern Italy is proclaimed by Napoleon Bonaparte .
- September 4th : The coup d'état of the 18th Fructidor V gives France a radical republican government and a new climate of terror.
- October 11 : In the First Coalition War , the sea battle at Camperduin breaks out off the Dutch coast . A Dutch squadron of sixteen ships of the line is defeated by a British ship formation of about the same size. This puts a damper on French plans to invade England .
- October 17th : Napoleon Bonaparte dictates the peace of Campo Formio , ending the First Coalition War. Emperor Franz II. Joseph accepts - kept secret - the Rhine as France's eastern border and receives Dalmatia .
- November 4 : After the Peace of Campo Formio, France incorporated the ceded territory on the left bank of the Rhine administratively. The Treaty of Lunéville later confirmed the annexation .
- November 16 : Friedrich Wilhelm III. becomes King of Prussia after the death of his father .
- November 19 : Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Republic of Ancona .
- December 9th : The Rastatt Congress , at which the resolutions of the Peace of Campo Formio are to be implemented, begins.
- December 28 : In the division of Zerbst after the childless death of Prince Friedrich August , the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst is divided into the three still existing lines of Anhalt-Dessau , Anhalt-Köthen and Anhalt-Bernburg . After a drawing of lots, the city of Zerbst , together with the northern parts of Anhalt-Zerbst, was transferred to the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau under Prince Leopold III. Friedrich Franz affiliated. The middle part around Roßlau comes to the Principality of Anhalt-Köthen and the eastern offices of Coswig (Koswig) and Mühlingen to the Principality of Anhalt-Bernburg. The rule of Jever falls to Russia .
- December 30th : Troops of the French Republic enter Mainz .
America / Caribbean
- February 20 : Great Britain relocates 2,248 surviving " Black Caribs " from their original deportation point, the Caribbean island of Baliceaux near St. Vincent, to the island of Roatan off the Honduran coast.
- March: The XYZ affair begins, which will lead to a quasi-war between France and the USA.
- March 4 : Inauguration of John Adams as 2nd US President . He replaces George Washington , who no longer ran after two terms.
- February 26 : The Bank of England is relieved of its obligation to exchange its notes for gold; Beginning of the bank restriction (until 1821)
- March 28th : The American Nathaniel Briggs receives the first patent on a washing machine . His invention resembles a washboard with a crank.
- May 21 : In France all assignats (paper money of the French Revolution) in circulation are declared invalid.
- October 3 : The first German North Sea resort is built on Norderney .
science and technology
- 22 October : André-Jacques Garnerin jumps by parachute from a balloon over Paris from. His landing in Parc Monceau is the first parachute jump from a balloon in Europe.
- December 10 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies NGC 4319 and NGC 4386 in the constellation Dragon .
- December 12th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 6217 in the constellation Little Bear .
- December 20 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 5452 in the constellation Little Bear .
- Richard Trevithick builds his first steam car model
- Immanuel Kant : The Metaphysics of Morals , divided into two parts
- Metaphysical foundations of legal theory
- Metaphysical foundations of the doctrine of virtue
- Immanuel Kant: About a supposed right to lie out of human love
- March 13 : At the Théâtre Feydeau in Paris, the Opéra-comique Médée by Luigi Cherubini based on the libretto by François-Benoît Hoffman is premiered. The literary model is the tragedy Medea by Euripides .
- March 15th : World premiere of the opera Ponce de Léon by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- April 20 : The École spéciale de peinture, de sculpture et d'architecture , later the École des Beaux-Arts, is founded in Paris .
- November 10 : World premiere of the opera Le Dénouement inattendu by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- 1797 is considered the ballad year of classical music : Friedrich Schiller writes, among other things, Der Taucher , Der Handschuh , Die Kraniche des Ibykus , Der Ring des Polykrates and Der Gang nach dem Eisenhammer . The treasure digger , The Sorcerer's Apprentice , The Bride of Corinth , Legend and, between June 6th and 9th, The God and the Bajadere were created under Goethe's pen .
- Józef Wybicki writes Mazurek Dąbrowskiego ( Poland is not yet lost ), today's national anthem of Poland .
- The city of Cumaná in what is now Venezuela is destroyed by an earthquake.
- January 2 : Hugh S. Legaré , American politician († 1843 )
- January 4 : Wilhelm Beer , German banker and astronomer († 1850 )
- January 5 : Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein , Prussian general († 1885 )
- January 6 : Edward Turner Bennett , English zoologist and writer († 1836 )
- January 7th : Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga , Mexican military and interim president of Mexico († 1849 )
- January 9 : Ferdinand von Wrangel , Russian naval officer and geographer († 1870 )
- January 10 : Annette von Droste-Hülshoff , German writer († 1848 )
- January 10 : Karl August Koberstein , German literary historian († 1870 )
- January 11 : Carl Rottmann , German landscape painter († 1850 )
- January 12 : George Evans , American politician († 1867 )
- January 16 : Richard Barnes Mason , American officer and military governor in California († 1850 )
- January 22 : Maria Leopoldine of Austria , Austrian Archduchess, Queen of Portugal and Brazilian Empress († 1826 )
- January 26th : Therese von Jacob , German writer, folk song researcher and Slavist († 1870 )
- January 27 : Francesco Ambrosoli , Italian educator, philologist and writer († 1868 )
- January 27 : Narcisse Girard , French conductor († 1860 )
- January 30 : Edwin Vose Sumner , American officer († 1863 )
- February 1 : Leopold Immanuel Rückert , Protestant theologian († 1871 )
- February 6 : Joseph von Radowitz , Prussian general, diplomat and politician († 1853 )
- February 11 : Connop Thirlwall , British clergyman and writer († 1875 )
- February 18 : John Bell , American politician and Secretary of War († 1869 )
- February 18 : Otto von der Groeben , Prussian manor owner and politician († 1856 )
- February 20 : Johann Jakob Wolfensberger , Swiss painter († 1850 )
- February 22nd : Heinrich Steinweg , piano maker († 1871 )
- February 25 : Johann Wilhelm Neumann , German lawyer, local politician and historian († 1870 )
- February 27 : Wilhelm Meinhold , German writer and pastor († 1851 )
- February 28 : John Henderson , American politician († 1857 )
- February 28 : Friedrich von Oranien-Nassau , son of Wilhelm I and Wilhelmine Luise of Prussia († 1881 )
- March 1 : Lodewijk Gerard Visscher , Dutch literary scholar and historian († 1859 )
- March 3 : Gotthilf Hagen , German engineer († 1884 )
- March 4 : Charles Jackson , American politician († 1876 )
- March 8 : Maximilien Simon , French composer and civil servant († 1861 )
- March 10 : George Julius Scrope , English geologist († 1876 )
- March 14 : Jacobus Ludovicus Conradus Schroeder van der Kolk , Dutch medic († 1862 )
- March 22nd : Ferdinand von Stelzhammer , Austrian lawyer († 1858 )
- March 22nd : Wilhelm I , Prussian King and German Emperor († 1888 )
- March 24 : Franz Egon von Fürstenberg-Stammheim , Royal Prussian Chamberlain and a patron of the cathedral building († 1859 )
- March 27 : Alfred de Vigny , French writer († 1863 )
- March 30th : Heinrich Wilhelm Krausnick , German Lord Mayor of Berlin († 1882 )
- April 2 : Franz Emil Lorenz Wimpffen , officer and later military governor of Trieste († 1870 )
- April 3 : Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier , Belgian botanist († 1878 )
- April 5 : Carl Devrient , German theater actor († 1872 )
- Louis Thomas Jerome Auzoux , French model maker and anatomist († 1880) April 7th:
- April 9 : Carl Heyer , forestry practitioner, teacher and scientist († 1856 )
- April 9 : Per Ulrik Kernell , Swedish romantic writer († 1824 )
- April 16 : Adolphe Thiers , French statesman and historian († 1877 )
- April 20 : Heinrich von Wittgenstein , German entrepreneur and politician († 1869 )
- April 23 : Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille , French medic and physicist († 1869 )
- April 27 : Victor Audouin , French naturalist, entomologist and ornithologist († 1841 )
- April 29 : Petrus Johannes Izaak de Fremery , Dutch physician and chemist († 1855 )
- May 2 : Heinrich Anz , German civil servant and politician († 1865 )
- May 2 : Albert Dietrich Schadow , German builder and architect († 1869 )
- May 3 : Heinrich Berghaus , German cartographer († 1884 )
- May 8 : John Septimus Roe , first Surveyor-General (highest-ranking state surveyor) of Western Australia († 1878 )
- May 12 : Johann Hermann Kufferath , German composer († 1864 )
- May 16 : August Wissowa , German classical philologist and pedagogue († 1868 )
- May 18 : Friedrich August II. , Saxon King († 1854 )
- May 21 : Gottlieb Wilhelm Bischoff , German botanist and university professor († 1854 )
- May 24 : Richard van Rees , Dutch mathematician and physicist († 1875 )
- May 25 : Hippolyte Auger , French novelist and theater poet († 1881 )
- May 30 : Carl Friedrich Naumann , German geologist and crystallographer († 1873 )
- May 30 : Johann Christian Lobe , German composer and music theorist († 1881 )
- June 17 : Alexandre Vinet , Swiss theologian and literary historian († 1847 )
- June 18 : Hamilton Hume , Australian explorer († 1873 )
- June 19 : Paul Julius Arter , Swiss draftsman and etcher († 1839 )
- June 20 : Karolina Gerhardinger , religious sister and founder of the congregation († 1879 )
- June 25 : Paul Wilhelm , Duke of Württemberg, natural scientist and explorer († 1860 )
- July 15 : Eduard Vieweg , German publisher († 1869 )
- July 16 : Friedrich von Reventlou , Schleswig-Holstein statesman († 1874 )
- July 17 : Paul Delaroche , French painter († 1856 )
- July 17th : Ehregott Grünler , German painter († 1881 )
- July 20 : Auguste Stourm , French politician, General Director of the Post († 1865 )
- July 23 : Charles Jules Labarte , French art historian († 1880 )
- July 28 : Christian Ludvig Tillisch , Danish government official († 1844 )
- July 29 : Daniel Drew , American businessman († 1879 )
- August 1st : Franz Härter , Alsatian pastor († 1874 )
- August 10 : Lorenzo Arrazola García , Spanish legal scholar and politician († 1873 )
- August 10 : Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini , German botanist († 1848 )
- August 12 : Manuel Aguilar Chacón , President of Costa Rica († 1845 )
- August 15 : Hans Ferdinand Maßmann , German educator († 1874 )
- August 23 : Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant , French mathematician and physicist († 1886 )
- August 28 : Franz Duschk , Minister of Finance during the Hungarian Revolution († 1873 )
- August 28 : Karl Otfried Müller , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1840 )
- August 30 : Heinrich Marr , German actor († 1871 )
- August 30 : Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley , English writer († 1851 )
- August 31 : James Ferguson , Scottish engineer and astronomer († 1867 )
- August 31 : Philipp Graf von Brunnow , Russian diplomat († 1875 )
- September 10 : Carl Gustav Mosander , Swedish chemist and surgeon († 1858 )
- September 10 : Franz Krüger , German painter and lithographer († 1857 )
- September 16 : Anthony Panizzi , Italian librarian († 1879 )
- September 17 : Heinrich Kuhl , German zoologist († 1821 )
- September 19 : Bernhard Sökeland , philologist and historian († 1845 )
- September 28 : Friedrich Benjamin von Lütke , Russian naval officer and explorer († 1882 )
- September 29 : Melchior Schlumpf , Swiss Jesuit and educator († 1880 )
- October 3 : Leopold II , Grand Duke of Tuscany († 1870 )
- October 3 : Hopkins L. Turney , American politician († 1857 )
- October 4 : Jeremias Gotthelf , Swiss writer († 1854 )
- October 5 : John Gardner Wilkinson , British Egyptologist († 1875 )
- October 6 : Joseph Othmar von Rauscher , Archbishop of Vienna († 1875 )
- October 9 : Philippe Suchard , Swiss chocolate producer († 1884 )
- October 13 : George Anson , British general († 1857 )
- October 14 : Félix Duban , French architect († 1870 )
- October 14 : Ida Pfeiffer , Austrian explorer and travel writer († 1858 )
- October 15 : Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Heyse , German classical philologist and linguist († 1855 )
- October 16 : Alfred von Auerswald , Prussian general landscape director and interior minister († 1870 )
- October 16 : James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan , British general in the Crimean War († 1868 )
- October 22 : Jakob Adam , Swiss politician and lawyer († 1865 )
- October 23 : Jan Jacob Rochussen , Governor of the Dutch East Indies († 1871 )
- October 26 : Giuditta Pasta , Italian opera singer († 1865 )
- October 29 : Johann Baptist Bekk , Baden lawyer and statesman († 1855 )
- October 30 : Henriette Alexandrine von Nassau-Weilburg , wife of Archduke Karl of Austria († 1829 )
- November 6 : Gabriel Andral , French medic († 1876 )
- November 14 : Charles Lyell , British geologist († 1875 )
- November 29 : Gaetano Donizetti , Italian composer († 1848 )
- December 2 : Carl von Prittwitz , Russian general of the cavalry († 1881 )
- December 5 : Ludwig Franz von Breitenbauch , Prussian Chamberlain, District Administrator and Member of Parliament († 1881 )
- December 8 : Bertram Pfeiffer , German politician († 1872 )
- December 12 : Lucy Anderson , English pianist († 1878 )
- December 13 : Heinrich Heine , German poet and journalist († 1856 )
- December 15 : Johann Konrad Irmischer , German Protestant theologian and librarian († 1857 )
- December 17 : Joseph Henry , American scientist and professor († 1878 )
- December 23 : Adrien Henri Laurent de Jussieu , French botanist († 1853 )
- December 27 : Manuela Sáenz , South American freedom fighter († 1856 )
- December 29 : Simon Leborne , French composer and music teacher († 1866 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- William Bridges Adams , British publicist, railway designer and entrepreneur († 1872 )
- Joseph-Alphonse Adhémar , French mathematician († 1862 )
- Gustaf Andersson , Swedish organ builder and musician († 1872)
- Mangas Coloradas , chief of the Mimbreno Apaches († 1863 )
- Hiroshige , Japanese color woodcut artist († 1858 )
- Toussaint Poisson , French composer and music teacher († 1861 )
First half of the year
- January 7th : Carl Anton von Barth , Mayor of Munich and Chancellor of the Land (* 1758 )
- January 13 : Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern , wife of Frederick II of Prussia (* 1715 )
- January 14th : Johann Samuel Diterich , German hymn poet (* 1721 )
- January 25 : Franz Anton Hillebrandt , Austrian architect (* 1719 )
- February 1 : Hans Strøm , Norwegian naturalist (* 1726 )
- February 8 : Johann Friedrich Doles , German composer and Thomas Cantor (* 1715 )
- February 22nd : Hieronymus Carl Friedrich von Münchhausen , Baron Münchhausen (* 1720 )
- February 23 : Gustav Ludwig von der Marwitz , Prussian general (* 1730 )
- February 26 : William Cadogan , English physician (* 1711 )
- March 2 : Horace Walpole , British writer, politician and artist (* 1717 )
- March 3 : Yves Joseph de Kerguelen de Trémarec , French navigator and explorer (* 1734 )
- March 5 : Ludwig von Angelelli de Malvezzi , Prussian major general (* 1716 )
- March 5 : Johann Philipp Julius Rudolph , German physician and university professor (* 1729 )
- March 9 : Wassili Alexejewitsch Paschkewitsch , Russian composer (* around 1742)
- March 13 : Achatz Ferdinand von der Asseburg , German diplomat, foreign court official (* 1721 )
- March 18 : Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter , German writer (* 1746 )
- March 19 : Philip Hayes , English composer (* 1738 )
- March 19 : Sophie von Kühn , fiancee of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) (* 1782 )
- March 23 : Marcus Anton Wittola , Austrian theologian and pastor (* 1736 )
- March 26 : James Hutton , Scottish naturalist and geologist (* 1726 )
- March 30th : Franz Aumann , Austrian composer (* 1728 )
- March 31 : Benjamin von Amaudruz , Prussian Lieutenant General (* 1735 )
- March 31 : Olaudah Equiano , Nigerian slave and writer (* 1745 )
- April 1 : Johann Peter Snell , German Protestant theologian (* 1720 )
- April 7 : Henricus Johannes Arntzenius , Dutch legal scholar (* 1734 )
- April 10 : Joseph Canto d'Irles , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal of Scottish descent (* 1731 )
- April 12 : Johann Georg Bach , son of Johann Ernst Bach (* 1751 )
- April 13 : Jakob von Bernuth , German civil servant (* 1729 )
- April 15 : Pedro Melo de Portugal y Villena , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of the Río de la Plata (* 1733 )
- April 23 : Giovanni Battista Andreoni , Italian opera singer (* 1720 )
- May 1st : Franz Anton von Hartig , Austrian diplomat, historian, poet and geographer (* 1758 )
- May 27 : François Noël Babeuf , French agitator and journalist (* 1760 )
- May 27 : Augustin Alexandre Darthé , French revolutionary (* 1769 )
- May 29 : Karl Joseph Bouginé , German theologian and teacher (* 1735 )
- June 13 : Christian Lofthuus , Norwegian peasant leader (* 1750 )
- June 17th : Aga Mohammed Khan , Persian King (* 1742 )
- June 22nd : Justus Christian Ludwig von Schellwitz , German legal scholar (* 1735 )
- June 28 : Bernhard Rode , German painter (* 1725 )
- June 30th : Christian Frederik Hagerup , Norwegian pastor (* 1731 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Johann Christian Wentzinger , sculptor, painter and architect (* 1710 )
- July 1 : Johann Friedrich Flattich , Protestant pastor and educator (* 1713 )
- July 9 : Edmund Burke , writer, state philosopher and politician (* 1729 )
- August 3 : Jeffrey Amherst , British general (* 1717 )
- August 6 : Johann Matthias von Bernuth , German civil servant (* 1716 )
- August 8 : Franz Alexander von Kleist , poet (* 1769 )
- August 21 : Benedict Stattler , German Catholic theologian, educator and philosopher (* 1728 )
- August 22nd : Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser , Austrian field marshal (* 1724 )
- August 25 : Thomas Chittenden , American politician, 1st governor of Vermont (* 1730 )
- August 25 : Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray , French politician (* 1760 )
- August 28 : Joseph Wright of Derby , British painter (* 1734 )
- September 10 : Mary Wollstonecraft , English writer and suffragette (* 1759 )
- September 13 : Georg Franz Wiesner , German Catholic theologian and university professor in Würzburg (* 1731 )
- September 19 : Lazare Hoche , French general of the revolutionary era (* 1768 )
- September 22nd : Christiane Becker-Neumann , German actress (* 1778 )
- September 28 : Samuel Luther von Geret , German Protestant theologian, lawyer and politician (* 1730 )
- September 28 : Gunning Bedford , American politician (* 1742 )
- September 30th : Friedrich Christoph Jonathan Fischer (* 1750 ), German historian and legal scholar
- November 16 : Friedrich Wilhelm II. , Prussian King (* 1744 )
- November 26th : Andrew Adams , American lawyer, lawyer and politician (* 1736 )
- November 27 : Johann Baptist Wendling , German composer and flautist (* 1723 )
- November 27 : Carl Christian Agthe , German composer and organist (* 1762 )
- December 7th : Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet , French politician and general (* 1757 )
- December 11 : Emanuel Witz , Swiss painter (* 1717 )
- December 13 : Louis Legendre , French politician (* 1752 )
- December 23 : Friedrich Eugen , Duke of Württemberg (* 1732 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Juan Manuel Olivares , Venezuelan composer (* around 1760)