Calendar overview 1792
Tuileries Tower ,
the French King
Louis XVI. imprisoned.
|Francis II becomes the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire .|
Valmy cannonade brought about a turnaround in favor of revolutionary France in the First Coalition War .
|1792 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1240/41 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1784/85 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1197/98 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2335/36 (southern Buddhism); 2334/35 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1154/55 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4125/26 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||until August 10th (Tuileries Tower) year IV of freedom ,
until September 21st year I. of equality ,
from September 22nd year I. of the republic
|Islamic calendar||1206/07 (turn of the year 19/20 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5552/53 (September 16-17)|
|Coptic calendar||1508/09 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2102/03 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2103/04 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1848/49 (April)|
Politics and world events
French revolution and coalition wars
- February 7th : Prussia and Austria form an alliance against France , which Sardinia-Piedmont soon joins. Your goal: King Louis XVI. re-establish as unrestricted regent .
- March 20 : The French National Assembly authorizes the use of the guillotine .
- April 20 : The Napoleonic Wars begin: The French National Assembly declared the monarchies Austria , Prussia and Sardinia-Piedmont the war .
- April 25th : The thief Nicolas Jacques Pelletier is the first person to be guillotined .
- April 26th : On the night of April 25th to 26th, the officer Rouget de Lisle writes and composes the Marseillaise in Strasbourg, Alsace .
- June 14th : Austro-Russian defense alliance
- July 25th : Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel publishes a manifesto threatening the destruction of Paris if they belong to the family of King Louis XVI. inflicts suffering. The Duke of Braunschweig's manifesto achieved the opposite of what was desired and radicalized the Parisian population.
- July 30th : A volunteer battalion from Marseille enters Paris and sings the Marseillaise for the first time , which becomes the battle song of the revolution .
- August 10th : The sans-culottes storm the Tuileries and put King Louis XVI. and his family trapped. You will be transferred to the Temple .
- 29 August to 2 September : The siege of Verdun ends with the surrender of the city and the capture of Verdun by the Allies.
- September 2 : As a result of the Duke of Braunschweig's manifesto and the fall of Verdun, mass hysteria breaks out in Paris. Encouraged by Justice Minister Georges Danton and the publicist Jean Paul Marat , the mob storms the prisons and first massacres opponents of the revolution and later all prisoners. The so-called September murders continue until September 6 ; over 1,200 people are killed.
- September 20 : The National Convention meets for its first session in the Salle du Manège in Paris . On the same day, Austria and Prussia suffer their first defeat against the French revolutionary army with the cannonade of Valmy , which stops their advance against France.
- September 21 : The National Convention passes the resolution on the deposition of the king and the abolition of the monarchy and proclaims the First French Republic .
- September 22nd : The National Convention in France decides to introduce a new calendar during the French Revolution .
- September 22nd : French revolutionary troops invade Savoy , part of Sardinia-Piedmont , without a declaration of war .
- October 2 : The Jacobins form the security committee to maintain internal security during the French Revolution .
- October 21 : Mainz fortress surrenders to the French revolutionary troops.
- October 23 : The French revolutionary troops take Frankfurt am Main .
- October 23 : The first Jacobin Club on German soil is founded in the Electoral Palace in Mainz .
- November 6th : The Battle of Jemappes is won by the French Revolutionary Army against Austrian troops. Due to the defeat, the Austrian Netherlands fall to France.
- December 17 : In the Bishopric of Basel is Rauracian Republic built.
Holy Roman Empire
- After Karl Alexander von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Bayreuth consented to the sale last year, Prussia got power over the Franconian margravates of Ansbach and Bayreuth .
- March 1 : Change of throne in Austria and the Holy Roman Empire . On Leopold II. Follows his son Francis II.
- July 5 : The Habsburg Franz II is elected Roman-German king.
- July 14 : Emperor's coronation of Franz Joseph Karl von Habsburg as Franz II. In Frankfurt am Main . It is the last German coronation as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was dissolved in 1806.
Russia, Poland, Ottoman Empire
- January 9th : The Peace of Jassy ends the sixth Russian Turkish War . Russia returns all conquests to the Ottoman Empire with the exception of the area east of the Dniester . It thus retains the northern coast of the Black Sea .
- 16 / March 17 : King Gustav III. of Sweden is the victim of an assassination attempt by Jacob Johan Anckarström , who is part of a noble conspiracy , at a masked ball at the Royal Opera in Stockholm . The king succumbs to his injuries on March 29th.
- March 29 : After the murder of Gustav III. his 13-year-old son Gustav IV. Adolf becomes King of Sweden under the tutelage of his uncle Karl . As a confidante of Duke Karl, Count Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm had significant influence in the early years and led the so-called Reuterholm regime .
- April 27 : Jacob Johan Anckarström is executed on the scaffold without naming his co-conspirators.
- April 19 or 21 : The Royal Order of Mary Louisen is established as a Spanish order of women.
- November 15 : Manuel de Godoy y Alvarez de Faria is promoted to Prime Minister of Spain by Queen Marie Luise Farnese of Parma .
Portugal and its colonies
- February 10th : Queen Maria I. is incapacitated because of madness , her son Johann VI. takes over the reign in Portugal for them .
- April 21 : Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes , who tried to carry out a revolution in Brazil along the lines of the USA against Portuguese colonial rule , is executed in Rio de Janeiro . He later becomes the Brazilian national hero, April 21, an official Brazilian holiday.
United States of America
- February 20 : The Postal Service Act , under the guarantee of the secrecy of correspondence , the introduction of a press promotion of a national postal system (and the introduction of United States Postal Service ) is a milestone in the democratization of the United States is, by President George Washington signed
- May 11th : US captain Robert Gray sails into the mouth of a river that he calls Columbia Columbia River after his ship and which he takes possession of for the USA .
- June 1 : Kentucky , still part of Virginia until April , becomes the 15th state to join the Union. Isaac Shelby becomes the new state's first governor.
- 2 November / December 5 : In the United States presidential election, 1792 are George Washington and John Adams re-elected.
- South Carolina bans the importation of African and other overseas slaves for two years . The background to this is the legislature's concern about a further increase in the black population and thus about possible slave revolts.
- In Kentucky , slave laws come into effect for the first time . They are essentially based on those of Virginia .
- April 2 : With the Coinage Act initiated by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton , the United States introduces the United States Dollar as an official and uniform currency . The United States Mint is founded with the same document .
- May 17 : Several New York brokers sign the Buttonwood Agreement at 68 Wall Street . That is considered the founding date of the New York Stock Exchange .
- The United States Mint and the United States Mint Police are launched by George Washington.
science and technology
- March 24th : Alessandro Volta begins his experiments on the discoveries of Luigi Aloisio Galvani and these lead to the hypothesis of contact electricity
- France: Javelle water is factory-made.
Music and theater
- February 7th : Il matrimonio segreto ( The Secret Marriage ), a comic opera in two acts by Domenico Cimarosa , is so successful at its premiere at the Vienna Hofburgtheater that it was performed again on the same evening at the behest of Emperor Leopold II, who was in the audience must be listed. The libretto comes from the Italian lyricist Giovanni Bertati , who used the comedy The Clandestine Marriage by David Garrick and George Colman the Elder , which was successfully premiered at the Royal Theater Drury Lane in 1766.
- April 26 : Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle writes the hymn Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin , later known as Marseillaise .
- May 16 : The Teatro La Fenice , built by the architect Gian Antonio Selva , opens in Venice . The name is an allusion to the mythological phoenix , as the theater was built on the site of an opera house that burned down in 1773 .
- May 19 : The premiere of the comedy Les Deux Sous-lieutenants ou Le Concert interrompu by Henri Montan Berton takes place at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- November 4 : The opera Elfrida by Giovanni Paisiello is premiered at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples .
- January 29th : The Society of Friends is founded in Berlin .
- April 1st : The English Garden in Munich , planned by Friedrich Ludwig Sckell in the style of English landscape gardens , is opened to the public by the Bavarian Elector Karl Theodor .
- The Kunstverein Nürnberg , Germany's oldest art association, is founded.
- May 21 : An outbreak of the stratovolcano ounce on the Shimabara Peninsula in Japan triggers a landslide into the ocean. A tsunami ensues that completely destroys the city of Shimabara and kills around 15,000 people.
Historical maps and views
- January 1 : Henrik Anker Bjerregaard Norwegian lawyer and poet († 1842 )
- January 3 : Peter Stenger , beer brewer and entrepreneur († 1874 )
- January 8 : Lowell Mason , American composer and music teacher († 1872 )
- January 12 : Johan August Arfwedson , Swedish chemist († 1841 )
- January 13 : Friedrich von Schmauß , Bavarian fortress builder († 1846 )
- January 16 : Rudolf André , German farmer and author († 1825 )
- January 16 : Adam Karl Wilhelm Nikolaus Paul Eugen , Prince of Württemberg and officer († 1847 )
- January 24 : Friedrich Wilhelm Count of Brandenburg , Prussian general and statesman († 1850 )
- January 29 : Lemuel H. Arnold , American politician († 1852 )
- February 1 : Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach , German medic and surgeon († 1847 )
- February 2 : Carl Uhde , German merchant and collector († 1856 )
- February 10 : Christian Ernst Stölzel , German painter, etcher and engraver († 1837 )
- February 11 : Johann Philipp Bronner , German pharmacist and viticulture pioneer († 1864 )
- February 11 : Jules Joseph Gabriel (de Lurieu) , French theater poet and librettist († 1869 )
- February 14 : Friedrich Landolin Karl von Blittersdorf , Baden official († 1861 )
- February 18 : James Abercrombie , American lawyer and politician († 1861 )
- February 19 : Ludwig Friedrich Heyd , German pastor and author († 1842 )
- February 19 : Roderick Murchison , Scottish geologist and paleontologist († 1871 )
- February 21 : Albert Schiffner , German geographer and lexicographer († 1873 )
- February 22 : William F. De Saussure , American lawyer and politician († 1870 )
- February 23 : José Joaquín de Herrera , Mexican military and three-time President of Mexico († 1854 )
- February 24 : Vincenzo Antinori , Italian physicist († 1865 )
- February 28 : Karl Ernst von Baer , Estonian naturalist († 1876 )
- March 5 : Christoph Karl Julius Asschenfeldt , German hymn poet († 1856 )
- March 7 : John Herschel , British astronomer († 1871 )
- March 10 : Friedrich Lindemann German pedagogue and philologist († 1854 )
- March 10 : Moriz von Miller , General and Minister of War of the Kingdom of Württemberg († 1866 )
- March 14 : Friedrich Stapß , German assassin († 1809 )
- March 15 : Virginie Ancelot , French writer and painter († 1875 )
- March 18 : António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha , Portuguese statesman and general († 1860 )
- March 21 : Gustav Adolf Harald Stenzel , German historical researcher († 1854 )
- April 4 : Thaddeus Stevens , American lawyer and politician († 1868 )
- April 8 : Margrave Wilhelm von Baden , Prince of Baden († 1859 )
- April 12 : John George Lambton , British statesman of the Whig Party († 1840 )
- April 14th : Johann Helfrich Adami , German businessman and Senator from Bremen († 1864 )
- April 14 : Friedrich Bruckbräu , German writer and translator († 1874 )
- April 15 : Anastasio Mártir Aquino San Carlos , Indian prince († 1833)
- April 15 : Albert C. Greene , American politician († 1863 )
- April 22nd : Wilhelm Stern , German educator († 1873 )
- April 24 : Karl von Birago , Austrian military engineer and inventor († 1845 )
- April 25 : John Keble , Anglican clergyman and poet († 1866 )
- May 10 : Willie Person Mangum , American politician († 1861 )
- May 13 : Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, as Pius IX. Pope († 1878 )
- May 15 : Jakob Rothschild , German-French banker and member of the Rothschild family († 1868 )
- May 18th : Margaret Ann Neve , English housewife, first woman who was proven to be 110 years old († 1903 )
- May 21 : Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis , French mathematician and physicist († 1843 )
- May 22 : Bernhard von Heß , Bavarian Lieutenant General and Minister of War of Greece and Bavaria († 1869 )
- May 27 : Blasius Höfel , Austrian engraver († 1863 )
- May 30th : Karl Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach , Dutch general († 1862 )
- June 8 : Johann Christian Ferdinand Aßmann , German Protestant theologian († 1845 )
- June 10 : Leopold Schoeller , German entrepreneur and founder of the Düren carpet office († 1884 )
- June 16 : Johann Jakob Füssli , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1860 )
- June 16 : Francis Johnson , American composer and musician († 1844 )
- June 16 : Thomas Livingstone Mitchell , British researcher († 1855 )
- June 19 : Gustav Schwab , German pastor, writer and editor († 1850 )
- June 21 : Ferdinand Christian Baur , German church and dogma historian († 1860 )
- June 25 : Carlos Coolidge , American politician († 1866 )
- July 4 : August Friedrich von Köstlin State Councilor and Consistorial President of Württemberg († 1873 )
- July 5 : Otto Friedrich Magnus von Baudissin , German officer († 1865 )
- July 7th : Georg Leopold von Zangen , German lawyer († 1851 )
- July 8th : Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen , Bavarian Queen († 1854 )
- July 10 : George M. Dallas , American politician († 1864 )
- July 10 : Frederick Marryat , English naval officer and writer († 1848 )
- July 30 : John Anderson , American politician († 1853 )
- Ulysses Anton von Salis-Soglio , Austrian officer († 1848 ) July:
- August 4 : Edward Irving , co-founder of the Catholic Apostolic Congregations in Great Britain († 1834 )
- August 4th : Friedrich Ludwig Mallet , Reformed pastor in Bremen, preacher of the revival movement († 1865 )
- August 4th : Percy Bysshe Shelley , British writer († 1822 )
- August 13 : Adelheid von Sachsen-Meiningen , Princess of Sachsen-Meiningen, Queen of England († 1849 )
- August 15 : Francesco Scalini , Austrian engineer and politician († 1871 )
- August 18 : John Russell , British Prime Minister († 1878 )
- August 19 : Edward Hincks , Irish Assyriologist and one of the earliest decipherers of the cuneiform script († 1866 )
- August 20 : Alfred Gustav Friedrich von Domhardt , Prussian landowner († 1856 )
- August 20 : Jakob Ignaz Hittorff , French architect († 1867 )
- August 24 : Joaquim António de Aguiar , Portuguese politician († 1884 )
- September 3 : Heinrich Langethal , German educator († 1879 )
- September 5 : Friedrich Matthias Theodor Friese , German organist and organ builder († 1863 )
- September 7 : David J. Baker , American lawyer and politician († 1869 )
- September 8 : Joseph Netherclift , English composer and lithographer († 1863 )
- September 14 : Gino Capponi , Italian politician, historian and poet († 1876 )
- September 15 : Archibald Atkinson , American politician († 1872 )
- September 19 : William Backhouse Astor , American millionaire († 1875 )
- September 21 : Johann Peter Eckermann , German poet († 1854 )
- September 27 : George Cruikshank , British cartoonist and illustrator († 1878 )
- September 29 : Andreas Gottlob Rudelbach , theologian († 1862 )
- October 2 : Pierre Martin Rémi Aucher-Éloy , French botanist and explorer († 1838 )
- October 7th : Obed Hussey , American inventor of a grain mower († 1860 )
- October 8 : Karl August Lebrun , German actor and playwright († 1842 )
- October 12 : James Ellsworth De Kay , American zoologist († 1851 )
- October 17 : John Bowring , British statesman, traveler and writer († 1872 )
- October 18 : Friedrich Meurer , German pharmacologist and physician († 1866 )
- October 19 : Hans von Auerswald , Prussian major general († 1848 )
- October 20 : Colin Campbell , British Field Marshal († 1863 )
- October 20 : Anton Bernhard Fürstenau , German flautist and composer († 1852 )
- October 24 : Richard Keith Call , American politician († 1862 )
- October 28 : Erastus Fairbanks , American politician († 1864 )
- October 29 : Georg Josias Stephan Adler , German provost († after 1852 )
- November 2 : Engelbert Sterckx , Belgian cardinal († 1867 )
- November 13 : Anthony Colby , American politician († 1873 )
- November 28 : Victor Cousin , French philosopher and cultural theorist († 1867 )
- November 30th : François-André Isambert , French lawyer and politician († 1857 )
- December 1 : Francis Granger , American politician († 1868 )
- December 1 : Nikolai Lobachevsky , Russian mathematician († 1856 )
- December 5 : James Guthrie , American politician († 1869 )
- December 5 : Andrés de Santa Cruz , Peruvian and Bolivian President († 1865 )
- December 6th : Maria Beatrix von Savoyen , daughter of Viktor Emanuel I († 1840 )
- December 6 : Wilhelm II , King of the Netherlands († 1849 )
- December 7th : Abraham Jacob van der Aa , Dutch lexicographer and man of letters († 1857 )
- December 11 : Joseph Mohr , Austrian priest and poet († 1848 )
- December 12 : Alexander Ypsilantis , Greek general († 1828 )
- December 20 : Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet , French painter († 1845 )
- December 25 : Antonio Adamini , Russian architect and engineer († 1846 or 1847 )
- December 30th : Karl von Gerlach , Berlin honorary citizen († 1863 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Matteo Carcassi , Italian guitarist and composer († 1853 )
- Emil Reiniger , German doctor, poet and co-founder of the first public library in Germany († 1849 )
First half of the year
- January 2 : Philipp Friedrich Welker , German civil servant (* 1738 )
- January 10 : Jean-Louis Laruette , French composer and singer (* 1731 )
- January 10 : Hans Joachim Steinmann , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1703 )
- January 20 : Johann Christian Blasche , German Lutheran theologian (* 1718 )
- February 1 : Mihály Ambrosovszky , Hungarian church historian (* 1702 )
- February 10 : George Plater , American politician (* 1735 )
- February 14 : William Smallwood , American politician (* 1732 )
- February 16 : Johann Christian Hofmann , German civil servant (* 1739 )
- February 23 : Joshua Reynolds , British painter (* 1723 )
- February 28 : Johann Christoph Rudolph , German lawyer and university professor (* 1723 )
- March 1 : Leopold II , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1747 )
- March 3 : Robert Adam , Scottish architect (* 1728 )
- March 10 : John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute , British statesman (* 1713 )
- March 29 : Gustav III. , Swedish king (* 1746 )
- April 14th : Maximilian Hell , Austrian Jesuit and astronomer (* 1720 )
- April 21 : Tiradentes , conspirator against the Portuguese colonial power and national hero of Brazil (* 1746 )
- April 22nd : Michael Leuckart , German printer (* 1710 )
- April 23 : Karl Friedrich Bahrdt , German Protestant theologian (* 1740 )
- April 27 : Jacob Johan Anckarström , murderer of the Swedish King Gustav III. (* 1762 )
- April 29 : Theobald Dillon , French military leader, murdered (* 1745 )
- April 30 : John Montagu , British diplomat and statesman (* 1718 )
- May 12 : Charles-Simon Favart , French opera and comedy poet (* 1710 )
- May 22 : Johann Gottfried Sillig , German Protestant clergyman (* 1734 )
- June 4th : John Burgoyne , British general and writer (* 1722 )
- June 4 : Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz , German writer (* 1751 )
- June 15 : Frederik Sneedorff , Danish historian. (* 1760 )
- June 16 : Georg Andreas Weise , German Lutheran theologian (* 1737 )
- June 22nd : Johann Thaddäus Anton Peithner von Lichtenfels , Bohemian mining scientist (mining) (* 1727 )
- June 30th : Antonio Rosetti , German composer (* 1750 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Ferdinand von Braunschweig , Prussian Field Marshal General (* 1721 )
- July 5 : Otto Hermann von Vietinghoff , General Director of the All-Russian Medical College (* 1722 )
- July 11th : Felix Johann Albrecht Mylius , German lawyer (* 1717 )
- July 18 : John Paul Jones , freedom fighter in the American Revolutionary War (* 1747 )
- July 19 : Johann Franz Coing , German theologian and university professor (* 1725 )
- July 20 : Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab , an Islamic scholar, founder of Wahhabism (* 1702 / 03 )
- July 22nd : Antonín Boll , Czech philosopher and Jesuit (* 1721 )
- July 29 : René-Nicolas-Charles-Augustin de Maupeou , French Chancellor (* 1714 )
- July 31 : Jürgen Christian Findorff , peat colonizer (* 1720 )
- August 2 : Johann Ludwig Schmidt , German legal scholar (* 1726 )
- August 3 : Richard Arkwright , British industrialist and inventor (* 1732 )
- August 5 : Frederick North , British Prime Minister (* 1732 )
- August 18 : Johannes Oosterdijk Schacht , Dutch medic (* 1704 )
- September 3 : Marie-Louise of Savoyen-Carignan , French confidante of Marie-Antoinette (* 1749 )
- September 11th : Gerhard Joseph von Herresdorf , priest and official
- September 13 : Georg Christoph Schwarz , German Catholic clergyman and university professor (* 1732 )
- September 18 : Georg Browne , Russian field marshal (* 1698 )
- September 21 : Philipp von Westphalen , confidante and collaborator of Duke Ferdinand of Braunschweig (* 1724 )
- September 26th : Johann Friedrich Knöbel , German architect and builder active in Dresden and Warsaw (* 1724 )
- October 1 : Ludwig Benjamin Ouvrier , German Protestant theologian (* 1735 )
- October 7th : George Mason , American politician and "Constitutional Father" (* 1725 )
- October 13 : Johann Philipp Kahler , German Protestant theologian (* 1726 )
- October 14 : Sophie Charlotte Schröder , German actress (* 1714 )
- October 28 : John Smeaton , English engineer (* 1724 )
- November 11th : Samuel Friedrich Nathanael More , German philologist and Lutheran theologian (* 1736 )
- November 30th : Johann Heinrich Wepler , German theologian and university professor (* 1755 )
- December 1 : Johann Jakob von Collas , Prussian major and landowner (* 1721 )
- December 1 : Ernst Wilhelm Wolf , German concertmaster and composer (* 1735 )
- December 2 : Johann Christoph Döderlein , German theologian (* 1745 )
- December 2nd : Veit Königer , Tyrolean sculptor (* 1729 )
- December 8 : Henry Laurens , American merchant and political leader in the American War of Independence (* 1724 )
- December 10 : Franz Anton Knittel , German Protestant clergyman and palaeographer (* 1721 )
- December 12th : Denis Iwanowitsch Fonwisin , Russian satirist and comedy poet (* 1745 )
- December 15 : Joseph Martin Kraus , German composer and Kapellmeister (* 1756 )
- December 24th : Philipp Ludwig Wittwer , German medic (* 1752 )