Calendar overview 1738
|Joseph Süß Oppenheimer is executed at the gates of Stuttgart, his body left hanging for years.|
Gottorf Treaty , the Duchy of Holstein recognized Hamburg's imperial immediacy
after a long dispute .
|1738 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1186/87 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1730/31 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1143/44 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2281/82 (southern Buddhism); 2280/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1100/01 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4071/72 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1150/51 (turn of the year 20/21 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5498/99 (September 14-15)|
|Coptic calendar||1454/55 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2048/49 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2049/50 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1794/95 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- February 4th : Joseph, who was sentenced to death on January 9th for high treason, lese majesty, robbery of state coffers, official dealing, corruption, "desecration" of the Protestant religion and sexual contact with "Christians" is executed on the Galgenberg at the gates of Stuttgart Süß Oppenheimer , who made himself unpopular in class circles as a financial advisor under the late Duke Karl Alexander von Württemberg . His body remained hanging for several years on the instructions of Carl Rudolf , the guardian of Karl Alexander's underage son, Karl Eugen , who also signed the death warrant.
- May 12th : Margrave Karl III. Wilhelm von Baden-Durlach , the founder of Karlsruhe , dies. His successor is his ten-year-old grandson Karl Friedrich under the reign of his uncle Karl August . Friedrich Johann Emich von Üxküll-Gyllenband becomes the first minister .
- May 27 : In Gottorper contract recognizes Denmark , the Imperial City of Hamburg , and independence from the Danish-ruled Duchy of Holstein . This ends a process that began in 1584 .
- July 28 : After the death of Duke Henry falls Sekundogenitur principality of Saxony-Merseburg at Electorate under Friedrich August II. Back.
- With the help of Dutch merchants, the former King of Corsica Theodor von Neuhoff tries to regain his kingdom, which was lost two years ago, but fails on the landing, whereupon the Dutch land him near Naples. In the meantime, France intervened on Genoa side in the conflict over Corsica and landed on the island with several ships.
War of the Polish Succession
- November 18 : The Peace of Vienna signed last year is published. With this, Austria and France formally end the war of succession to the Polish throne . August III. is confirmed as the Polish king and the pragmatic sanction is recognized by France. The French candidate Stanislaus I. Leszczyński receives the duchies of Lorraine and Bar , which are to fall to France after his death. Francis III As compensation, Stephan of Lorraine receives the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , which became free when the Medici died out last year.
Russo-Austrian Turkish War
- In the Russian-Austrian Turkish War , which began in 1736 , the Ottomans are advancing in the Balkans, while the Ukraine is in a stalemate with only a few major skirmishes.
- Nadir Shah from the Afsharid dynasty in Persia conquers Kandahar and occupies Ghazni , Kabul and Lahore . At the end of the year he crossed the Indus and invaded the Mughal Empire .
Voyages of discovery
- July 19 : The French navigator Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier sets off from Lorient on a south sea expedition . He sets course for the island of Santa Catarina off the coast of Brazil, where he will arrive in October. He equipped himself again and left the island a month later heading south-east. In December he is at the 45th parallel , but after days of fog he sees nothing but an iceberg and penguins.
- October 2nd : The French weekly Feuille d'Avis , edited by François-Louis Lichtenhan, appears for the first time in Neuchâtel .
- October 24th : The Darmstädter Tagblatt appears for the first time.
- In Crailsheim is Biermanufaktur Engel founded.
- The Leipziger Fuß established in 1687 is raised to the imperial rate and thus a uniform coin rate is introduced throughout the empire .
science and technology
- Autumn: The Spanish archaeologist Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre begins on behalf of Charles III. with excavations in Herculaneum .
- December 11th : During excavations in Herculaneum you come across an inscription over the theater of the ancient city and you now know that further finds are likely to be hidden in the lava floor.
- The Friedrichschule in Altona , founded in 1725 , is rescripted by King Christian VI. upgraded from Denmark to a Gymnasium Academicum .
- The German Society of Göttingen , a language society of the Enlightenment , is founded as part of the Georg August University of Göttingen , which opened last year .
- Together with Giacomo de Lucchesini and Georg Heinrich Bümler, Lorenz Christoph Mizler founds the Corresponding Societät der Musicalischen Wissenschaften , the first musicological society in Germany. The musical library founded by Mizler in 1736 serves as the society's publication organ. The partnership creates a communication structure between the important composers Johann Sebastian Bach , Carl Heinrich Graun , Georg Friedrich Händel , Georg Philipp Telemann and Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel with the music theorists Lorenz Christoph Mizler, Christoph Gottlieb Schröter , Georg Andreas Sorge and Meinrad Spieß .
Music and theater
- January 3rd : The famous castrato Caffarelli , who accepted an invitation from Georg Friedrich Händel, sings the title role at the premiere of his opera Faramondo based on a literary model by Apostolo Zeno at the Kings' Theater . Despite favorable reviews, the piece only got seven performances and was then canceled.
- February 25 : The opera seria Alessandro Severo by Georg Friedrich Händel has its world premiere at London's Kings' Theater . The title role is again sung by Caffarelli. The piece flops and will only be performed six times until May 30th, after which it will no longer be performed. Only the vocal and instrumental benefit concert on March 28, organized by Handel for himself and urgently requested by his friends and singers , is so overcrowded with almost 1,300 visitors that you have to put rows of seats or benches on the stage, and therefore Handel has ample income to cover debts.
- April 15 : The opera Serse by Georg Friedrich Händel , HWV 40 , based on the play Il Xerse by Nicolò Minato, has its world premiere at London's Kings' Theater . This piece, too, is canceled after five performances and has not been played for almost 200 years. Since Caffarelli does not like Handel's music, and he is just as unconvinced of the singer's interpretation, the collaboration is ended again at the end of the season.
- August 28 : Il Parnaso accusato e difeso , a libretto for a Componimento drammatico in one act by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in the setting by Georg Reutter for the birthday party of Empress Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in the Gallery of Imperial Favorita in Vienna.
- October 15 : La pace fra la virtù e la bellezza , a libretto for an Azione teatrale in one act by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in the first setting by Luca Antonio Predieri on the name day of Archduchess Maria Theresa in the great anteroom of the imperial residence in Vienna.
- August 19 : 16-year-old Helena Curtens is burned at the stake together with her mother of three Agnes Olmans as a victim of the last witch trial on the Lower Rhine .
- Jan Albert Sichterman , a merchant who works for the Dutch East India Company in Bengal , takes in a young rhinoceros whose mother has been killed by a hunter.
- April 28th : In the papal bull In eminenti apostolatus specula , Clement XII counts . breaks with Freemasonry and pronounces a ban. The development of these supposed "secret societies" must be stopped in order to protect the Catholic world from the associated risks or even from its destruction. Clemens takes offense among other things at the religious tolerance of the "sect".
- The Capuchins leave the Hospitium Berching to the Franciscans , who convert it into the Berching Monastery .
- The Dutch slave ship Leuden is stranded in a storm on the coast of Suriname . The crew closes the hatches and rescues; the 702 slaves trapped below deck drown.
January to April
- January 4 : Susanne Bohl , German poet († 1806 )
- January 24 : Jean-Nicolas Houchard , French Général de division († 1793 )
- February 4 : Joachim Wilhelm von Brawe , German playwright († 1758 )
- February 17 : Philipp von Gemmingen , princely government councilor of Nassau-Usingenscher and Saxon-Gotha legation councilor at the Imperial Court of Justice in Wetzlar († 1800 )
- March 7th : Silas Condict , American politician († 1801 )
- March 14 : Fryderyk Józef Moszyński , Polish-Lithuanian nobleman and statesman († 1817 )
- March 15 : Cesare Beccaria , Italian legal philosopher and criminal law reformer († 1794 )
- April 11 : Anton I. Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian magnate († 1794 )
- April 11 : Hermann Erich Winkler , German Protestant clergyman († 1793 )
- April 14 : William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland , British politician and Prime Minister († 1809 )
- before April 17: Philip Hayes , English composer, organist, singer and conductor († 1797 )
- April 22 : Anna Elisabeth Luise von Brandenburg-Schwedt , Princess of Prussia († 1820 )
- April 23 : Friedrich August , Duke of Nassau († 1816 )
- April 30 : Maria Wilhelmina von Auersperg , lady-in-waiting Maria Theresa and alleged mistress of Emperor Franz I Stephan von Habsburg-Lothringen († 1775 )
May to August
- May 4 : Josef Kohaut , Bohemian composer and lutenist († around 1793 )
- May 5 : Adolf Friedrich IV. , Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz († 1794 )
- May 6 : John Sloss Hobart , American lawyer and politician († 1805 )
- May 11 : Johann Melchior Birkenstock , Austrian politician, imperial councilor and school reformer († 1809 )
- May 12 : Friedrich Konrad Lange , German-Danish Protestant clergyman and educator († 1791 )
- May 13 : Ernst Gottfried Baldinger , German physician († 1804 )
- May 13 : Johann Wilhelm Franz von Krohne , German adventurer and author († 1787 )
- May 27 : Nathaniel Gorham , American politician, signatory of the United States Constitution († 1796 )
- May 27 : Moritz August von Thümmel , German writer († 1817 )
- May 28 : Tristram Dalton , American politician, Senator from Massachusetts († 1817 )
- May 28 : Joseph-Ignace Guillotin , French doctor and politician († 1814 )
- May 31 : Johann Timotheus Hermes , German Protestant theologian, poet and novelist († 1821 )
- June 4th : George III. , King of Great Britain and Ireland as well as Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and King of Hanover († 1820 )
- July 11th : Albert Casimir von Sachsen-Teschen , Duke of Teschen and patron of the arts († 1822 )
- July 20 : Giuseppe Angeluni , Greek Catholic Archbishop of the Archeparchy Durrës († 1816 )
- July 21 : Rudolph Friedrich Schultze , German Protestant theologian († 1791 )
- August 1 : Gustaf von Engeström , Swedish mining engineer, mineralogist and chemist († 1813 )
- August 3 : Friedrich Gottlieb Barth , German educator and linguist († 1794 )
- August 6 : Hayashi Shihei , Japanese samurai and scholar († 1793 )
- August 9 : Anna Schulthess , Swiss bourgeois daughter, wife of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi († 1815 )
- August 14 : Leopold Hofmann , Austrian composer († 1793 )
- August 15 : Joachim Christoph Bracke , German Evangelical Lutheran clergyman († 1801 )
- August 18 : August Wilhelm von Gemmingen , Chamberlain of the Duke of Württemberg, Knight of the Order of Charles and Knight Council of the knightly canton of Kraichgau († 1795 )
September to December
- September 3 : Heinrich Franz von Rottenhan , German administrative lawyer, President of the Supreme Judicial Office and Court Commissioner for Legislation in Bohemia and Austria († 1809 )
- September 12 : Jonathan Hunt , American pioneer, landowner and politician from Massachusetts, Lieutenant Governor of Vermont († 1823 )
- September 20 : Joachim Nettelbeck , German navigator and writer († 1824 )
- September 22 : Johann Ludwig Ernst Morgenstern , German painting restorer, etcher and painter († 1819 )
- October 3 : Jacques Gamelin , French painter, draftsman, engraver and etcher († 1803 )
- October 4 : Fanny de Beauharnais , French poet and salonière († 1813 )
- October 4 : Charlotte-Jeanne Béraud de la Haye de Riou, Marquise de Montesson , French nobleman and writer († 1806 )
- October 6 : Maria Anna of Austria , abbess in the women's monastery founded by Archduchess Maria Theresa in Prague († 1789 )
- October 6 : Charles-Joseph Mathon de La Cour , French economist, author and philanthropist († 1793 )
- October 10 : Benjamin West , Anglo-American painter († 1820 )
- October 11 : Josep de Boltas , Bishop of Urgell and Co-Prince of Andorra († 1795 )
- October 11 : Arthur Phillip , British naval officer, governor of New South Wales († 1814 )
- October 15 : Wenzel Joseph von Colloredo , Austrian field marshal († 1822 )
- October 18 : Andrei Timofejewitsch Bolotow , Russian agronomist († 1833 )
- October: Ignatie Darabant , Bishop of Oradea Mare (Großwardein) of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church († 1805 )
- October 27 : Hugo Damian Erwein von Schönborn-Wiesentheid , German count († 1817 )
- October 29 : Philipp Friedrich Welker , German civil servant († 1792 )
- November 15 : Wilhelm Herschel , German-British astronomer, musician and composer († 1822 )
- November 17 : Alexander Wilhelm von Arnim , Prussian Lieutenant General († 1809 )
- November 22nd : Johann Wilhelm Wolfgang Breithaupt , German Protestant theologian and song writer († 1818 )
- November 25th : Thomas Abbt , German writer and philosopher († 1766 )
- December 2 : Richard Montgomery , American general in the American War of Independence († 1775 )
- December 8 : Isaac Motte , American politician († 1795 )
- December 14 : Jan Mikołaj Chodkiewicz , Polish-Lithuanian aristocrat of Ruthenian origin († 1781 )
- December 14 : Jan Antonín Koželuh , Bohemian composer († 1814 )
- December 31 : Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis , British General and Governor General of India († 1805 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Samuel Adler , Prussian civil servant († 1799 )
- Jean Thérèse de Beaumont d'Autichamp , French general († 1831 )
- Ernst Wolfgang Behrisch , German court master and friend of Goethe's youth († 1809 )
- Therese Bodenburg , Austrian actress († 1793 )
- Solomon Dubno , Hebrew poet and enlightener from Galicia († 1813 )
- Karl Franz , German musician of Polish origin († 1802 )
- Christian Gottfried Findeisen , German philologist and philosopher († 1796 )
- Antônio Francisco Lisboa , Brazilian builder and sculptor († 1814 )
- Jehu Davis , American politician, President of Delaware († 1802 )
- Krikor Bedros V. Kupelian , Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia († 1812 )
- Lobsang Pelden Yeshe , sixth Penchen Lama of the Gelug tradition of Tibetan Buddhism († 1780 )
- Charlotte Mercier , French painter († 1762 )
- Mirza-ye Qomi , Twelve Shiite lawyer († 1815 or 1816 )
- Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros , Spanish judge and colonial administrator, governor of Chile († 1818 )
- Takatsukasa Sukehira , Japanese nobleman († 1813 )
- Christian Zwilling , German Protestant theologian († 1800 )
Born around 1738
Date of death secured
- January 6th : Jean-Baptiste Labat , French missionary, plantation owner and travel writer (* 1663 )
- January 6 : Franz Xaver Murschhauser , German musician and composer (* 1663 )
- January 15 : Anna Maria Benz , painter from Württemberg (* 1694 )
- January 31 : Ehrgott Bernhard Bendl , German sculptor and plasterer (* 1660 )
- February 4 : Joseph Süß Oppenheimer , Württemberg court factor and finance councilor and victim of an anti-Semitic judicial murder (* 1698 )
- February 16 : Matthias Bernhard Braun , Bohemian sculptor (* 1684 )
- February 16 : Carel de Moor , Dutch painter (* 1655 )
- March 16 : George Bähr , German builder (* 1666 )
- March 25 : Turlough O'Carolan , Irish composer and harpist (* 1670 )
- April 2 : Jodokus Bernhard von Aufseß , German canon (* 1671 )
- April 18 : Johann Reinhard Rus , German oriental philologist, Graecist and Protestant theologian (* 1679 )
- April 27th : Johann Friedrich Künnecke , builder from Mecklenburg
- May 12 : Charles III. Wilhelm , Margrave of Baden-Durlach, founder of Karlsruhe (* 1679 )
- May 20 : André Brue , General Director of the French Senegal Company (* 1654 )
- May 25 : Burkhard Gotthelf Struve , Thuringian polyhistor and librarian (* 1671 )
- June 4 : Naum Akimowitsch Senjawin , Vice Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy (* around 1680 )
- June 7th : Antoine Crozat, marquis du Châtel , French tax collector, financier, entrepreneur and landowner, founder of the Louisiana colony (* around 1655 )
- June 21 : Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend , British politician and Secretary of State (* 1674 )
- June 28 : Anna Aloysia Maximiliane von Lamberg , mistress of the Saxon Elector Augustus the Strong and Prince Alexander Benedict Sobieski (* around 1676 / 77 )
- July 19 : Charles Bridgeman , British garden architect (* 1690 )
- July 20 : Gustav Georg Zeltner , German Protestant theologian (* 1672 )
- July 22nd : Wolfgang Hannibal von Schrattenbach , Prince-Bishop of Olmütz, Viceroy of Naples and Cardinal (* 1660 )
- July 28 : Heinrich , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg (* 1661 )
- August 2 : Uejima Onitsura , Japanese poet (* 1661 )
- August 19 : Helena Curtens , victim of the last witch trial on the Lower Rhine (* 1722 )
- August 19 : Paul Zeiller , Austrian painter (* 1655 )
- August 29 : Charlotte of Hessen-Homburg , Duchess of Saxe-Weimar (* 1672 )
- September 23 : Carlo Agostino Badia , Italian composer (* 1672 )
- September 23 : Herman Boerhaave , Dutch medic, chemist and botanist (* 1668 )
- October 1st : Christian Detlev von Reventlow , Danish general and royal president in the city of Altona (* 1671 )
- October 4th : Johann Conrad Wegmann , German-Swiss organ builder (* 1699 )
- November 4 : Johann Jacob Syrbius , German philosopher and Lutheran theologian (* 1674 )
- November 12 : Theodor Andreas Potocki , Bishop of Kulm and Warmia, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland-Lithuania (* 1664 )
- November 24 : Jean-Baptiste Régis , French Jesuit missionary, cartographer (* 1663 / 64 )
- December 8 : Domenico d'Angeli , Italian architect and builder (* 1672 )
- December 11th : Johann Rudolf Byss , Swiss painter (* 1660 )
- December 15th : Pedro de Arrieta , New Spanish builder
Exact date of death unknown
- Georg Andreas Agricola , German doctor and botanist (* 1672 )
- Wolf Dietrich von Gemmingen , prince-bishop-Eichstättischer Privy Councilor and curator (* 1680 )
- Johann Ulrich Giezendanner , Swiss goldsmith and pietist (* 1686 )
- Hama Higa , martial arts expert in the Japanese kingdom of Ryūkyū (* 1663 )
- Pedro de Melo , Portuguese military officer and Governor of Portuguese Timor
- Francisco de Sánchez de la Barreda , Spanish lawyer and governor of Chile (* before 1711)
- Soi Sisamut , first king of the Lao Kingdom of Champasak (* 1693 )
- Paul Zopf , Austrian court jester, insurgent, corner advocate and peace-breaker