Calendar overview 1780
|George Rodney destroys a Spanish squadron in the naval battle of Cape St. Vincent .|
appears for the first time.
|Waxhaw massacre , the British defeat a unit of the Virginia's Continental Army under the command of Banastre Tarleton .|
|1780 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1228/29 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1772/73 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1185/86 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2323/24 (southern Buddhism); 2322/23 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1142/43 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4113/14 (2-3 October)|
|Iranian calendar||1158/59 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1193/1194/95 (January 7/8 // December 27/28)|
|Jewish calendar||5540/41 (September 29/30)|
|Coptic calendar||1496/97 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2090/91 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2091/92 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1836/37 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 16 : In the sea battle at Cape St. Vincent during the siege of Gibraltar, a British fleet under Admiral George Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, destroys a Spanish squadron and can bring reinforcements to Gibraltar , which is besieged by the Spanish and French . Six of the nine Spanish ships of the line are captured and another sunk.
- June 2nd : The Gordon Riots break out in London under the leadership of Lord George Gordon . The serious unrest against the emancipation of the Catholics claimed 285 lives until it was finally put down on June 17th .
- November 20 : Great Britain declares war on the Netherlands . The fourth Anglo-Dutch War lasted until 1784 .
- November 29th : After the death of Empress Maria Theresa , her son Joseph II becomes the sole regent of the Habsburg Empire .
- April: The gubernatorial election in New York is George Clinton re-elected.
- May 29 : British cavalrymen under the command of Banastre Tarleton defeat a unit of the Virginia's Continental Army in the Waxhaw massacre .
- June 15 : The Massachusetts Constitution is adopted and comes into effect on October 25th . Massachusetts has a freedom clause in its constitution that is interpreted as a prohibition of slavery .
- August 16 : The Battle of Camden ends with a complete victory for British forces under Charles Cornwallis over an outnumbered American army under Horatio Gates .
- August 18 : At the Battle of Musgrove Mill , about 300 patriotic militia men defeat a unit of 300 loyalist militias and 300 British soldiers from nearby Fort Ninety Six. The battle marks an early turning point in the southern theater of the American Revolutionary War.
- October 2 : British officer John André is hanged as a spy in Tappan, New York .
- October 7 : In the American War of Independence , the colonists prevail against a unit of British troops under Patrick Ferguson in the Battle of Kings Mountain .
- Pennsylvania decides to gradually release all slaves . Slaves born after 1780 will henceforth be released at the age of 28.
- The Underground Railroad is formed, an informal anti- slavery network in the United States to provide protection and support for fugitive slaves.
- Outbreak of the largest Andean Indian uprising under the leadership of José Gabriel Condorcanqui , who names himself after the last Inca ruler Túpac Amaru . The uprising affected larger areas in what is now Peru , Ecuador , Bolivia and northern Argentina .
- January 1st : The first Hungarian newspaper Magyar hímondó ( Hungarian Courier ) appears in Bratislava .
- January 12th : The Zürcher Zeitung , founded by Salomon Gessner , appears with its first edition .
science and technology
- April 16 : The Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster opens.
- May 4 : The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is founded.
- September 6th : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe writes in pencil on the wooden wall of a hunting lodge on the Kickelhahn near Ilmenau in Thuringia Wanderer's night song - Ein Gleiches .
Music and theater
- April 7th : The Grand Théâtre , built by Victor Louis in the style of Italian classicism , is opened in Bordeaux , which contemporaries call the largest and most beautiful theater in France. Jean Racine's drama Athalie from 1691 will be played at the festive event .
- June 4th : The world premiere of the opera La finta Amante by Giovanni Pacini takes place in Mogiljow on the Dnieper.
- September 23 : The opera Adelheit von Veltheim by Christian Gottlob Neefe is premiered in Frankfurt am Main.
- Johann Andreas Cramer , Chancellor of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel , publishes the Cramer hymnbook in Altona .
- The Christmas carol The Twelve Days of Christmas is published for the first time in an English children's book .
- November 12th : In Wolfersdorf , a town in the Hallertau , four farm boys disregard a ban on dancing . The folk dance Zwiefacher is therefore documented for the first time in the court record.
- The English newspaper publisher and social reformer Robert Raikes founds the first Sunday school in Gloucester .
- The Frauenkirche in Günzburg , built by Dominikus Zimmermann in the Rococo style , is consecrated.
- The Buddhist Xumi Fushou Temple , one of the Eight Outer Temples in Chengde in the Chinese province of Hebei , is being built in the architectural style of the Han Chinese and Tibetans to celebrate the 70th birthday of Emperor Qianlong , to which the VI. Penchen Lama of the Gelug tradition of Tibetan Buddhism , one of the two religious and political leaders of Tibet , comes to convey his congratulations.
- January 8 : The Iranian city of Tabriz and around 400 villages in the region are devastated by a major earthquake , killing at least 50,000 people.
- September 18 : Almost the entire old town fell victim to a serious fire in Gera .
- October 10th to 16th : Around 22,000 people die when the Great Hurricane of 1780 swept the Caribbean islands of Martinique , St. Eustatius and Barbados . In addition, thousands of seafarers lose their lives in distress .
- October 31 : The British warship Ontario sinks in a storm in Lake Ontario with 130 people on board . There are no survivors.
nature and environment
- May 19 : The New England area is unusually dark during the day. The reasons for Dark Day have not yet been clarified exactly.
Historical maps and views
- January 3 : Johann Christian Woyzeck , German wig maker, template for the main character in Büchner's drama "Woyzeck" († 1824 )
- January 4th : Théophile Marion Dumersan , French playwright, poet, librettist and numismatist († 1849 )
- January 8 : Franz Ludwig von Könitz , German officer, landowner and member of the state parliament († 1840 )
- January 10 : Martin Lichtenstein , German physicist, researcher and zoologist († 1857 )
- January 13 : Vinzenz Adelmann , German physician († 1850 )
- January 13 : Pierre Jean Robiquet , French chemist († 1840 )
- January 15 : John Leeds Kerr , American politician († 1844 )
- January 15 : Cornelius P. Comegys , American politician († 1851 )
- January 21 : Rai San'yō , Japanese historian and poet († 1832 )
- January 28 : Giovanni Battista Velluti , Italian opera singer, last of the great castrati († 1861 )
- January 29 : Gustav Kalixt von Biron , German lieutenant general in the coalition wars († 1821 )
- January 29th : Marianne von der Mark , illegitimate daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm II. († 1814 )
- February 2 : Jan van den Bosch , Dutch lieutenant general († 1844 )
- February 11 : Karoline von Günderrode , German-speaking writer († 1806 )
- February 14 : Johann Friedrich Naumann , German naturalist and founder of ornithology in Central Europe († 1857 )
- February 18 : Johann Georg Daniel Arnold , German lawyer and writer († 1829 )
- February 19 : Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen , German Germanist († 1856 )
- February 26 : August Thieme , German poet († 1860 )
- February 26 : Christian Samuel Weiss , German mineralogist and crystallographer († 1856 )
- March 8 : Thomas Carr , American music publisher, composer and organist († 1849 )
- March 10 : Eberhard Gottlieb Graff , German linguist († 1841 )
- March 10 : Juan José Landaeta , Venezuelan composer († 1814 )
- March 17 : Thomas Chalmers , Scottish writer and founder of the Free Church of Scotland († 1847 )
- March 17 : August Crelle , German mathematician, architect and engineer († 1855 )
- March 19 : Miloš Obrenović , Prince of Serbia († 1860 )
- March 19 : Franz Theremin , German Protestant theologian († 1846 )
- March 26 : Julius Eduard Hitzig , German writer and judge of the Chamber of Justice († 1849 )
- March 27 : Vincenz von Augustin , Austrian Feldzeugmeister († 1859 )
- March 29 : Johann Georg Bausback , German lawyer († 1851 )
- April 7 : William Ellery Channing , American public speaker, theologian and author († 1842 )
- April 10 : George Armistead , American Lieutenant Colonel († 1818 )
- April 10 : Léon Dufour , French doctor and naturalist († 1865 )
- April 14 : Joseph von Winiwarter , Austrian lawyer and university lecturer († 1848 )
- April 16 : Otto August Rühle von Lilienstern , Prussian general († 1847 )
- April 26 : Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert , German scientist († 1860 )
- April 29 : Charles Nodier , French writer († 1844 )
- April 30 : Karl Christian Gottlieb Sturm , German agricultural economist († 1826 )
- May 1st : Hubert Auer , prince-bishop delegate, provost and cathedral provost († 1836 )
- May 1 : Christine Friederike Auguste , Electress of Hesse († 1841 )
- May 1 : Philipp Konrad Marheineke , German theologian († 1846 )
- May 1 : John McKinley , American politician and lawyer († 1852 )
- May 9 : William J. Duane , American politician († 1865 )
- May 10 : Angelica Catalani , Italian opera singer († 1849 )
- May 11 : Karl Benedikt Hase , German classical philologist and librarian († 1864 )
- May 14 : Gian Menico Cetti , Swiss translator († 1817 )
- May 20 : Bernardino Rivadavia , Argentine statesman and first president († 1845 )
- May 21 : Elizabeth Fry , British prison reformer († 1845 )
- May 28 : Antonie Brentano , possibly Beethoven's lover († 1869 )
- June 2 : Heinrich Leonhard Heubner , German Lutheran theologian († 1853 )
- June 16 : Christian Gottlieb Kühn , German sculptor († 1828 )
- June 21 : Martin D. Hardin , American politician († 1823 )
- July 1 : Carl von Clausewitz , Prussian general and "war philosopher" († 1831 )
- July 1 : Ludwig Philipp von Bombelles , Austrian diplomat († 1843 )
- July 3 : Friedrich Johann Gottlieb Lieder , German portrait painter and lithographer († 1859 )
- July 5 : Francesco Antommarchi , French doctor († 1838 )
- July 6 : Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent , a French naturalist, botanist and colonel. († 1846 )
- July 9 : Ephraim Bateman , American politician († 1829 )
- July 10 : Franz Ignatz Cassian Hallaschka , Moravian naturalist, mathematician, physicist and astronomer († 1847 )
- June 15 : Count Theodor Baillet von Latour , Austrian Minister of War († 1848 )
- June 18 : Michael Henkel , German composer († 1851 )
- July 18 : Bartolomeo Ferrari , Italian sculptor († 1844 )
- July 25 : Christian Theodor Weinlig , German music teacher, composer and choir conductor († 1842 )
- August 10 : Friedrich Joseph Haass , German-Russian physician († 1853 )
- August 16 : Jakob Joseph Wandt , from 1842 to 1849 the third bishop of Hildesheim († 1849 )
- August 17 : Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler , Swiss doctor, politician and philosopher († 1866 )
- August 19 : Pierre-Jean de Béranger , French poet († 1857 )
- August 21 : Jernej Kopitar , Slovenian linguist and Slavist († 1844 )
- August 29 : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres , French classicist painter († 1867 )
- September 3 : Georg Heinrich Lünemann , German classical philologist and lexicographer († 1830 )
- September 3 : Heinrich Christian Schumacher , Danish-German astronomer († 1850 )
- September 8 : Sebald Brendel , German lawyer and university lecturer († 1844 )
- September 8 : George Troup , American politician († 1856 )
- September 22nd : Joseph Agricol Viala , French National Guard († 1793 )
- September 23 : Julie Philippine Clara Auguste Anschel , German writer and actress († 1826 )
- September 24 : Hendrik Tollens , Dutch writer of Flemish origin († 1856 )
- September 25 : Charles Robert Maturin , Irish Protestant clergyman († 1824 )
- September 28 : Élie Decazes , French statesman († 1860 )
- October 1 : Göran Wahlenberg , Swedish botanist († 1851 )
- October 5 : Benedict Arnold , American politician († 1849 )
- October 6 : John Chambers , American politician († 1852 )
- October 15 : Siegmund Peter Martin , German politician († 1834 )
- October 17 : Ludwig Wilhelm Zimmermann , German chemist, mineralogist and university professor († 1825 )
- October 20 : Pauline Bonaparte , sister of Napoleon Bonaparte († 1825 )
- October 22 : John Forsyth , American politician († 1841 )
- October 23 : Joseph Alois Graf von Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal and Commander of the Teutonic Order († 1871 )
- October 25 : Freeman Walker , American politician († 1827 )
- October 28 : Ernst Anschütz , German theologian, educator and poet († 1861 )
- October 29 : Carl Friedrich Emil von Ibell , Nassau District President of the Duchy of Nassau († 1834 )
- November 3 : Victor Dourlen , French composer († 1864 )
- November 4 : Philippe-Paul de Ségur , French colonel († 1873 )
- November 8 : Samuel Foot , American politician († 1846 )
- November 12 : Pieter Retief , Boer Voortrekker († 1838 )
- November 13 : Ranjit Singh , first ruler of the unified Punjab († 1839 )
- November 15 : Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Kohlrausch , German educator and historian († 1867 )
- November 16 : James FitzGibbon , British officer († 1863 )
- November 22nd : Conradin Kreutzer , German composer († 1849 )
- November 28 : Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger , German aesthetician († 1819 )
- December 1 : Bernhard Rudolf Abeken , German philologist and schoolboy († 1866 )
- December 2 : August von der Embde , German painter († 1862 )
- December 2 : Otto von Münchhausen , Prussian district administrator († 1872 )
- December 5 : Heinrich August Schott , German Lutheran theologian († 1835 )
- December 10 : Johann Friedrich von Türckheim , Alsatian-French politician († 1850 )
- December 13 : Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner , German chemist († 1849 )
- December 14 : Karl Robert von Nesselrode , Russian diplomat and statesman († 1862 )
- December 16 : Iver Hesselberg , Norwegian pastor and author († 1844 )
- December 20 : John Wilson Croker , English speaker, poet and journalist († 1857 )
- December 26 : Mary Somerville , Scottish astronomer and mathematician († 1872 )
- December 29 : Jakob Moralt , German musician († 1820 )
- December 30th : Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser , German lawyer and imperial councilor († 1851 )
- December 31 : Nehemiah R. Knight , American politician († 1854 )
- December 31 : Gideon Tomlinson , American politician († 1854 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Adam Ackermann , German landscape painter († 1853 )
- Michael Friedrich Adams , German-Russian botanist and natural scientist († 1838 )
- Georg Gottlieb Ammon , German horse breeder and author († 1839 )
- Francis Vyvyan Jago Arundell , British clergyman and explorer († 1846 )
- Atçalı Kel Mehmet Efe , Ottoman Zeybek († 1830 )
- Daniel Martin , American politician († 1831 )
- Ignaz Stupan von Ehrenstein , Austrian Councilor († 1840)
- Thomas Hill Williams , American politician († 1840 )
- January 1 : Johann Ludwig Krebs , German composer and organist (* 1713 )
- January 10 : Francesco Antonio Vallotti , Italian composer, music theorist and organist (* 1697 )
- January 21 : Johann Gottlieb Frenzel , German lawyer, historian and philosopher (* 1715 )
- January 24th : Hiraga Gennai , Japanese scholar, inventor and writer (* 1728 )
- January 24th : Christian Ludwig von Hagedorn , German art theorist and collector (* 1712 )
- January 31 : Jonathan Carver , American-English explorer (* 1732 )
- February 14 : William Blackstone , English lawyer (* 1723 )
- February 16 : Johann Aloys I. zu Oettingen-Spielberg , Prince of the Principality of Oettingen-Spielberg (* 1707 )
- February 18 : Kristijonas Donelaitis , Lithuanian writer (* 1714 )
- February 22nd : Francesco III. d'Este , Duke of Reggio and Modena (* 1698 )
- March 3 : Joseph Highmore , British painter (* 1692 )
- March 26th : Charles I , Duke of Braunschweig (* 1713 )
- April 2 : Anna Wilhelmine , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1715 )
- April 11 : Moritz Wilhelm von der Asseburg , Prussian major general (* 1698 )
- April 21 : Carl Deichman , Norwegian factory owner and book collector (* 1700 or 1705)
- April 21 : Ferdinand Zellbell , Swedish composer (* 1719 )
- April 21 : Johann Samuel Wiesner , German Protestant theologian, educator and orientalist (* 1723 )
- April 23 : Maria Antonia von Bayern , Bavarian art patron and composer, painter and poet (* 1724 )
- May 21 : Franz Balthasar Schönberg von Brenkenhoff , Prussian economist (* 1723 )
- May 26 : Hans von Ahlefeldt , German privy councilor and bailiff (* 1710 )
- June 2 : Józef Baka , Polish Jesuit priest, missionary, preacher and poet (* 1707 )
- June 3 : Thomas Hutchinson , last civilian governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay (* 1711 )
- June 19 : Odano Naotake , Japanese painter (* 1750 )
- June 20 : Johann Gottlob Böhme , German historian (* 1717 )
- June 30th : Karl Paul Ernst von Bentheim-Steinfurt , German nobleman (* 1729 )
- July 4th : Karl Alexander von Lothringen , German Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (* 1712 )
- July 8 : Gerhard Schöning , Norwegian historian. (* 1722 )
- August 3 : Étienne Bonnot de Condillac , French Enlightenment philosopher (* 1714 )
- August 17 : Ferdinand Stosch , German Reformed theologian (* 1717 )
- August 19 : Johann von Kalb , German-American general during the American Revolution (* 1721 )
- August 27 : Johann Wilhelm Fuhrmann , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1750 )
- September 4 : John Fielding , British judge, The Blind Beak of Bow Street (* 1721 )
- September 6 : Françoise Basseporte , French painter (* 1701 )
- September 8 : Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont , French writer (* 1711 )
- September 8 : Enoch Poor , American brigadier general in the Continental Army in the American War of Independence (* 1736 )
- September 15 : Jacob Rodrigues Pereira , Portuguese deaf teacher, the first teacher of deaf students in France (* 1715 )
- September 23 : Ernst Friedrich III. , Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen (* 1727 )
- October 2 : John André , British officer (* 1750 )
- October 6th : Ignaz Sichelbarth , German-Bohemian Jesuit missionary and painter (* 1708 )
- November 12th : Johann Gottfried Weller , German Protestant clergyman and historian (* 1712 )
- November 17 : Bernardo Bellotto , Italian painter (* 1721 )
- November 29th : Maria Theresa , Austrian Archduchess, Hungarian and Bohemian Queen (* 1717 )
- November 29 : Hieronymus David Gaub , German medic and chemist (* 1705 )
- December 14th : Ignatius Sancho , English composer and writer of African descent (* 1729 )
- December 21 : Christiana Regina Hetzer , first landlady of the Gohliser Schlösschen in Leipzig (* 1724 )