Túpac Amaru (Inca)

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Túpac Amaru Inca
Túpac Amarus captured

Túpac Amaru , in Peruvian Quechua spelling Tupaq Amaru , meaning "luminous snake" (*  1545 ; †  September 24, 1572), was the last Sapa Inca (Inca king).


Túpac Amaru was the youngest son of Manco Cápac II . He was ordained a priest and acted as the keeper of his father's corpse.

His half-brother Titu Cusi Yupanqui had preserved the independence of his remaining Inca state in Vilcabamba and pursued a policy towards the Spanish viceroyalty that fluctuated between resistance and peaceful coexistence. He exchanged envoys with the viceroy, and missionaries were tolerated in Vilcabamba. He even promised to come to Cusco and recognize Spanish rule. When Titu Cusi died, the Incas blamed a missionary. He was tortured and killed.

After the death of his half-brother, Túpac Amaru succeeded him to the throne. The Spanish viceroy, Francisco de Toledo , who knew nothing of Titu Cusi's death, meanwhile sent an ambassador to Vilcabamba. This one was killed. Thereupon the viceroy decided to go to war against Vilcabamba. On July 24, 1572, a Spanish expedition led by Captain Martín García Óñez de Loyola and General Martín Hurtado destroyed the facility. Túpac Amaru had previously fled with his pregnant wife and his people to the jungle in the Amazon basin , where he was taken in by the Maraní indigenous people . Nevertheless, through betrayal, it fell into the hands of the conquerors.

Captain Óñez de Loyola took him to Cusco. There he was charged with the murder of the missionary and the envoy and sentenced to death. Although secular and spiritual dignitaries protested vehemently and asked for a pardon, the viceroy ordered the execution. Túpac Amaru, the last Inca ruler , was beheaded on September 24, 1572 in the Plaza de Armas in Cusco, where several thousand Inca had gathered . As eyewitnesses reported by Baltasar de Ocampa and Gabriel de Oviedo , he raised his hand to silence the crowds. His last words were:

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."

" Pachakamaq [" Creator of the World "] testify to how my enemies shed my blood."

- Túpac Amaru

Several of his sons were deported to Mexico and Central America so that no legitimate successor remained in the country.

Use of the name

Allegedly, Túpac Amaru is said to have announced his return before his execution, that he would not die but would return to atone for the injustice of the oppressors. This made him an icon of the anti-colonial freedom movement. Many groups have therefore invoked his name: José Gabriel Condorcanqui claimed to be descended from him and called himself Túpac Amaru II. In 1780/81 he led an Indian revolt in the viceroyalty of Peru and was executed in 1781. The Peruvian underground movement " Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru " (MRTA) placed itself in the tradition of the Inca Túpac Amaru ("Túpac Amaru I."), while other groups, such as the former communist guerrilla movement and today's left party " Tupamaros " in Uruguay or the Tupamaros West Berlin and Tupamaros Munich invoked "Túpac Amaru II."

A well-known name bearer was the American rap singer Tupac Amaru Shakur .



  • Kurt Kauter : Flieg Kondor Tupac Amaru: Events, facts, connections. 2nd edition, Military Publishing House of the German Democratic Republic, Berlin 1984.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. : WDR
predecessor Office successor
Titu Cusi Yupanqui
Titu Kusi Yupanki
Inca of Vilcabamba