The Tupamaros Munich (TM) was a left-wing terrorist group , which in the Federal Republic was going with violence against the state. Between autumn 1969 and summer 1971 they carried out a series of smaller incendiary and explosive attacks in Munich , among others. a. on the University of Munich , the district court in the Maxburg and on police facilities, as well as a bank robbery.
The Tupamaros Munich (TM) borrowed their name directly from the Tupamaros in Uruguay , which was active underground in Uruguay from 1963 to the 1970s . At the same time there was also the Tupamaros West Berlin (TW). There were personal contacts and numerous ideological similarities between the two German groups. The TM developed out of growing confrontations between participants in the left-wing protest movement in the late 1960s and the state security apparatus consisting of the police and the judiciary - the latter becoming the preferred targets of the TM.
The first arson attack attributed to TM took place in February 1970 on the apartment of the district judge, who a month earlier had sentenced SDS activist Günter Maschke to seven months in prison for deserting. There was little property damage, no people were injured. Three days earlier, the DPA news agency had received a threatening letter signed “TM” demanding Maschke's freedom and announcing incendiary devices in the Munich justice buildings.
In contrast to other left-wing extremist groups, the Tupamaros Munich left hardly any contemporary text documents or later experience reports that could serve as a basis for the historical reconstruction of the group. There were brief letters of confession for individual actions, and after the fatal arson attack on the Jewish old people's home in Munich in 1970, in which the TM was suspected as the perpetrator, a decided distancing. A founding or dissolution manifesto of the group does not exist.
Controversy about historical research
Wolfgang Kraushaar has been constructing speculations since 2013 that the leading head of the Bavarian group Fritz Teufel was and that the attack on the Jewish retirement home was an act that was planned and carried out by a network of left-wing radicals and ethnic-Arab nationalists. Willi Winkler criticizes Kraushaar's extensive statements as a collection of "allegations and allegations".
- Gerhard Seyfried : The black star of the Tupamaros. Eichborn Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-8218-0754-7 ; Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-7466-2271-9 .
- Wolfgang Kraushaar : “When will the fight against the holy cow Israel finally begin?” Munich 1970: on the anti-Semitic roots of German terrorism. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2013 ISBN 3498034111 .
- Michael Sturm : Tupamaros Munich. "Armed Struggle", Subculture and Police 1969-1971. In: Klaus Weinhauer / Jörg Requate / Heinz-Gerhard Haupt (Hrsg.): Terrorism in the Federal Republic. Media, State and Subcultures in the 1970s. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2006, pp. 99-133.
- Benedikt Weyerer: Munich 1950–1975 . History workshop Neuhausen , Munich 2003, ISBN 3-931231-13-5 .
- Sabine Fütterer: Tupamaros Munich. In: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns, dated June 18, 2014, accessed on September 24, 2018
- Hans-Dieter Schwind : Causes of Terrorism in the Federal Republic of Germany , p. 30.
- Gerd Langguth, Stephan Trinius: Interview: The 68er Movement , Federal Center for Civic Education August 20, 2007, accessed on July 3, 2017.
- View of the Bavarian police .
- Sturm: Tupamaros Munich p. 99 f.
- Sturm: Tupamaros Munich p. 101
- Sturm: Tupamaros Munich p. 108
- Sturm: Tupamaros Munich p. 103
- Andreas Fanizadeh: The anti-Semitic legacy , column lights of humanity on taz.de from February 22, 2013, accessed on July 3, 2017.
- Munich: Seven murder victims and still no trace of the Jüdische Allgemeine, July 12, 2012.
- Wolfgang Kraushaar: “When will the fight against the holy cow Israel finally begin?” Munich 1970: on the anti-Semitic roots of German terrorism. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2013, ISBN 3498034111 .
- Willi Winkler: Possibly: How to construct history by looking at the world in the subjunctive Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 24, 2013.