José Gabriel Condorcanqui
José Gabriel Tupaq Amaru or José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera , later known as Tupaq Amaru II ( Túpac Amaru II ; born March 19, 1738 in Tinta (today's Peru ); † May 18, 1781 in Cusco ) was the leader of an uprising against the Spaniards in 1780 . Despite the failure of the revolt, Tupaq Amaru was later glorified and became an important figure in the struggle for Peruvian independence , for various uprising movements in America and in the expropriation of the large landowners in Peru under General Juan Velasco Alvarado .
He was born as José Gabriel Condorcanqui in 1738. His mother was Rosa Noguera Valenzuela and his father was Miguel Condorcanqui . His parents died when he was twelve years old. As an orphan he was raised by an aunt and an uncle. At sixteen he received a Jesuit education at the San Francisco de Borja School. On May 25, 1758 he married Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (born in the Abancay area ) and had three sons: Hipólito (born 1761), Mariano (born 1763) and Fernando (born 1770). There is also the story that he had offspring with Umina Berzeviczy , daughter of the Polish adventurer Sebastian Berzeviczy and an Inca princess.
As a large landowner and feudal lord, he perceived the exploitation of the indigenous population and, after unsuccessful lawsuits and lawsuits, called for an uprising against Spanish rule. He declared himself to be the heir of the Inca Empire; in memory of the last of the Inca rulers Tupaq Amaru († 1572) - from whom he claimed to be descended - he called himself Túpac Amaru II .
The uprising he led was the first serious revolt by indigenous peoples against the Spanish colonial rulers in two centuries. After the unsuccessful siege of Cusco by 17,000 troops loyal to Spain under the command of General José Antonio de Valle and the Spanish General-Visitor José Antonio de Areche , the Spaniards succeeded in capturing Tupaq Amaru II through betrayal by European comrades-in-arms. The Visitor Areche ordered to proceed against the insurgents with extreme severity: Amaru was convicted and quartered in the Plaza de Armas in Cusco , where his alleged ancestor Tupaq Amaru had already been beheaded. This was immediately preceded by the agonizing execution of his eldest son Hipólito Condorcanqui Bastidas, his wife Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua and the military leader Tomasa Tito Condemayta .
The Gran Rebelión 1780–1783
Tupaq Amaru was a Kazike , d. H. the most powerful man in his community based on the pre-colonial model. When the Spaniards wanted to finally break up the old ruling structures, he threatened to lose the title and thus the demotion from a cacique to a simple Indian. Tupaq Amaru tried to enforce his right to the title, but was unsuccessful. His involvement in the rebellion was by no means unselfish: He tried to maintain his status as a cacique. He was also indebted to the local corregidor , a kind of administrative officer of the Spanish crown. When he hanged the corregidor Arriaga in November 1780 to get rid of his debts, this sparked the start of the rebellion.
The main causes of the uprising were:
- The introduction of the reparto in 1756: The Indians were forced to buy goods from their corregidor . This should spur trade and lead to the fact that payment with money slowly gained ground over barter. The corregidores , however, were able to set the prices for the goods themselves, which in turn led to the exploitation of the population. Thus, the population was under enormous pressure, as they were also obliged to pay tribute .
- The Bourbon reforms of 1777: Mestizos were excluded from tribute and mita , unpaid forced labor in mines or for public works. As a result of the Bourbon reforms, a new census was to be carried out, in the framework of which mestizos were to reassess their ethnic status. It was to be feared that numerous mestizos would thereby be registered as Indians, which would have entailed their obligation to pay tribute and the Mita . These facts explain the participation of parts of the mestizo population in the rebellion. Furthermore, the colonial society was affected by the increase in the Alcabala , a tax, from 2% to 4% and then to 6%: the tax increase resulted in a large loss of profits. Increasingly, Spaniards from the motherland also replaced Creole officials born in the country .
- The division of Peru into two viceroyalty: In the course of the reforms, the viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was separated from Peru, with the result that the traditional trade routes were cut off. This increased the pressure on the traders, as they had to look for new markets or have to accept the payment of customs duties.
The rebellion itself can be divided into two phases: In the first phase, Condorcanqui was the leader. In the base the rebellion was indigenous, but Túpac Amaru II tried very hard to integrate other social groups of the colonial society and ultimately moved within their logic. He was supported by numerous mestizos and occasionally had Creoles and parts of the clergy at his side. The hierarchy of the rebellion clearly reflected that of colonial society: almost all of the leaders were Creoles or mestizos, only a few Indians; Blacks were completely excluded from leading participation. With this one can classify the uprising between an Indian uprising and a conflict between colony and metropolis.
In the second phase, Tupaq Katari took command after his death. Tupaq Katari had a more radical policy, which was directed against all whites, so that the mestizos and Creoles withdrew.
In general, it can be said that the Tupaq Amarus rebellion was characterized by the network of kinship, which guaranteed mutual support and loyalty. It was not the first rebellion against the Spanish colonial rulers. The rebellion under Juan Santos Atahualpa (approx. 1742–1750) lasted much longer, but did not have the same impact as the Tupaq Amarus. The advantage of the latter was that it took place in the southern Andes, where the silver mines were and which was strategically important for trade. This could seriously damage the colonial economy. One reason for the failure of the rebellions is to be seen in the fact that there was rivalry between the caciks. These conflicts between the tribal rulers already existed in pre-colonial times and then continued. The caciques split into the rebellious camp and the camp loyal to the crown. The failure to work together in the interests of the Indians ultimately led to the failure of the rebellions.
- The popular legend in Peru tells of the two Tupaq Amaru that their quartered bodies grew together again under the earth. Their return as Inkarrí (Inca kings) is expected at the turn of the mythical Pachakuti .
- During the Peruvian military regime (1968–1980) Tupaq Amaru was chosen by the junta as a symbol of the ideals of the revolution.
- The Tupamaros , a left underground movement in Uruguay from 1969, named themselves after Tupaq Amaru II. This group became the most important role model for the German Red Army faction .
- In the 1990s, the rapper 2Pac aka Tupac Shakur, who was named after Tupaq Amaru II, achieved great fame, which only increased after his murder.
Spelling and speaking of the name
- Spelling also: Tupaj or Túpac Amaru.
- Spoken language: Túpach Amáru ( Quechua for "sublime serpent" ); Condorcanqui, also: Kunturkanki (Quechua for "you are a condor " )
- Alfred Antkowiak: Tupac Amaru or The Last Rebellion of the Inca. The memoirs of the secret writer Mercurio Klugmans (historical novel), Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle, 1976
- Ralf Höller: José Gabriel Condorcanqui (Túpac Amaru). Myth of a recurring uprising. Same in: I am the fight. Rebels and revolutionaries from six centuries. Page 89 ff., Structure of TB Verlag, Berlin 2001.
- Charles F. Walker: The Tupac Amaru Rebellion. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-674-05825-5 (print); ISBN 978-0-674-41637-6 (eBook)
- Walter, Charles F .: The Tupac Amaru Rebellion, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 2014, p. 18
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from March 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
|SURNAME||Condorcanqui, José Gabriel|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Túpac Amaru II.|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Leader of the Indian uprising in Peru in 1780/81|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 19, 1738|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Tinta|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 18, 1781|
|Place of death||Cusco , today Peru|