from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orphan , James Tissot 1879

As an orphan (the German and Dutch language area limited word mhd . Instance , ahd . Weiso to wisan , avoid, leave ', always in the feminine ) or orphan one is a child called that one or both parents lost. A distinction is made between full orphans (where both parents have died) and half-orphans (where one parent has died). This child is only called an orphan if the loss of the parents took place in childhood or adolescence .

If a person loses their parents in adulthood, one no longer speaks of an orphan. Conversely, parents who have lost a child are referred to as orphaned parents . Reasons that can lead to the orphanage of children include: a. Wars , disasters , accidents , terrorism or epidemics .

If there are no relatives of full orphans who (cannot) take care of the upbringing of the children, there are various other childcare options in Germany . In consultation with the youth welfare office , the children are either housed with a foster family , in a children's home (previously: orphanage or infant home ) or with young people in supervised youth homes (sometimes called youth homes ). In the will , the parents can determine whom a child should come to in the event of their early death. To do this, they appoint a guardian who is supposed to take on parental responsibility . The guardianship court is bound by the decision of the parents as long as it serves the best interests of the child .

There is no globally binding and uniform regulation or definition on the subject of orphans. Legal or denominational regulations may differ from one another in the individual nation states.

For example, when it comes to immigration in the United States, the Immigration and Citizenship Act defines an orphan by several criteria. According to this, a child can become an orphan through death, disappearance, failure to take parental care, separation or loss of both parents. Furthermore, a child is regarded as an orphan as long as the mother is unmarried and the biological father has not legitimized it. The child of one surviving parent can also be an orphan if the surviving parent has remained unmarried since the death of the other parent.

In the Ukraine , the term orphan u. a. "To children whose parents have died or whose parents have been deprived of parental care, or who are serving a prison sentence in prisons or have been missing, or who have been declared physically or mentally incapable of perception by competent bodies ."

In Islamic law, Sharia , minors who have lost their father are considered orphans, yatîm . The loss of the mother does not establish orphan status. The background is the patriarchal family concept in Islam. Foundling children , allaqît , or children born out of wedlock are also given orphan status .

UNICEF and numerous international organizations (e.g. UNAIDS ) revised the definition of orphans in the mid-1990s, when the AIDS pandemic led to the death of millions of parents worldwide and more and more children grew up without one or more parents. The terminology single orphan - loss of one parent - and double orphan - loss of both parents - was introduced. Since then, UNICEF and global partners have defined an orphan as a child under the age of 18 who has lost one or both parents to death. According to this definition, there were almost 140 million orphans worldwide in 2015 (according to UNICEF), including 61 million in Asia , 52 million in Africa , 10 million in Latin America and the Caribbean and 7.3 million in Eastern Europe and Central Asia . Children who lost both parents and children with one parent who was still alive were recorded. Of the nearly 140 million children classified as orphans , around 15.1 million have lost both parents. 95% of all orphans are over five years old. This definition is in contrast to the orphan concepts of some industrialized countries, in which a child must have lost both parents in order to be recognized as an orphan.

There is no reliable total number of orphans worldwide. UNICEF cites 163 million children as orphans as a rough guide. Humanium ( NGO ) puts the number of orphans worldwide at 153 million (71 million of them in Asia, 59 million in Africa and around 9 million in Latin America and the Caribbean). Around 1,000 children and young people in Germany are registered as orphans by the German Pension Insurance for the first time every year . According to statistics from the German Pension Insurance, 303,920 people received half or full orphan's pensions in 2018. The average age of the recipients was 17.39 years. In the statutory accident insurance, the number of recipients of orphan's pensions in Germany fell from just under 35,000 in 1985 to around 9,000 in 2017. In Switzerland, the number of recipients of a simple orphan's pension (half orphan's pension) declined from 61,406 to 41,856 between 1980 and 2000. In Russia, the number of orphans registered by the Ministry of Education decreased from 115,600 in 2008 to 47,800 in 2018. At that time, that was the lowest value since the collapse of the Soviet Union .

Some of the best-known providers of children's homes in German-speaking countries are the organization SOS Children's Villages , the German Red Cross , Diakonie , Pro Juventute and many other independent public youth welfare organizations.

The term orphan experiences numerous linguistic adaptations in everyday life : Euro orphans , EU orphans , orphans of medicine (see Orphan Medicines , Rare Diseases or Orphanet ), Orphan Planet , Therapeutic Orphans , Orphans of Research , Seh orphans , Orphaned Works or Orphans for Divorce .


Upper part of the stele with the Codex Hammurapi - Ḫammurapi before Šamaš
BD Weighing of the Heart - Tefnut


There are early testimonials on the subject of orphans. a. in the ancient Orient as well as in ancient Egypt . In the value system of the Sumerians and Akkadians , their king was responsible for the cult in the temples as well as for maintaining the moral order among the people. The legal collection Codex of the Ur-Nammu (2111 - 2094 BC) from the III. Dynasty of Ur . In the final part of the prologue it says u. a .:

"I by no means hand over the orphans to the rich ..."

In Codex Hammurapi , early 18th century BC Chr., Hammurapi recognizes the special need for protection of the orphans against the stronger. He sees himself as their protector and tries to formulate an equality before the law.

In the ancient Orient, the protection of orphans was a theologically justified social law concern even in prebiblical times. A large number of Egyptian and Mesopotamian texts from the third and second millennia BC BC make it clear that orphans were seen as particularly helpless and needy. In a Sumerian hymn discovered in 1951, the goddess Nasche von Lagasch is invoked with the following words:

“She who knows the orphan, who knows the widow, who knows the oppression of man by man, who is the mother of the orphan. Nansche, who takes care of the widow ... The queen takes the refugee in her lap, gives protection to the weak. "

In the patriarchal old Orient , an orphan who had lost his father was socially, economically, legally and religiously disadvantaged. They were most at risk of exploitation because they had no legal protection or economic security.

The ancient Egyptian goddess Tefnut (also Tefnet ; further nicknames: "Nubian cat", "truth") belongs in ancient Egypt to the nine creator deities of the Heliopolitan cosmogony ( Enneade of Heliopolis ). It symbolized the fire. In the pyramid texts , the epithet The Truth is used for Tefnut in connection with the ascension of the sky from the King ( Pharaoh ) next to her name The Orphan .

In the Jewish Bible the term “orphan” (Hebrew יָתוֹם jatôm) means the fatherless child (Ex 22.23; Hi 24.9) or the child without parents. The Septuagint translates the Hebrew word as ὀρφανός orphanos . The difficult social situation of orphans is admonished. --Job 29:12. In 2008, Israeli archaeologists found the oldest Hebrew inscription on a 3,000-year-old pottery shard from the time of King David . The words contained in the inscription are specifically Hebrew and are reminiscent of passages from the Old Testament . It contains information on how to treat the poor, slaves, strangers, widows and orphans with respect.


Due to the earlier occurrence of widowhood and the fact that in the absence of systematic contraception, women in antiquity gave birth well beyond the age of 30, widows in Rome still had to look after underage children in very many cases; around 35-45 percent of children are likely to have lost their father before they were 14 years old. According to Roman law , these children were pupils (boys under 14 and girls under 12 years of age) that required the assistance of a guardian ( tutor ) for the legally valid execution of legal transactions .

The School of Athens (detail with Plato ) by Raphael 1510/1511

In the patriarchal society of Rome, the widows who had to care for underage children were threatened with impoverishment and often in debt. The widows felt compelled to sell their children into slavery and to bring their daughters to prostitution. Many orphans had to go to work at a young age, orphan girls could not find a husband at all due to the lack of dowry or married below their social class. A large proportion of the beggars in the ancient cities were recruited from orphans. Caring for orphans was already involved in the 3rd century BC. The philosopher Plato , who himself became a half-orphan due to the early death of his father. In his Athens Laws (Nomoi, Eleventh Book, 926ff.) He formulated that orphans are to be given protection and care. Similar approaches can also be found in the Halacha , the Jewish legislation.

The protection and care of orphans of fallen warriors in Greece and the Roman Empire was already partly the responsibility of the state. Emperor Trajan and other emperors took care of the orphans by setting up their own foundations . In the 2nd century. AD. Founded the Emperor Antoninus Pius in honor of his deceased wife Faustina a device and Foundation for alimentation and recording of abandoned girls puellae Faustinianae .

In late antiquity , the spread of Christianity led to a sensitization for the social problems of orphans, who received the special protection of the church. The Greek Old Testament translates the Hebrew word יָתוֹם jatôm as ὀρφανός orphanos. Nowhere in the Old Testament is a specific individual named as an orphan. Despite various charitable efforts, the orphans' supply problem has lost none of its explosiveness. At that time the church did not succeed in creating a network of charitable institutions with which it could have mastered this poverty. Individual alms were meant to alleviate the need in individual cases, but were unable to remove the causes. The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) ordered the establishment of hospitals for the poor in Christian communities, some of which developed into children's asylums. The first institutions can be found around 330 AD in Constantinople or in Basilias, not far from Caesarea , which was founded by Bishop Basilius in 369 AD. In an edict in the 5th century, the emperors Flavius ​​Honorius and Theodosius II ordered that abandoned children should be reported to the church and raised in foster families for a fee.

In ancient China , the half- orphan Confucius , who lost his father in early childhood, developed his teachings on human order during the time of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty , which he believes can be achieved through respect for other people and ancestor worship . The ideal was Confucius, the “noble one”, a morally good person when he is in harmony with the world as a whole. He was the namesake for the teachings known as Confucianism .

middle Ages

A need for special care to be given to the orphans arises for Muslims from the Koran and from history. Mohammed , founder of the religion of Islam , prophet and messenger of God was orphaned at an early age as a child. Many followers of Mohammed died in the Battle of Uhud in 625, leaving their families behind.

In the Christian countries of Europe the orphans were dependent on the mercy of individuals or public welfare and were already placed under the special protection of the royal messengers by the Carolingian capitularies . Orphans were either taken in by relatives, given to a hospital or foundling house , mostly church-sponsored, and cared for there. From the 8th century, there was evidence of public welfare, initially in Italy and later in Western and Central Europe. The first foundling house was set up at the instigation of the Archbishop of Milan , Datheus 787. Foundling homes were more widespread as social institutions in central, northern and western Europe, albeit not to the same extent as in the Romanic countries and often not until the 16th century.

Charlemagne , who saw himself as the protector and defender of orphans, obliged the landlords in his empire. The foster parents employed wet nurses for orphaned infants . Half-orphans grew up with the stepfather or stepmother after the remaining parent remarried. Stepparents were often portrayed as evil and cold-hearted in later folk tales and in saints' lives. According to the Sachsenspiegel , orphans were under the guardianship of the oldest relative on the father's side, the oldest sword stomach, until they came of age, at the age of 21 . Furthermore, it was expected at this time that the knight should not only be a fighter and warrior, but also protector of widows and orphans. During the Crusades , orders of knights (e.g. Johanniter and German Knight Order ) and non-judicial religious orders (e.g. Antoniter ) were founded, which took care of orphans in hospitals. In 1194, Pope Innocent III decreed . that at the Ospedale di Santo Spirito in Rome a rotating drawer (baby hatch) is to be set up for the delivery of babies.

From the early Middle Ages to modern times , children and adolescents, u. a. in the Holy Roman Empire , orphaned when parents (often the father) were ostracized by a secular judgment .

Since the second half of the 12th century, the guilds in Germany also supported their members for the first time in emergencies such as invalidity or in the event of death their widows and orphans. Master craftsmen trained penniless orphans at a reduced rate or free of charge. Some guilds set up reserves from which children of deceased members received support during their apprenticeship. In the following centuries, more and more professional groups (e.g. in mining, the Büchsenkasse and later the Knappschaftskasse ) ran pension funds, u. a. to support the bereaved children of their professional colleagues. Since the 15th century , the Guilds of St. Luke developed, especially in the Lower Rhine and in the Netherlands , which provided a certain social security and took over the guardianship of orphans of deceased members.

In China, as in Europe, care for orphans was often provided by religiously run institutions. The rebel leader of the Red Turbans and later founder of the Ming Dynasty Hongwu was forced to enter a Buddhist monastery in 1344 in order not to starve to death as an orphan . Here he learned to read and write and came into contact with higher education for the first time. In Korea, orphans were kept as slaves by adoptive families. On the other hand, there was support and care for orphans and the like. a. through royal protection with the creation of a facility for infants and young children, haeadogam , or through admission to Buddhist monasteries.

Jurriaen Pool, self-portrait 1688, traditional orphan clothing - red jacket, blue sleeves

Modern times to the 18th century

Cases of torture and executions of orphans in the context of witch hunts have been documented in Central Europe since modern times . They were u. a. accused of being in league with the devil.

In the Netherlands and in some German states it was often customary for orphans, like beggars, prostitutes and Jews, to wear certain colors and badges on their clothes. The badges often referred to the donors of the orphanages and poor houses such as B. the CL for the Electress Luise Henriette .

For the regulation of the interests of orphans in southern Germany and Switzerland, head of an office for orphans, orphan bailiff, has been occupied since the 16th century. Up until the early modern period, orphans in Switzerland were considered worthy needy people and received help, while the unworthy poor were left to fate. Due to the high mortality rate, many children of underage age lost one or both parents. Full orphans and fatherless half-orphans were placed under the care of a bailiff, usually this was the closest relative on the paternal side. One of his tasks was primarily to protect the property interests of the orphaned child, the so-called "Vogtkind". The Vogt had to give a written account of his actions in the “Vogtkinderrechnungsbuch” or “Vogteibuch”.

In Italy there were various institutions from the 16th to the 18th century where orphans etc. a. Received music lessons, the most famous of which were the ospedali of Venice and the so-called conservatori of Naples . Antonio Vivaldi wrote many of his works for the female orphans and foundlings of the Ospedale della Pietà .

Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale before 1927 - women who came to Quebec in 1667 to be married to the French-Canadian farmers.

The French Sun King, Louis XIV. , Herself an orphan, promoted through targeted patronage in its North American colonies of New France in the second half of the 17th century in the area around the Saint Lawrence River and in the first half of the 18th century in Louisiana by the settlement of young women and the colonization of these areas. Many of these women were orphans. The aim was to use the king's daughters and girls with a cassette , as they were also called, to stimulate population growth.

After the Thirty Years' War , more orphanages were founded in Europe. They should be responsible for a whole range of social problem areas at the same time. The “ Armen-, Waysen-, Zucht- und Werkhaus ” established in Braunschweig in 1677 makes its intentions clear in its name. Similar institutions were founded in Frankfurt in 1679, in Bamberg in 1702, in Waldheim in 1716 and in Ludwigsburg in 1736. The Große Friedrichshospital , founded in Berlin in 1702, was primarily a place of accommodation for orphans, beggars, invalids, the mentally disturbed, lepers and only a subordinate hospital.

On the other hand, the financial needs of the rulers in Europe changed during the period of absolutism . The expansion of manufactories , trade and commerce expanded. Cheap labor was sought in large numbers. One attacked in many countries u. a. happy to return to orphans. The new form of child labor is an essential part of the mercantilist labor policy of the time. The manufactory owners had the opportunity and the legitimation to produce cheaply through child labor. For the state and its communities, this development offered a desirable opportunity to relieve their welfare obligations. This early capitalist development was actively supported by the rulers, the church and the educators. Maria Theresa shared the expectation that the children would get used to work early, especially the soldiers 'and orphans' children in state care. The promotion of the economy was always in the foreground of "industrial education". New orphanages were built near factories and operated by their owners.

Workhouses and homes developed in the Catholic countries of Europe in the 18th century . In addition to family-bound children from poor backgrounds, explicitly neglected children, foundlings and orphans should be educated to work. In truth, the children were kept busy and imparting knowledge and skills was ok. d. Usually limited to the directly related activity. They often worked from 5:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. or 9:00 p.m. in the evening. The guards punished any "wrongdoing" with severe flogging .

Industrial schools and rescue institutions were set up in the Lutheran parts of Germany . The sovereigns, such as B. Frederick the Great made orphans available to the manufacturers as well as additional funds . The “father duty” and the “father power” for the orphans were often taken over by the manufacturer. Until they came of age , the children were often defenselessly exposed to exploitation . Few educators criticized the strong focus on industrial manufacturing and economic gain. In these institutions, children and young people from poverty should actually find support, combined with training. One of the first German institutions of this kind was the Düsseltal rescue center for orphans . This institution for orphans was financed by real Cologne water , which, however, was produced on the Düssel in Düsseldorf. Rosebuds and the saying For God and the orphans adorned the labels of the scented water bottles from Düsseltal .

In some orphanages great importance was attached to the education of the boys so that they could later make a living as craftsmen. The girls were generally worse off - a classic orphan biography led to an existence as a maid . In Switzerland, orphans from the 18th century onwards were offered for sale and auctioned off to those interested in contracting children . The family that demanded the least amount of food received the encouragement. Those affected describe that they were "scanned like cattle" in such markets. In other communities they were allotted to wealthier families by drawing lots. Released families were forced to take in such children, even if they actually didn't want any. They were mostly used on farms like serfs for forced labor, mostly without wages or pocket money. According to eyewitness reports from contract children, they were often humiliated or even raped. Some were killed in the process.

During this time, orphan boys were often used as powder monkeys in the gun decks in sailing ships , mainly on war and privateers .

With the emergence of the Enlightenment , Freemasonry continued to develop in Europe. The Freemasons, mostly organized in lodges in the cities , collected for widows and orphans of deceased brothers, founded widows 'and orphans' pension associations or supported others. a. Orphanages. On the part of the state, orphan offices (also called pupil offices in some places ) have been held in German-speaking countries since the 18th century , which supervised the orphans and their assets.

Since the second half of the 18th century, schools for the poor and orphans have been attended in Protestant Germany. Orphans and children from poor families received free lessons in reading, writing, arithmetic and religion.

19th century

Towards the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the philanthropists led the famous orphanage dispute in Central Europe . They denounced the abuses prevailing in the institutions and campaigned for the care of the orphans' families. The criticism of the institutions became so loud that they were closed in many places. The orphans were placed with families who mostly only saw the “work value of the child”. If the child did not perform well, they were brought back and in some cases had to be brought back from the family. Since the accommodation in the families was not ideal, the "orphanage dispute" continued. The strict family principle led to new grievances, so that a reform of the institutions was sought, for which JH Pestalozzi made a particular contribution . The call for better orphanages grew louder and many changes were discussed. For example, there was talk of adequate nutrition, and every orphan should have their own bed. The working hours should be reduced to 3 or 4 hours. Furthermore, there should be gymnastics for the children every day to promote health. Later in Germany, both Lutheran and Catholic areas, further rescue houses with socio-educational approaches were founded, e.g. B. The Rauhe Haus in Hamburg. Orphans, criminal and neglected children were offered shelter as well as schooling and training in crafts. The overarching credo of the rescue centers is differentiated structuring “targeted education measures” in order to correct the consequences of poverty.

In some European countries orphan colonies were founded in the countryside. Orphans, also from the cities, were among others. a. housed in foster families.

Colonial powers such as France and Great Britain attempted to address the “women's question” in their colonies by transferring the girls who had outgrown the orphanages. B. South Africa or Canada to solve. Those girls who were simply and religiously educated and educated in housekeeping had made "excellent wives". Germany tried in its colonies to win orphans as low-wage assistants for business people and tradespeople. The young people destined for German South West Africa were only to be accommodated with those colonists who appeared trustworthy and who left nothing to be desired in “the moral and professional training” of their wards. Priority was given to the youths and girls to be released from orphanages, under no circumstances those from reformatory institutions and so-called rescue houses.

Orphan train

In the USA, mail was carried from Missouri to Sacramento in California on the Pony Express and its mail riders in the early 1860s . The work was mainly done by young, unattached men, preferably orphans who were not older than 18 years. One of the most famous among them was Buffalo Bill .

From the second half of the 19th century until the 1920s, more than 250,000 orphans in the USA were sent on what are known as orphan trains from the big cities of the East to farm families in the Midwest . The idea for this came from the theologian Charles Loring Brace (1826–1890) , who lives in New York . The children should find a new home in the country. Instead of love and affection, they often encountered cool calculation and self-interest. Many of them have been exploited, ill-treated or neglected as cheap labor. The orphan trains became a symbol of misery and not of liberation for a better life. Some of them, such as John Green Brady or Andrew H. Burke , made their way up as governors of Alaska or North Dakota .

20th century to the present

Lenin circa 1887


The First World War led to many war orphans , especially in the countries involved in the war , through the deaths of around 9,500,000 soldiers. As a result of the war, for example, in a number of countries. B. neglect , disease or arbitrariness to the rise of orphaned children. From 1915 to 1917, Jakob Künzler was an eyewitness to the genocide of the Armenians , about which he wrote his book in 1921 entitled In the Land of Blood and Tears . At risk of death, he helped thousands of Armenian orphans and continued to run the hospital in Urfa . In 1922 he and his wife organized the departure of around 8,000 Armenian orphans to the French mandate Syria, which included Lebanon.

At the end of World War I , the Spanish flu led to the orphaning of many children around the world. The pandemic, which was caused by an unusually virulent derivative of the influenza virus ( subtype A / H1N1 ), claimed at least 25 million deaths between 1918 and 1920 and, according to a report by the journal Bulletin of the History of Medicine from spring 2002, even almost 50 million deaths. A special feature of the Spanish flu was that it was mainly people between the ages of 20 and 40 who succumbed to it. Children and the elderly did not belong to the risk group.

In Germany, in order to secure the existence of former soldiers (approx. 2.7 million with permanent damage), 600,000 widows and 1.2 million orphans after World War I, the Reichsheimstättengesetz of May 10, 1920 was introduced. The law took effect a. based on the Homestead Act in the United States and was repealed in 1993.

In Russia, especially after the October Revolution and the civil war that followed, a wave of neglected children developed. 7,000,000 orphans wandered through Russia in 1922 fleeing civil war and famine. These "Besprisornyje" ("neglected") evoked compassion among Western intellectuals. Nadeschda Krupskaja , Lenin's partner , who himself became a half-orphan at the age of 15, dared to criticize the system. The roots of homelessness can very well be found in the present. Felix Dzerzhinsky , founder of the Soviet secret police, had homeless children hunted in the woods like partisans , others locked in children's houses or work colonies. To the new political leadership they appeared to be very well suited for the construction of the Soviet Union .

When General Francisco Franco's victory became apparent in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939 , many Republican families took their children abroad for fear of the fascists' revenge. The international Red Cross organized the children's departure. Most of them were brought to safety by ship via Genoa. Around 3,500 children came to the Soviet Union, more than 30,000 to France, Great Britain, Sweden and the Spanish-speaking countries of Central and South America. After the end of the civil war in 1939, tens of thousands of people were executed. Not all of the Spanish children who were brought to safety returned from abroad. Many have found a new home in Russia or in Central and South America.

Arrival of a transport of Polish children in the Port of London in 1939

The establishment of Nazi rule in Germany had thematic effects in the following years, first in their own country, then in Europe and worldwide. So z. For example, when reports about the Reichskristallnacht in Germany in 1938 reached abroad, the British government decided to allow persecuted Jewish children to enter the country. On November 30, 1938, the first train with 196 children left Berlin for London. Between December 1938 and September 1939 around 10,000 Jewish children up to the age of 17 from Germany, Austria, Poland and Czechoslovakia were rescued to Great Britain. They had to leave their parents behind. The highlight of the campaign were two to three Kindertransport trains per week. Blonde, trusting and intelligent girls between the ages of 7 and 10 were particularly easy to refer to foster parents; they were considered unproblematic foster children. Boys from the age of 12, who were particularly at risk in Germany, had little chance of being placed in a foster family and came to English homes. The selection by the foster parents in England was often perceived by the children as a “cattle market”. Immediately after arrival or in the dining room of the arrival camp, possible foster parents sought out “suitable” children. The "leftover children" were placed in various homes across the UK. Some children were used as cheap servants and nannies in the new family. Some foster parents gave the children new English first names and forced them to live according to Christian traditions. Other foster parents encouraged the children to go to the synagogue and celebrate Jewish festivals, they sponsored the foster children, looked after them and gave them gifts.

With the outbreak of World War II , the situation of refugee children in Great Britain worsened. Many were given to refugee camps by the foster families or suspected of being German spies. Yet almost 10,000 children found protection in Great Britain. Around 8,000 other children were placed in foster families or homes in the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Sweden. The official end of the Kindertransport was on September 1, 1939, when the Second World War broke out with the German attack on Poland under its leader and Chancellor Adolf Hitler . The last known Kindertransport was carried out by the Dutch freighter SS Bodegraven , which with 80 children on board crossed the canal from IJmuiden under German machine gun fire on May 14, 1940 and finally landed in Liverpool. After the end of the war, the sad certainty came for many. Only one in ten children found their parents again, traces of the parents of over 9,000 Kindertransport children were lost in Auschwitz , Theresienstadt and other extermination camps . The bitter “ irony ” of history - Adolf Hitler himself became a half-orphan at the age of 12 through the death of his father Alois Hitler .

In the 1930s and 1940s which provided Lebensborn homes during the time of the Third Reich a special form of care for orphans. The goal was based on the Nazi racial hygiene and health ideology increasing the birth rate " Aryan bring about" children. This was to be achieved through anonymous deliveries and placement of children for adoption - preferably to families of SS members. In the Nuremberg trials were seen in the Lebensborn homes of Nazis a purely social network for orphans and illegitimate children. On November 5, 1943, Hitler issued instructions that war orphans should no longer be brought up in orphanages, but in home schools, children's homes of the NSV and homes in Lebensborn. It should be ensured that the orphans are raised exclusively in the care of the state (including in Adolf Hitler schools , Napola ) and not by relatives.

"Whatever good blood there is in the world, Germanic blood, we have to get together." ... "

That was SS leader Heinrich Himmler declared in 1942 at a meeting. From the SS organization Lebensborn were u. a. in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Norway and the Soviet Union, “racially valuable” children stolen from their families of origin with the aim of “Germanizing” them. To this day, many victims do not know where they come from or who their real parents are. As children, they were given a new identity. How many children were abducted by the SS is difficult to determine because most of the documents were destroyed towards the end of the war and there is currently no sound scientific research. So you go u. a. in Poland it is assumed that there were between 50,000 and 200,000 children.

A number of Jewish Holocaust orphans survived the Shoah because their parents took them to Catholic Church institutions to rescue them during the war. In Poland and France, the Catholic Church took in thousands of children in monasteries, convents or in private families. The lives of the orphans were saved in this way. After the end of the war, many orphans remained unclear about their true identity. With the consent of Pope Pius XII. , especially if the children have been baptized in the meantime , should not be returned to any family members or to Jewish institutions. The children remained in monasteries, institutions or in adoptive families and were raised Catholic. They were given a new name and a Christian identity. Many of them later became Catholic priests, monks or nuns. The exact number of those affected was not known. During the visit of Pope Benedict XVI. in Israel in 2009, Jewish organizations tried to persuade the Vatican to clarify the fate of missing Holocaust orphans. Even 70 years later, the scientific work-up was still ongoing and little known.

When the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan on August 6th and 9th, 1945 and subsequently, thousands of children lost their parents and became orphans. These children were later called atomic orphans . At the end of the Second World War there were around 20 million orphans and orphans worldwide due to the war.


Between 1944 and 1959, the government of Maurice Duplessis in the province of Quebec in Canada separated thousands of children, often born out of wedlock, from their parents and placed them in the care of church and state orphanages. It was important to hide these children as “social missteps”. The homes were largely funded by the provincial government. There they were used as cheap labor, sexually abused or physically abused for many years. Some of them were declared insane and deported to mental hospitals, or the homes themselves were turned into mental hospitals and the orphans in them were declared mentally ill. This was due to the higher rate of care paid by the government for mentally disabled children. They were used as guinea pigs for drugs - sometimes with fatal results.

From 1948 onwards, thousands of German orphans, including many war orphans, were placed in South Africa via a South African adoption company. A child psychologist left for Germany in the same year and selected the first 83, other sources report 87 children from orphanages. Hundreds of Boer families, as well as the Prime Minister Daniel François Malan, applied for the children. Behind this initiative was a private adoption company founded by right-wing Boers. Your selection criterion was the so-called "breed". The "Aryan blood" was supposed to help the Boer minority in South Africa to "stay white in a black country". "Isolate the children, separate the siblings from each other and cut them off from their past", that was the motto of the Dietse Children's Fund , which carried out the collective adoption under church guarantee. The children were adopted by selected Boer families. The minors did not know the real aim of the program.

In 1950, Mother Teresa , who became a half-orphan at the age of 8 through the death of her father, founded the Missionaries of Charity on the Indian subcontinent in Calcutta . The religious community cares for the dying, orphans, homeless and sick. For her services she received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and was beatified under Pope John Paul II . In the Catholic Church she is venerated as a saint . Today the religious community she founded is active in 133 countries.

Australian Flag at Antilyas Orphanage

For at least 150,000 British children who were shipped to ex-colonies such as Australia or Canada between the 1920s and 1960s , the journey turned out to be a nightmare. The British authorities wanted to get rid of an expensive burden. Some of the children came from orphanages and youth homes, and more often from poor or broken families. The parents were led to believe that their children would be adopted elsewhere in the country and that they could look forward to a “better life”. The children were told they were going on a great trip or that their parents had died. The reality is that Great Britain led the unsuspecting three to fourteen year old to a cruel fate. Countless children had to toil on farms as unpaid workers, treated draconian by their new "owners". Others were molested in homes. It was not until 1967 that the child emigration program that London had negotiated with the Commonwealth of Nations was ended. Australia in particular wanted to supply itself with “white people”, genetic material from the mother country. A former Archbishop of Perth greeted the children with the words: "Welcome to Australia - we need you to preserve the white race."

During the Korean War (1950–1953), hundreds of thousands of children and adolescents were orphaned through fighting, massacres , kidnapping of adult men and women or fleeing. After the war there were also a comparatively high number of orphans from connections between American soldiers and Korean women on the Korean peninsula . Since the end of the war, more than 150,000 Korean children have been officially adopted abroad; the number of unofficially adopted children is not documented, according to various sources it is assumed to be more than 50,000. Long after the war, thousands of children were taken abroad and adopted every year. Unmarried and unmarried mothers escaped social exclusion by giving up their children for adoption, while others saw themselves forced to separate from their children for financial reasons. Agencies took over the placement of the children. Korean adoptions also became a business model.

In the years from 1958 to 1961, an attempt was made in China, initiated by Mao Zedong , to catch up with the country's economic deficit to the western industrialized countries and to significantly shorten the transition period to communism in the Great Leap Forward campaign . In 1961 the campaign was canceled after its apparent failure. Millions of people fell victim to this campaign. Children orphaned across the country, their labor was exploited during the campaign or they were severely abused in the orphanages. In Sichuan Province alone , there were 180,000 to 200,000 orphans among the rural population.

The fate of children left behind by refugees from the GDR republic became the subject of contemporary public history from the 1950s until the Berlin Wall was built in 1961. In addition to complete families, parents also fled to the FRG without their children from the GDR. The children left behind and now orphaned, one of them z. B. the later author Peter Wawerzinek , were accommodated in homes of the youth welfare of the GDR . In a letter from the then Minister of the Interior and Chief of the German People's Police, Friedrich Dickel, to the Chairman of the Council of State Erich Honecker , he spoke in 1964 of 5,400 children under 14 years of age left behind.


From the 1970s onwards, infant homes for orphans under 3 years of age were gradually closed in many places, in Switzerland at the end of the 1960s, in West Germany in the mid-1970s and in East Germany in the early 1990s. The reasons for this included findings from research on babies and toddlers , the publication of film recordings from the homes and public protests. Today you can find this type of facility as a small facility (also known as “baby nest”, 10–15 places) in industrialized countries. In Eastern European countries or in third world countries , the classic infant home or orphanage for orphans of very young children can still be found.

Closing fireworks in Seoul 1988

In the Vietnam War (1955 to 1975), American Air Force General Curtis E. LeMay promised to bomb Vietnam back to the Stone Age . Balance of the war u. a .: 800,000 orphans, a 1,000,000 cripple and 3,000,000 deaths. Large parts of the environment have been destroyed and contaminated. 14,000,000 tons of bombs and grenades fell on Vietnam - three times as many as all countries in World War II.

On April 3, 1975, US President Gerald Ford gave his approval in Operation Baby Lift to fly over 3,000 Vietnamese orphans from besieged Saigon . 2,000 children were flown to the United States and a further 1,300 to Canada, Europe and Australia. There they were adopted by families in the respective countries.

In the GDR, politically motivated forced adoptions led to the orphaning of children. By the mid-1970s at the latest, children whose parents had been classified as “politically unreliable” were given up for forced adoption. The children were withdrawn from the parents who had been arrested while fleeing the republic or had applied for an exit visa . Many only saw their sons and daughters again after the reunification of Germany. How many cases of forced adoptions there have been is still not fully understood.

In Argentina , the robbery of babies and children is one of the greatest crimes that occurred during the Argentine military dictatorship from 1976 to 1983. After their parents were killed, the orphans were raised as spoils of war by people close to the dictatorship. Only about 100 of these children have learned of their true identity to date. Despite all the efforts of relatives and the searching grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo, there is still no trace of another 400 .

The South Korean ruler Park Chung-hee calls in 1975 to cleanse the country of "drifters". Homeless people , dissidents and children are locked away, abused and killed - especially many in the years before the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul. Nationwide there were 36 facilities in all of South Korea in which unwanted people were accommodated. Some homes, u. a. the former orphanage called Brüderheim not far from Busan was more like a forced camp than a home. This home alone housed 4,000 inmates who performed forced labor in 20 factories and who also feared abuse , rape, or death. Ninety percent of them shouldn't even have been there because they didn't fall under the government's definition of “loitering”. The documents show that the number of inmates rose to more than 16,000 in 1986. The AP news agency learned from interviews with victims, witnesses, investigators and from available government documents of hundreds of deaths and rapes for which no one was held responsible two years before the 2018 Olympic Games in South Korea in Pyeongchang .

The one-child policy was introduced in China in 1979 to prevent the country's population from growing too quickly. Unwanted offspring are locked away in “houses of welfare” (around 1,200 orphanages and 74 children's villages). The victims of this policy are abandoned by their parents because they are disabled, disfigured, sick or simply because they were born girls. Many of these foundlings and orphans die of starvation or lack of medical care. In so-called death rooms, they were left to dirty, degenerate and starve in overcrowded, darkened rooms. In 2015, the government officially ended this policy.

In the mid-1980s, two industrial disasters in India ( Bhopal disaster ) and Ukraine ( Chernobyl nuclear disaster ) resulted in thousands of victims and, on a larger scale, in the orphaning of children, a circumstance that will continue years later due to the long-term effects of the disasters.

The fact that the Ministry for State Security (MfS) liked to recruit uprooted people, orphans and children in care as unofficial employees (IM) and work as informers was politically explosive at the time of transition in the GDR and during German reunification in 1989/1990 let. Unmasked were u. a. the chairman of the Democratic Awakening party Wolfgang Schnur and the chairman of the Social Democratic Party in the GDR (SDP) Ibrahim Böhme . On the other hand, the opening of the Berlin Wall, combined with the departure of many citizens to the “West”, resulted in some leaving their children behind in the GDR. Their exact number has not been recorded.

In 1993, there was a historic handshake between the 3 half-orphans US President Bill Clinton , the Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO boss Yasser Arafat before the White House in Washington . It marked the beginning of the “ Oslo Peace Process ” for the public . In the Middle East, a “ two-state solution ” should enable Israel and Palestine to coexist peacefully. Arafat, Rabin and Shimon Peres were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994. The implementation of the agreement has remained an idea to this day.

2001 - present

In the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , planned by the Islamist terror network al-Qaida and carried out with airplane hijackings and crashes , around ten thousand children lost their mother, father or both parents. The irony of the story is that the founder of the Osama bin Laden network became a half-orphan himself after his father's plane crash.

Adoption procedures for orphans are currently regulated very differently in the individual countries or are sometimes subject to an arbitrary application, e.g. B. in Russia. Time and again, the adoptions of orphans by celebrities such as Sandra Bullock , Steven Spielberg and Hugh Jackman cause a stir, for example the adoption of four orphans from Malawi by the singer Madonna , who herself became a half- orphan after the death of her mother at the age of 5.

Time and again, children from orphanages are victims of sexual violence. The Casa Pia abuse scandal in Portugal , which became known in 2002, caused a stir . The largest judicial process in the history of Portugal to date also attracts special attention because of the prominence of the convicted. The victims were minors from the state orphanage Casa Pia in Lisbon .

In the Philippines, the devastating Typhoon Haiyan 2013, in the province of Leyte alone , left thousands of children orphans because their family members were killed. All over the world urgent and fast help was called for the affected children so that they do not fall into the hands of human traffickers .

In 2014, thousands of children in the West African states of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone will be orphaned by the Ebola virus . They are often avoided and left to their own devices for fear of contagion.

In China, orphans of those who were executed are cast out. This means that a child is stigmatized for the crime of their parents and remains outcast for the rest of their life. According to official Chinese sources, there are around 1,110 executions per year. As a result, as many death sentences are carried out in China as in all other countries in the world combined. Once their fathers or mothers have been executed, orphans usually have no one to look after them. After a conviction, the doors of the relatives also close. The perceived shame is too great. Society ignores the children of criminals; they suffer from the mistakes of adults all their lives. Not infrequently they wander around, become criminals themselves , end up on the street as beggars, thieves or day laborers . Quite a few of them die in the middle of the street.

In 2019 it occurred in some European countries, u. a. in Germany, Sweden and France, for public discussions about the admission of IS orphans from Syria. Some grandparents, whose children fell as jihad fighters for the IS, filed a lawsuit in the competent courts and want to have their grandchildren accepted.

Social orphan

Orphans , Thomas Kennington 1885

A social orphan is a child that neither parents nor relatives care for. Social orphanage is a condition caused by failure to perform parental duties towards the minor child. Social orphans lose their parents as a result of various social, economic, moral and psychological causes and become orphans with biological parents who are still alive.

Conceptual classification

Nowadays there are no established definitions and judgments of this category of children. Mass media, psychological and educational work as well as social surveys use the following terms: homeless children, unsupervised children, street children , social orphans, underage risk groups and the like. a.

UNICEF counts the following groups among the social orphans:

  • Children who are out of touch with their families and who live in places of refuge;
  • Children who keep in touch with their families and who live on the streets during the day and at night because of poverty, exploitation and abuse in the family;
  • Children who grew up in homes, who left them for many reasons and who live on the streets.

By raising awareness of the consequences of caring for social orphans in the first years of life (such as psychological hospitalism or deprivation ), attempts were increasingly made from the 1970s (in western countries) to improve the development chances of social orphans by being accepted into foster families or SOS Children's Villages .

In the specialist discourses of pediatrics , social medicine, psychology , social work and education , the effects of social orphanage have received little or no attention since the 1990s.


A dramatic increase in the number of social orphans can be observed in many countries of the former Eastern Bloc, especially after the political change. Overall, UNICEF estimates the number of street children in Ukraine at around 100,000 in 2012 . They are exposed to violence, sexual exploitation and HIV infection without protection. When questioned, many of these adolescents reported that they had to prostitute themselves. Around 100,000 girls and boys live in homes. Most of these children are social orphans. This means that parents leave their children to a home out of need or hopelessness.

AIDS orphan

AIDS orphans in South Africa , photo by Paul Weinberg 2004

As AIDS orphans such children are called, which their parents due to the HIV virus and have lost priority in African countries such as South Africa or Zimbabwe occur. Every year around 70,000 children are orphaned by AIDS. In terms of the total population, the Kingdom of Swaziland had the highest percentage of AIDS infected people in the world in 2014 at 27.7%. In 2008, 120,000 children were AIDS orphans in the kingdom, around 10% of the total population.

In 2004 the number of AIDS orphans worldwide rose to 15 million. Many more children and adolescents live with sick or dying parents, are excluded and are in turn more susceptible to infections with the AIDS virus, according to the United Nations report presented at the World AIDS Conference in Bangkok: "Children on the edge of the abyss".

The number of AIDS orphans in Africa continues to rise - even in countries where immunodeficiency is now successfully combated. By 2010, 15.7 million people on the continent are expected to have lost their mother, father or both parents. Often the children have to look after their sick parents alone until they die. Globally, Asia is home to most of the AIDS orphans, although the number of known cases has been falling since 1990, followed by Africa and Latin America.

War orphan

Woman with orphan boy , Berlin 1945

A child, a soldier who died in the war, is called a war orphan. In the broader sense and context, children who have lost one or both parents to acts of war are also regarded as war orphans.


After the Second World War, tens of thousands of children were traveling alone - they were traumatized, starved and often seriously ill. Many of these war orphans arrived in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, an important transit point for refugees from the eastern regions . In 1945 alone, 30,000 orphaned refugee and displaced children were registered there. The flow of war orphans did not end in the years after the war: On a single day in May 1947, 3,000 children from East Prussia arrived in Pasewalk in Western Pomerania .

Thousands of German war orphans were traveling between East Prussia and the Baltic States after the Second World War . Many who later lived as adults in Poland , Lithuania , Latvia or Estonia assumed a false identity - they were given the name Wolf Children .

Surviving Jewish orphans from the concentration camps were a. gathered by Zionist organizations in kibbutzim and prepared for their future in Israel. Many of their youngsters tried to gain a foothold in traditional immigration countries such as the USA, Australia or Canada. So u took a. Canada has over 1,000 Jewish orphans.

At the end of the Second World War there were around 500,000 war orphans and around 20 million half-orphans in Germany alone. Most of them had to live without a father.


Together founded Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham Tiffany along with Josefine Stross the Hampstead Nurseries , a home in which they managed war children and war orphans. In 1945 Anna Freud brought a small group of children from Theresienstadt to London. They were under their supervision ( supervision provided) and cared for. Some children's memoirs have been published with their permission. Anna Freud herself wrote an article about her, which was published in 1951 in the magazine she founded.


Since the outbreak of the civil war in Syria in early 2011, there have been more than one million refugee children, according to the UN Children's Fund UNICEF. Many of the refugee children have been orphaned and traumatized as they witnessed family members being killed. According to this information, they are also victims of sexual violence, torture and arbitrary detention and are often recruited as child soldiers.


In the Indochina War , around 35,000 Germans, mostly (half) orphans from the World War or former members of the Wehrmacht or SS , fought as foreign legionaries on the side of the French. This corresponds to about two thirds of all foreign legionnaires deployed. For some former contract children and orphans from Switzerland, service in the French Foreign Legion was an option to escape the oppressive society and the wounds and scars inflicted in childhood.

Orphan among indigenous tribes or peoples

An Aché in the hunt

Among the Aché , an indigenous group that lives in eastern Paraguay and because of their way of life belongs to the hunters and gatherers , homicides between the different groups within the people and also within their families are not uncommon. If a member of the respective group is accused, he will be killed. Children and babies are also killed in the process. It is a custom to kill children whose parents have died so that there are no orphans.

The Zuruahã live as a people in the Amazon region in Brazil . They gained notoriety through the widespread tendency to commit suicide through the use of the drugs Kumady or Cunahá. As a result, the Indians become widows, widowers or orphans at an early age. Suicide is a natural part of their culture, although they don't have a word for it in their language.

The changes caused by colonization and climate change led to the Inuit culture change in Greenland . That has u. a. Effects on the current social life in families and communities and leads in part to the uprooting of children. In the northernmost children's home in the world, on the island of Uummannaq , orphaned and abused Inuit children are supposed to learn to forget traumatic experiences from childhood and to gain courage to start a new life with the help of educational approaches, untouched nature and by returning to old traditions build up.

In Australia, in all states except Victoria , Aboriginal children were often stolen from Aboriginal people until 1972 to be orphaned away from their culture in correctional homes or in private households of white people. It was only after Gough Whitlams was elected Prime Minister that this practice, now known as the stolen generations , ended.

Experiments with orphans

Language experiments


Herodotus reports in an anecdote that until the reign of Pharaoh Psammetichos the Egyptians considered themselves the first of all men. When Psammetichos became Pharaoh and wanted to know which were the first, they believed that the Phrygians were older than them, that they were older than all the others. When the Pharaoh could not solve the question of who the first humans were despite all his research, he had two newborn children given to a shepherd. The shepherd should raise the children and his flock so that no one is allowed to speak in the presence of the children. The children should live all by themselves in a lonely hut. At certain times the shepherd should lead his goats there and give the children enough milk, then go about his other business. Psammetichos tried to find out what word the children would say first when the time for babbling was over. His orders were strictly carried out. After the shepherd had provided for the children in this way for two years, when he opened the door one day and walked in, they both rushed over to him and muttered the word Bekos , holding up their hands for him. When the children repeated this more often when he came to them, he informed Pharaoh and, on orders, brought the children to him. Psammetichos also heard the word and inquired into which language the name Bekos occurred. Then he found that this was what the Phrygians called bread; The Egyptians inferred from this story and admitted that the Phrygians were older than themselves. Herodotus added that he heard this incident from the priests of Hephaestus in Memphis (Egypt) and that the Greeks embellished this story with many foolish additions.

middle Ages

In the 13th century the chronicler Salimbene of Parma stated in his Chronica about the question of the emperor Frederick II, who was orphaned at an early age : In what language would children begin to express themselves who had never heard a word speak before? His keen interest is said to have prompted Friedrich II to conduct a strange experiment. He would have given the nurses and wet nurses a number of orphaned newborns for rearing with the task of breastfeeding them, cleaning them, bathing them, etc. - with the strictest prohibition against caressing them and speaking to or in front of them . It was done according to the emperor's will; his burning curiosity found no satisfaction, for all children died at the earliest age. There is no evidence or other sources for this anecdote in historiography. Personal animosities of the Salimbene as well as the clerical power struggle against the emperor may have played a role in the representation.

20th century

The Monster Study was an experiment conducted on 22 orphans in Davenport , Iowa , in 1939 . It was carried out under the direction of Wendell Johnson, American psychologist, at the university there. Half of the children received positive speech therapy in which language skills were praised, the other half received negative speech therapy, which belittled the children because of language deficits. Many of the normal-language orphans who received negative therapy as part of the experiment suffered from negative psychological effects, and some retained language problems for the rest of their lives.

Pharmaceutical experiments

In March 2013, Ukrainian parliamentarians criticized the illegal practices of pharmaceutical companies in their country. Between 2011 and 2012, three series of clinical trials were carried out with children, including orphans. In order for children to take part in a clinical trial, the consent of both parents is required. If a child is an orphan, approval from a government agency is required. Ukrainian MPs confirmed that this requirement was disregarded in several cases. In addition, clinical trials were carried out at facilities that did not have the necessary permits.

Medical experiments

Orphans were and are, in addition to prison inmates or people from poor houses and lunatic asylums , preferred subjects for medical research up to today's transplant medicine . The rise of pediatrics , as a recognized branch of clinical medicine, would hardly have been possible without research in the nurseries with orphans. On the one hand it was possible to reduce the very high mortality in the infant homes. On the other hand, the consequences (such as hospitalism and deprivation) for the children in these homes have been for decades recognized by many leading pediatricians, such as B. Arthur Schlossmann , ignored.

In 1946–1948 , the US doctor John Charles Cutler infected at least 1,308 people, including orphans, with syphilis in Guatemala on behalf of his government . Many died in agony, and victims still suffer from their injuries today. On the other side of the Atlantic, Germany was denazified. Twenty doctors and three helpers were on trial in Nuremberg. Seven of them were sentenced to death for experimenting on people. The concentration camp doctor Dr. Josef Mengele evaded this jurisdiction; through his medical experiments he was responsible for the deaths of orphans in Auschwitz-Birkenau

In the 1940s and 1950s, experiments with radioactive material were coordinated by the US Atomic Energy Agency. There is largely a lack of clarity about the client. A number of experiments were apparently ordered and paid for by the Department of Defense and US intelligence agencies . Scientists at a world-famous US university gave radiation-contaminated cornflakes to 125 mentally disabled children in an orphanage.

The University of Melbourne has apologized for former children in care for using them for medical experiments by academics from the university. Vice Chancellor Davies expressed “deep regret” about the role of researchers who conducted vaccine trials on children in orphanages after World War II .

Studies on attachment theory

Since the 1950s, a number of attachment-theoretical findings and research results have been available in North America as well as Western and Central Europe, which point to the dangers for human development through isolation in early old age. In the GDR , comparative studies were carried out on the cognitive and physical development of home, week nursery, day nursery and family children. The family-bound children showed the most favorable developmental course. With the increasing loss of family ties, the developmental deficits increased. The orphans in the homes revealed the greatest developmental delays . Nevertheless, the politicians in the GDR could not or did not want to break away from the institutional care of the nursing homes. In the FRG , the nurseries were not closed until the mid-1970s.

Orphan Impact


The psychoanalyst Hans Keilson developed his findings and reflections on the long-term effects of trauma with the help of the study Sequential Traumatization in Children , initially based on around 2,000 and later another 204 interviewed Jewish orphans in the Netherlands after World War II . The study made a significant contribution to understanding trauma no longer as a singular , time-limited event, but rather as a lifelong process that spans generations. This process develops in dependence on external events (e.g. cultural, social or political) and often leads to permanent or progressive vulnerability.

Sociological Consequences

Statistically speaking, anyone who loses a mother or father has fewer chances of higher education or qualified training. This is shown by a study from the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin. Even if only one parent dies, this has far-reaching consequences for the children. In addition to the grief of the loss, the children have to cope with the fact that they can expect less support for their educational careers in the course of their education - in terms of emotional and cognitive , social and financial aspects.

Steffen Hillmert from the Max Planck Institute for Human Development examined the educational trajectories of half-orphans born between 1950 and 1978 and compared them with those of people who were able to grow up in full families until they came of age. Children who lost a parent before the age of ten had less chance of graduating from high school than children who were orphaned a few years later. In both groups (orphans before / after the age of 10) the high school graduation rates were significantly reduced compared to children from complete families.

If the parent died after the age of ten, then most of the children stayed in high school - despite the special stresses and strains. The early death of a parent reduces the child's chance of graduating from high school by nearly two-thirds. This means that if ten children graduate from high school in a comparable social group of children from complete families, there are only three to four children in an equally large group of orphans.

The nimbus of unhappiness adheres to orphans, so that many people feel deeply compassionate for orphaned and abandoned children and the desire to do something for them. The social perception and stereotypes that orphans will get nowhere and will not cope with their lives, however, have a fatal effect on the overall social responsibility for them. This can take on extreme forms, as in Nepal, where children are sometimes blamed for the death of their parents, or less conspicuous, such as the general attitude that the state must take care of it.

Lack of care, inadequate care, ignorance, and discrimination can dramatically intensify trauma for orphans and ultimately make them fail.

Psychosocial Consequences

The psychosocial consequences a child suffers from growing up without one of the parents is assessed differently and is also heavily dependent on other factors. The concrete effect of fatherlessness or motherlessness depends on the general psychological stability of a child and the wider environment of fixed reference persons. The personality of the educating parent also plays a central role. Fatherlessness or motherlessness is seen as a problem for gender identity development.

Orphans in institutions (foundlings and orphanages, nursing homes) suffer from the consequences of hospitalism and psychological deprivation .

A 2011 study in France examined the school, social, professional and emotional situation of 500,000 orphans under the age of 21. The study made it clear how many orphans actually suffer from trauma and socio-psychological disorders. Years later, only 50% of them could speak easily about what had happened; 18% couldn't find any words. 76% said that the loss of one or both parents had impaired family relationships, 63% said it had negative consequences for their emotional life, 52% saw their school career and 45% their social network affected. Orphans approach their fellow men less often, withdraw or switch to defense.

Suicide Jumper - Dallas

If one parent dies, the child's suicide risk increases significantly . This is confirmed by a study by the Danish researcher Dr. May-Britt Guldin. In total, data from 7.3 million people from Denmark, Sweden and Finland were included. Children and young people who lost a parent before they reached the age of 18 were taken into account. A control group with children whose parents had not yet died was used for comparison . The researchers found that losing a parent during childhood increased the child's risk of committing suicide. This effect lasted up to 25 years after the parent died. Another observation was that boys were twice as likely to commit suicide as girls. Boys whose mothers had committed suicide and firstborn babies whose parents had died before the age of six were most frequently affected.

As prominent examples, u. a. Heinrich von Kleist , German playwright , storyteller, lyricist and publicist , or the German poet and romantic Karoline von Günderrode . Kleist was an orphan at the age of 15 after losing his father at the age of ten. On 21 November 1811 at the Kleist chose stumbling hole , now Kleiner Wannsee , the suicide . Günderrode was referred to by the death of her father at the age of six and later by the German writer Wolfgang Koeppen as the " orphan of romanticism ".

Psychosomatic consequences

Orphans who were adopted late and stayed in the orphanage for eight months or longer show disorganized attachment behavior when they are four years old . In the stranger situation , these children have a significantly higher cortisol content in the saliva.

Orphans stayed comparatively cool despite being close, their oxytocin content is low. Seth Pollack of the University of Wisconsin examined four-year-olds who were separated from their mothers immediately after giving birth and lived in a Russian or Romanian orphanage with those who grew up with their parents. It was found that the oxytocin, known as the bonding hormone, had risen sharply in the biological children, a guarantee for pleasant feelings.

Orphan in religions


According to biblical tradition, the prophet and the orphan Moses led the people of the Israelites on a forty year migration from Egyptian slavery to the Canaanite land.

In Judaism , care for orphans is seen as a social and moral imperative to practice justice and love, i.e. H. Live a meaningful life ( Psalm 146: 9). The Torah warns against the suppression of orphans several times (Ex 22.20-23; 23.6.9; Zechariah 7: 9-10;). To clothe them, to feed them and to love them is commanded separately (Deut 10:19). Giving them voluntary gifts for the feast of the week is required (Deut 14:29, 16: 10-12). The right of the orphans should not be bowed (Deut 24:17, 27:19); rather, good and righteousness should be done for them, righteousness should be created ( Isaiah 1:17). The harvest delivery of the tithe to every three years to the strangers, the widows and orphans flow in the country (Deut 14.28 f). God's moral commandment to love one's neighbor , which includes all people, including the enemy, is put into concrete terms for those in need and orphans (Isaiah 1: 16-17; Job 31: 13-25, 29-30, 32-33, 38-39; Amos 5: 14-15; Jeremiah 7: 5-7; Malachi 3: 5; Maimonides, Mishne Torah Hilchot Jom Tov 7: 18-21).

The Aramaic Kaddish of the orphans ( Kaddish jatom ) is a prayer in Judaism. It is a prayer of sanctification and developed its current form in the centuries after the invention of the printing press . At the same time, its traditional core expanded and its liturgical use changed over the centuries in the diaspora . The kaddish of the orphans is also called "the kaddish of those who suffer " ( Awelim-Kaddish ). Whoever speaks the kaddish - first at the funeral of one of the "seven close relatives" (father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter or wife) - repeats it in the eleven months after the death of the person concerned.

The Talmud says: “God says to man: You have four members of the household, the son, the daughter, the maid; I also have four housemates, the Levite , the stranger, the widow and the orphan. "


A bid sees Christianity not available for orphans. The charity commands the support of orphans. For example, James 1:27 says: "A pure and immaculate service before God the Father consists in caring for orphans and widows when they are in need and protecting oneself from any pollution of the world."

The feast of Mary, patroness of the orphans, is celebrated in the Catholic Church on September 27th every year . Pope Pius XI 1928 spoke the founder of the Somaskan Order Hieronymus Ämiliani to the patron saint of orphans and abandoned youth. The most important thoughts of the Jewish prayer Kaddish of the orphans were adopted in the Our Father , which according to Christian tradition was ascribed to Jesus Christ .

The four blatant sins in Christian theology ( five in the Catechism of the Catholic Church since 1997 ) include: a. the oppression of the poor, widows and orphans.


In Islam, an orphan is a child who has not yet reached religious maturity and who has lost one or both parents. In order to improve the situation of orphans in ancient Arab society , the relatives or the community should take care of the welfare of the orphans. It is referred to directly or indirectly in numerous verses in the Koran .

At the beginning of Sura 4 the Quran contains several instructions regarding orphans. The faithful are instructed not to touch the property of the orphans (Sura 4: 2) and are advised to marry orphans in order to ensure their sustenance (Sura 4: 3). At the same time, it is the basis for restricting plural marriage to four women. It says: And if you fear that you will not act fairly with regard to the orphans, then marry what you think is good about women, two, three or four. But if you fear not acting righteously, then (only) one or what your right hand has. It is more likely that you are not unjust. Who consumes the wealth of orphans wrongfully, should one day get nothing to eat but fire and in a hell fire burn (Sura 4:10). In total, the word orphan is mentioned 23 times in the Koran. The orphans are named as recipients of spoils of war . The founder of the religion, Mohammed , was an orphan himself.


The world's fourth largest religion on earth, Buddhism , was founded in northern India by Siddhartha Gautama ( Buddha ), who lost his mother shortly after his birth. At the age of 29 he became aware that suffering such as aging, illness, death or pain are inseparable from life. He set out to explore various religious teachings and philosophies to find the true nature of human happiness. Six years of asceticism and meditation finally led him to the middle path . Under a poplar fig in Bodhgaya he had the experience of awakening ( Bodhi ). A little later he gave his first discourse in Isipatana, today's Sarnath , and set the “wheel of teaching” ( Dharmachakra ) in motion.

The founder of Buddhism in Tibet , Padmasambhava , was born in the time of King Thrisong Detsen (756 to 796). He grew up as the foster son of King Indrabhuti in today's Pakistan . Legend has it that he was not born of a woman, but was born miraculously on a lotus in a lake in Oddiyana .

Foundling and orphan children were, as in China, the scholar and writer Lu Yu , in temples added or, as in Korea during the Goryeo - dynasty to Buddhist monks educated and trained.

Orphan in mythology

Greek mythology

The Capitoline Wolf suckles the children Romulus and Remus

Charila ( ancient Greek Χάριλα ) is the name of an orphan girl in Greek mythology and the name of a festival that is celebrated every eight years in Delphi and named after her. Plutarch tells about the origin of the festival that at a time when there was hunger, the population came to the king to ask him for food. The king distributed flour and pulses - to the better citizens. When a poor orphan girl named Charila persistently asked the king for food, the angry king hit the girl in the face with his sandal, whereupon Charila went into the forest and hanged herself with her belt. Then the famine became unbearable and the oracle was consulted for advice. The oracle's saying was that Charila must be reconciled. After some research they found out who Charila was, and eventually her body was found. To reconcile the spirit of Charilah, the process was repeated.

Roman mythology

Romulus and Remus were the founders of Rome according to Roman mythology . According to legend, they were children of the god of war Mars and the priestess Rhea Silvia . There are different versions of the legend about the suspension and rescue of the children. After his brother was murdered, Romulus ruled the city. His dead brother Remus was immortalized on his throne with his sword. According to Titus Livius , the city of Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC. Founded.

Asmatic mythology

Orang Asmat

The Asmat Mask Festival , also Bi Pokomban , Yipai, is an animistic , cyclically celebrated ritual of the Asmat , a people who live in the south of the Indonesian island of New Guinea in the Irian Jaya province . The aim of the ritual is to prove to the spirits of the deceased that there is harmony in the village and that the ancestors ( safan ) may take this benevolent knowledge so that their favor can be preserved.

The mask festival takes place according to a fixed schedule. The appearance of the manimar mask is based on a mythological basis. The myth tells that an orphan boy who was regularly cast out and was rarely heard when he begged for food, came up with the trick of creating a mask with which he would frighten the sago-harvesting women of the village in order to steal the harvest from them. He often succeeded in doing this. Deliberately caught and confronted, the boy complained of his suffering and was adopted and looked after out of pity.

Since then, Manimar has been part of the ritual myth of the mask festival. He is venerated as the forerunner and messenger of the news of the arrival of the spirits. His arrival excites the gathered people. Staggering dancing he joins the crowd. In the ritual act he frightens people (especially children) whom he hunts. The children fight back and tell him to leave the village, as he is an intruder and an orphan. They throw seed pods at him and scold him. Again and again the manimar persecutes individual people in return. that he has chosen for persecution. In the course of the afternoon it disappears again.

Inuit mythology

The Inuit myth Kaassassuk tells of the life of the mocked and abused orphan Kaassassuk, full of privation: the overcoming of his fear and the bestowal of superhuman strength by the spiritual being Pissaap Inua; Kaassassuk's impressive acts of instilling respect and fear in the community; his revenge on the residents of the settlement; his way along the coast in a kayak, on which he takes the daughter of the hunter Qaassuk by force as his wife; his victorious competitions with all the men he meets, and finally his defeat by the nondescript Usugsaermiarssúnguaq high up north. Today the figure of Kaassassuk in Greenland symbolizes physical and psychological strength and the will for self-determination.

Blackfoot mythology

In a mythical legend with seven orphans, the experience of the common appearance and disappearance of the constellation of the Pleiades and the bison for the Blackfoot Indians of North America is reflected. The state of the Pleiades at the beginning of the dry season was the starting signal for an elaborate hunt for the huge bison herds. Once the Pleiades have disappeared into the starry sky, the bison have also disappeared. According to legend, seven orphans, who were once denied warming bison skins, took the bison with them as a punishment for the people. The sun god saved the children and gave them a place in the starry sky. Dogs begged for the villagers by howling at the night sky. Finally the children returned with the bison.

Reception in art

The life and fate of orphans inspired artists in many ways and was well received by art lovers. The artistic works reflect the events of their time. In sequential art , orphans are usually classic superheroes like Superman , Batman , Robin , Spider-Man , Wolverine , Iron Man , Captain Marvel , Captain America , Green Arrow , Daredevil, or lone warriors in nature like Tarzan or Rahan , who has both his Lost both parents and foster parents.


From a writer's point of view, orphans are interesting because they free the author from the obligation to design a social environment or a sophisticated origin of the character, which in turn brings with it the possibility of sharing the world of the character with the reader or viewer of Zero to rebuild. Orphans are suitable for this because they allow a largely undisturbed projection surface for the audience's wishes for identification and they have a significant sympathy factor.


Lessing and Johann Caspar Lavater as guests of Moses Mendelssohn , painting by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (1856)

In the idea Drama Nathan the manner of Gotthold Lessing are the protagonists Tempelherrenhaus (Curd of Stauffen, also known as Leu of Filnek) and Recha (Blanda of Filnek) orphans. Their mutual Muslim father Assad (Saladin's brother, alias Wolf von Filnek) and their Christian mother (née Stauffen) died early. Both children grow up with foster parents. In the figure of Nathan Lessing placed a literary monument to his friend Moses Mendelssohn , the founder of the Jewish Enlightenment .

The Moses Mendelssohn 's orphan education institution of the Jewish community in Berlin , which opened on July 1, 1836, is named after him.

Literary were u. a. the fate of the orphans Johann Christian Woyzeck processed by the German playwright and poet Georg Büchner in his drama fragment Woyzeck and that by the Frankfurt maid Susanna Margaretha Brandt for the Gretchen tragedy in Goethe's Faust . The Miss Brandt was due to infanticide convicted of her newborn baby to death and 1,772 executed .

One of the most famous melodramas of the 19th century was The Orphan and the Murderer by Frédéric Dupetit-Méré . In the translation by Ignaz Franz Castelli and with the music by Ignaz von Seyfried , the play was performed on February 12, 1817 in the Theater an der Wien and then for decades it was a box-office hit in the German-speaking area.

Yelva, the Russian Orphan is a play by Eugène Scribe that premiered on March 18, 1828 at the Théâtre du Gymnase-Dramatique Paris. It is one of the most popular dramas of the 19th century. The piece also belongs to the genres vaudeville and melodrama. The main role is a silent role . Yelva cannot sing and only pantomime to the music. The familiar melody suggests what Yelva is trying to say. The melody to Je t'aimerai toute la vie (“I will love you all my life”)(played by the orchestral instruments without singing) soundswhile it assures Alfred of her loyalty (I / 6), or the melodies Balançons-nous (“Let's swing”) and Un bandeau couvre les yeux (“A bandage covers the eyes”) sound about their attempts to explain to Tchérikof that they once played here as children (II / 13). Anyone who recognizes the melodies that came from the theater's repertoire pieces, i.e. were not unknown to the regular audience, understands Yelva's gestures better than her brother.

The Portuguese writer , novelist and poet Camilo Castelo Branco , himself an orphan, publishes his drama The Secrets of Lisbon . In terms of content, the story tells various entanglements of the Lisbon nobility at the beginning of the 19th century and the time of the Napoleonic Wars on the Iberian Peninsula . The main character is a young nobleman in search of his origins and identity. The characters crossing it have their own dark stories to tell. The series shows a lot of the psychological work of Castelo Branco and gives an insight into the world of intrigue and wickedness. The drama was filmed in 2010 as The Secrets of Lisbon and broadcast in German dubbing on Arte in 2011 .


Victor Ducange's fondness for the terrible and terrifying finds its way to the audience as a play in three acts in the story Therese or The Orphan from Geneva (1822). The Swiss composer and church musician Carl Greith later set this story to music .

His compatriot Jakob Frey acquired a. a. with his story Die Waise von Holligen. Story from the days of the fall of the old Swiss Confederation (1863). Fame.

Fabian and Sebastian is a short story by Wilhelm Raabe that was published by Westermann in Braunschweig in 1882. At the end of 1881 the text had already beenpreprintedin Westermann's monthly notebooks. The 15-year-old orphan Konstanze Pelzmann, transplanted from the colony of the Dutch East Indies to snow-covered industrialized Germany, sets out three times in the city of her father's birth against the will of her uncle Fabian and brings consolation to two elderly lonely men.

Further stories are u. a. Ignaz Denner from ETA Hoffmann or Der Dom by Gertrud von le Fort .


Isabella of Egypt, Emperor Charles the Fifth's first childhood love is a story by Achim von Arnim that appeared in the so-called collection of novels from 1812 in the Realschulbuchhandlung Berlin.

Daniel Craig James Bond - Actor since 2006

Fairy tales, legends and modern literature

In literary works, protagonists in the form of orphans are very popular, especially in fantasy , youth and folk literature. This allows the authors to design their works, for example without having to explain lengthy, complicated family structures and releasing their heroes from family obligations and controls. In addition, an orphan arouses feelings of pity in the reader and leads to easier identification with the protagonist, whereby a faster and more prosaic character development is possible.

In fact, children were more likely to lose their mothers earlier. They died in childbirth, in the puerperium or later from illness and exhaustion. According to fairy tales and folk-historical traditions, the fathers married another woman who rejected her stepchildren and abused them as maidservants. These stories were a mirror of society. A well-known half-orphan from the fairy tale is Cinderella or Snow White by the Brothers Grimm , who were half-orphans themselves. Well-known fairy tales with orphans are u. a .: Die Sterntaler , The little girl with the sulfur sticks , spindle, shuttle and needle , The poor boy in the grave or Kay from the fairy tale The Snow Queen .

James Bond , Agent 007 , is a secret agent invented by Ian Fleming who grew up an orphan in a boarding school and works as a man for MI6 . In 1953, Casino Royale was the first novel to appear. Fleming, who was orphaned by the early death of his father, wrote twelve novels and nine short stories about James Bond until his death in 1964. The first television film with the agent appeared under the title Casino Royale in 1954. Due to the early loss of his father, the psychoanalyst Wolfgang Schmidbauer sees the lack of a real, everyday role model for the male role. Therefore, they have to design their own image of men and are often based on heroic figures as men. James Bond is, in his opinion, the fatherless hero for fatherless sons. It also represents the lack of stability in these sons' self-esteem .

Well-known authors in whose books full or half-orphans are actors are u. a.

  • Novels (selection):
Victor Hugo ( The Wretched , The Hunchback of Notre-Dame ), Charles Dickens ( Oliver Twist , David Copperfield , The Secret of Edwin Drood , Martin Chuzzlewit ), John Irving ( God's Work and the Devil's Contribution ), Charlotte Brontë ( Jane Eyre ), Patrick Süskind ( Perfume ), Noah Gordon ( The Medicus , The Medicus von Saragossa ), Henry James ( The Turning of the Screw ), Peter Wawerzinek ( Rabenliebe ), Jean M. Auel ( Children of the Earth ), Ludwig Tieck ( The young master carpenter ), John Irving ( Last Night in Twisted River ), Jakob Wassermann ( Melusine ), Georges Simenon ( Die Marie vom Hafen ), Wilhelm Raabe ( Der Heilige Born ), Agatha Christie ( The House on the Dune ), Stefan Zweig ( Schachnovelle ) , Lucy Maud Montgomery ( Anne on Green Gables ), Werner Helwig ( Die Waldschlacht ), Roberto Bolaño ( Rags novel ), Boris Leonidowitsch Pasternak ( Doctor Schiwago ), William Shakespeare ( What you want ), Kazuo Ishiguro ( When we were orphans ), Leon Uris ( exodus )
  • Children's and youth literature (selection):
Mark Twain ( Tom Sawyer ) , Johanna Spyri ( Heidi ), Edgar Rice Burroughs ( Tarzan with the Monkeys ), Felix Salten ( Bambi. A life story from the forest ), Astrid Lindgren ( Mio, my Mio ), Kurt Held ( Die Rote Zora and their gang ), Otfried Preußler ( Krabat ), Michael Ende ( Jim Knopf and Lukas der Lokomotivführer ), JK Rowling ( Harry Potter ), James Krüss ( Timm Thaler ), Lemony Snicket ( A Series of Unfortunate Events ), Robert Arthur ( The Three ??? ) , Cornelia Funke ( Lord of Thieves and Dragon Riders ), Frances Hodgson Burnett ( Sara, the little princess ), Christopher Paolini ( Eragon ), Kai Meyer ( Merle trilogy ), Michael Ende ( Momo ), Jules Verne ( Ein Captain of fifteen ), Eleanor Hodgman Porter ( Pollyanna ), Jurij Brězan ( The Black Mill ), Georgia Byng ( Molly Moon ), Rudyard Kipling ( The Jungle Book )


In the late Middle Ages , the French poet François Villon wrote the two ballads We'll Always Be Just Two Orphans and The Summer Ballad of Poor Louise . They became known to a wider audience in Germany through the actor Klaus Kinski and his audio productions Kinski speaks Villon .

In France, Arthur Rimbaud took up the subject of orphans in his lyrical poem Die Neujahrsgeschenke der Orphenkinder and in German-speaking countries the poems of Adelbert von Chamisso Die Waise or Rainer Maria Rilke Ich bin ein Orphan , Das Lied der Waise and Die Waise found their distribution .


Baroque and Classical

Farinelli , painting by Jacopo Amigoni around 1734

During this time, important composers worked in the Venetian orphanages , who wrote both sacred music and instrumental concerts for their protégés , including Antonio Lotti , Francesco Gasparini , Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Adolph Hasse . Some of the orphan girls were real virtuosos and achieved a certain degree of notoriety. Perhaps the most famous is Anna Maria , for whom Vivaldi composed many particularly exquisite violin concertos . In Naples, the four orphanages ( conservatori ) della Pietà dei turchini , Santa Maria di Loreto , Sant'Onofrio and Poveri di Gesù Cristo formed the basis for the formation of the Neapolitan school , from which numerous singers, instrumentalists and musicians in the 17th and 18th centuries Composers emerged, although not all orphans, because the conservatories took on paying students after a while.

Georg Friedrich Handel around 1726 or 1728

The Italian singer and castrato Farinelli , who was orphaned at the age of 12, became a musical superstar during this period . His father was an avid music lover. In order to keep his son's beautiful singing voice, he was probably neutered at the age of 9 with the consent (or on request?) Of his father . Georg Friedrich Handel , who, like Farinelli, was orphaned at the age of 12, wrote a series of arias for castrati, among others. a. the aria Lascia ch'io pianga as a lament for his opera Rinaldo .

Some composers of the 18th and 19th centuries dedicated their compositions or income from performances to orphanages. In 1749, a benefit concert by George Frideric Handel was played for the first time in the London orphanage, the Foundling Hospital of Thomas Coram (1668–1751). A three-part work was played, compiled by Handel from earlier works and supplemented by new compositions - a unique concert whose hymn, the Anthem Blessed are they that considereth the Poor an Needy , should go down in music history.

The Messiah was to remain a social and non-commercial work when it was first performed in Dublin in 1742 and thereafter. Since 1750 he has performed the Messiah once a year in the newly built chapel of the Foundling Hospital (Findelhaus) as a benefit concert. In his will, he also bequeathed the handwritten score of the Messiah to this institution . As Charles Burney writes in his News of Handel's Circumstances (1785), the Messiah was Handel's legacy which:

"Fed the hungry, clad the naked and looked after the orphans."

The Mass in C minor KV 139 (KV 3 114a / KV 6 47a) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is called the Orphanage Mass , assuming that it was composed for the inauguration of the Orphanage Church in Vienna on December 7, 1768.

One of the most popular operas of the 19th century, La Sonnambula (1831) by Vincenzo Bellini and Felice Romani , is about the poor orphan girl Amina who sleepwalked at night and almost lost her great love through entanglements and misunderstandings; but in the end everything will be fine. In Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto (1851), the main female character Gilda is a half-orphan whose physically disabled father Rigoletto works as a court jester and hides her in order to protect her from a depraved environment.

The Album for the Young , op. 68 (composed in 1848), is a cycle of 43 piano pieces by Robert Schumann . No. 6 from the cycle is titled Poor Orphan and can easily be learned by children. The theme also finds resonance in the children's opera Cinderella by Peter Maxwell Davies and in the ballet piece by Cinderella by Sergei Sergejewitsch Prokofjew as well as in the opera Dalibor by the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana . Smetana composed the opera for the laying of the foundation stone of the Czech National Theater. The libretto is based on the story of the Bohemian knight Dalibor von Kozojedy , it takes place around the year 1498. The first performance of the opera took place on May 16, 1868 in Prague.

Die Leichte Kavallerie is an operetta in two acts by the composer Franz von Suppè and librettist Karl Costa . This play was premiered on March 21, 1866 at the Carltheater in Vienna. Today she is only known for her world-famous overture . The focus is on the pretty young orphan Vilma, who turns every man's head.

The operetta The Pirates of Penzance was to secure British copyright law in the United Kingdom on 30 December 1879 Royal Bijou Theater in Paignton (county Devon , England , premiered) as a unique idea. The Broadway premiere took place a day later, on December 31, 1879, at the Fifth Avenue Theater. The London premiere was on April 3, 1880 at the Opera Comique. It is still one of the most played pieces today and is often quoted musically. Of the many re-performances on Broadway, the 1981 production was the most successful, running 787 performances. The music is by Arthur Sullivan and the libretto by WS Gilbert .


The musical Annie is set in 1933 and deals with many things, such as the miserable living conditions in orphanages, the Great Depression, heartless billionaires and President Franklin D. Roosevelt , without, however, going into detail. The musical contains the well-known songs Tomorrow and It's a Hard Knock Life . The premieres took place on April 21, 1977 at the Alvin (today: Neil Simon ) Theater in New York and on May 3, 1978 at the Victoria Palace Theater in London's West End . The material was filmed in 1982 and 2015.

Other famous musicals The Lion King , a Broadway - Musical by Elton John and Tim Rice , Once on This Iceland by Rosa Guy and Les Misérables by Claude-Michel Schonberg (music) and Alain Boublil ( libretto ).

Ballad (song)

The ballad There were two orphans was probably created in the second half of the 19th century. The earliest records date from 1908. In terms of content, the song of the two orphans who visit their mother's grave and ask for bread is close to the Flemish orphan ballad Ach, Tjanne, zeyde hy, Tjanne ; At the same time it is influenced by the ballad There were two royal children , which was very popular at the time . The song by the two orphans was widespread in the first half of the 20th century, especially in the Rhineland, Pomerania and West Prussia, after the Second World War it increasingly disappeared from song memories.

Rock - pop

The American rock band Rise Against released their song Satellite in 2011 . The song by their lieder singer Tim McIlrath expresses the belief that the band stands by their social and political convictions and will not conform to the mainstream. In the chorus is a thematic appeal to find and in translation states: "We are the orphans of the American dream - Oh, throw your light on me."

British singer Roger Waters lost his father when he was 5 months old. According to his own statements, the loss continues to burden him to this day. He has addressed the war and his childhood as a war orphan in many of his songs. The topic is still well received today in songs by artists such as B. Bruce Springsteen in Song for Orphans 1972 or the British pop rock band Coldplay with their title Orphans 2019.


The Weeping Angel is one of the most famous sculptures in Amiens Cathedral . It adorns the tomb of Canon Guilain Lucas († 1628) and is the work of the sculptor Nicolas Blasset. The crying angel symbolizes the suffering of the orphans. During the First World War, hundreds of thousands of postcards, coins and other items with the image of the angel were made and sold, especially to British soldiers who sent them to their families back home.

The subject was further artistically processed by Ernst Barlach in his Hamburg Memorial, which was presented to the public in 1931 . A war widow, frozen in pain, is depicted on a bas-relief and puts her arms comfortingly around her orphaned daughter.

Max Liebermann free period in the Amsterdam orphanage 1881


Early works such as The Marriage of the Orphans (1440–1444) by Domenico di Bartolo and The Care of Orphans (1675) by Jan de Bray are thematic exceptions in their time.

From the 19th century, the orphan theme experienced a stronger reception in painting. a. in the works of Eugène Delacroix orphan in the cemetery (1823), Jacques Amans Portrait of Margaret with two orphans (1842), Karl Wilhelm Bauerle Die Waisen (1860), Wassili Grigorjewitsch Perow orphan at the cemetery (1864), Nikolaus Gysis (1871) The orphans , Pilip Hermogenes Calderon The Orphans (1870), Hans Makart The Sleeping Snow White (1872), Konrad Grob Pestalozzi and the orphans of Stans (1879) or Gotthardt Kuehl orphans in Lübeck (1884). Orphanages, such as For example, the Lübeck orphanage or the Amsterdam orphanage are repeatedly painted locations and motifs for the impressionists G. Kuehl and Max Liebermann .

In the twentieth century, the subject hardly found any resonance in painting. From this point onwards, a thematic treatment will record the moving image of the film.


The orphan or the life of orphans is often used as a template for films, u. a. in the Franco-Swiss cinema adaptation The Children of Monsieur Mathieu from 2004. Choir singing plays an important role in it. The music recordings were performed by the children's choir Les Petits Chanteurs de Saint-Marc (The Little Singers of Saint Mark) from Lyon , which included Jean-Baptiste Maunier , whose acting and singing career began with this film.

In the 2009 American horror film Orphan , a couple adopts a Russian orphan named Esther. When the couple's wife finds out that all personal documents and previous adoption papers are forged, the entire family is ultimately in mortal danger.

The Chilean-French auteur filmmaker Raúl Ruiz filmed the story Mistérios de Lisboa (The Secrets of Lisbon) by the Portuguese writer Camilo Castelo Branco (1825–1890), who was an orphan himself. The intense film tells the story of an orphan boy in Lisbon at the beginning of the 19th century and has received numerous awards. The work was released in the cinemas in 2010 as The Secrets of Lisbon and was then shown as a six-part television series, in 2011 for the first time in German on the Arte broadcaster . In 2012 the work was also released on DVD and BluRay in Germany.

The Medicus (film) is a German film from 2013 that wasshot by Noah Gordonafter the world bestseller of the same name, The Medicus . The main character Robert Cole has an extraordinary gift: he can feel when someone left untreated an unfavorable has forecast and in agony just before the die is. He noticed this for the first time while he was a little boy feeling that his sick mother would die of the "side sickness". He has to watch helplessly as his premonition is fulfilled. Left to his own devices , the young orphan joins a traveling spa who, in addition to the usual sleight of hand, teaches him the basics of medieval medicine and services such as bloodletting and tooth extraction . Even as an apprentice, Rob recognized the limits of these simple practices. He decidesto learn medicine and its teaching in what was then Persia from the doctor, scientist and philosopher Ibn Sina .

In 2009, the children's film was The Secret of Moonacre by Oliver Parker in theaters. This fantasy film is based on the children's book The Little White Horse by Elizabeth Goudge . The orphan Maria is supported by a whole host of fantastic beings to end a centuries-old feud between two families.

The children's film Hugo Cabret (original title: Hugo ) is an American 3D film from 2011 based on Brian Selznick 's children's novel The Discovery of Hugo Cabret . The film won five Academy Awards at the 2012 Academy Awards. The cunning and inventive orphan Hugo discovers an enigmatic legacy from his father. To decipher it, he embarks on an extraordinary search. This adventure will change everyone around him and give him a new, loving home.

In the animated film Skin Color: Honey , a Korean as the adopted child of a Belgian family gets to know the love of his new siblings and the integrative power of an intact family life. As he got older, he asked about the roots of his homeland, which, like 200,000 other children, left him orphaned as a result of the armed conflict in Korea in the 1950s.

Well-known films in which full or half orphans are actors are u. a.

  • Cinema and TV productions (selection):
Thirteen chairs , Slumdog Millionaire , Beautiful Venus , theseries broadcaston ARTE under the title Vénus et Apollon , the Canadian science fiction series Orphan Black , Great Expectations , The day when Stalin's pants disappeared , Kama Sutra: The Art of Love , Baikonur , As in heaven , Philomena
  • Children's and youth films (selection):
The Ghost Island (The Three Question Marks) , The Thief Lord , The Jungle Book , Harry Potter (film series) , Fury , Neverland - Journey to the Land of Adventure , Tom Sawyer
  • Cartoons (selection):
Tarzan , Bambi , The Lion King and Simba, the Lion King , Despicable Me , Anastasia , The Prince of Egypt , Finding Nemo

Personalities with an orphan background (selection)



Australia and Oceania


North America

South America


Orphan in proverb

Wanders German Proverbs Lexicon (Vol. 4) presents nine proverbs about orphans and orphans ' courts ; z. B. To keep orphans equal to wise, is to praise God .

Orphan versus work

The word work is of common Germanic origin (* arbējiðiz, got. Arbaiþs); the etymology is uncertain; possibly related to indoeurop. * orbh- "orphaned", orphan , "a child who deserves to do heavy physical activity" (see inheritance ); possibly related to aslaw. robota ( bondage , slavery, see robots ). In Old and Middle High German, the word meaning hardship , strain , need predominates ; literally still today effort and work (cf. Psalm 90, Latin labor et dolor).

Upper TCV Sports Day

Orphans as bearers of hope

The Tibetan school in Mussoorie, North India, has 2,400 students. The children who go to school here left a safe childhood in their family in Tibet to attend this school. Here they are considered orphans. The hike from their home to northern India takes about a month and leads across the Himalayas . Smugglers secretly bring the students across the border. Only in this school can they be educated in Tibetan and familiarized with the history of their people and their homeland. The children are sent abroad by their families so that they can later save the culture of their homeland.

Visual orphans

In art, orphaned objects, for which artists create a new state of being with their specific view, are referred to as orphans.

Frontal view of the Imperial Crown - Treasury (Vienna)

Orphan as a gem

Popularly known as the “Philosopher's Stone”, the orphan was the most prominent gemstone of unique quality and beauty in the imperial crown . The orphan was a milk white opal whose color could change to red and was lost after 1350. In court literature, Walther von der Vogelweide described him as the “guiding star of all princes”.

World Orphans Day

World Orphans' Day was initiated by The Stars Foundation and takes place on the second Monday in November. The day of action is intended to raise public awareness of orphans and to promote their support.

Orphans fruits

The term orphan fruit describes grains that are particularly important for feeding the poor in developing countries.

Orphan Fund, Widows & Orphan Papers

Orphan funds were already in use in Germany in the first half of the 19th century that supported orphans directly or their relatives in financial need. After the end of the Second World War, low-risk forms of investment widow's and orphan's papers were launched for the savings of corresponding people, alongside classic fixed-term deposits and savings accounts . Income reminiscent of pension payments in the form of stable coupons and dividends were sought . The prototypes of such financial investments included the five- and ten-year German government bonds , as well as shares in energy suppliers - such as E.ON or RWE , the car manufacturer Volkswagen and financial institutions such as Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank or the technology group Microsoft .

Orphans of Versailles

"Orphans of Versailles" is what the British historian Richard Blanke called the Germans - Orphans of Versailles - who came under Polish rule after the loss of World War I and the Treaty of Versailles . He referred to the fact that almost overnight the Germans no longer found themselves part of the ruling class in a strong and economically highly developed nation-state , but as a vulnerable and suspicious minority .

Chinese remaining orphan

In Japan, remaining Chinese orphans who have not yet been listed in the Japanese family register have the opportunity to acquire Japanese citizenship through a process led by the family court .

Raj orphans

When Raj orphans are children who by her in the colonies of the British Empire (in the narrow sense of the Indian subcontinent - British India) families living at a young age were sent alone to the UK and there separated from their parents in foster care or in Boarding schools (including abuse ) grew up. The Empire formed a new type of colonial official out of Raj orphans . The children developed typical characters. They embody a national type that shapes the British habitus to this day. On the other hand, the children are marked by the trauma of separation. The British author Jane Gardam explores the effects of the British Empire on British colonial families and the Raj orphans in her novel An Impeccable Man .

This fate happened u. a. British writer and youngest Nobel Prize winner for literature, Rudyard Kipling , who was raised in Bombay by a Portuguese nanny . He perceived English as a foreign language. At the age of five, he and his younger sister were brought to England and, like many Anglo-Indian children, were raised by foster parents, the Holloways. Kipling remembered their strict supervision with horror in his autobiography . The subsequent attendance at a military school did not lead to a later military or civil service career.

Orphan Pages

These are websites that have lost their connection to their domain and neither internal nor external links point to this page. These pages are from the search engines - web crawlers not detected.

Orphan gene

The genomes of higher organisms contain around 20,000 to 40,000 genes. Many of these genes have a common evolutionary origin, which can be deduced from sequence similarities . This is not possible for about a third of the genes. They are only found in individual evolutionary lines. Since their exact origin is unclear, they are usually referred to as orphans.

See also


  • Bode, Sabine: grandson of war. The heirs of the forgotten generation , Klett-Cotta Verlag, 7th edition, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-608-94550-8 .
  • Fuhrman, Erna: An orphaned child. Studies on parental loss in childhood , Klett-Cotta Verlag, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 978-3-12-902680-9 .
  • Graeber, H .: Abused Future - Shocking Report of the Experience of a Home Child in Post-War Germany 2006
  • Hillmert, S .: Half-orphans have to stand on their own two feet faster. In: Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, Issue 1/2002, pp. 44–69
  • Kaplan, S .: Pediatric surgeon Dr. Alfred Jahn and the orphans from Kigali , Eckstein Iatros Verlag, Nierstein 2004, ISBN 3-937439-38-2
  • Plotsidem, M .: Orphans and Social Orphans in State Welfare Institutions in Ukraine : Legal Situation and Different Models
  • Rieländer, M .: Social Orphans - Small Children Without Family Effects of Hospitalism . For a magazine of the “Society for Social Orphans” e. V. (GeSo) Münster 1982
  • Schulz, H .; Radebold, H .; Reulecke, J .: sons without fathers. Experiences of the war generation , Christoph Links Verlag 2013, ISBN 978-3-86284-228-5
  • Spitz, R .: Children with inferior histories: Their mental development in adoptive homes . In: Journal of General Psychology, 72, 1948. pp. 283-294
  • Stambolis, B .: daughters without fathers. Women of the war generation and their lifelong longing , Klett-Cotta Verlag, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-608-94724-3

Web links

Wiktionary: Orphan  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Orphan  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Orphan, Official Website of the Department of Homeland Security
  2. Mykhaylo Plotsidem: Orphans and Social Orphans in State Welfare Institutions in Ukraine: Legal Situation and Different Models . S. 4 ( uibk.ac.at [PDF; 226 kB ; accessed on February 27, 2020]).
  3. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Orphan Welfare in Islam (kafâlat al-yatîm) June 5, 2015
  4. Orphans, UNICEF
  5. Orphans: Children outside: The situation of orphans worldwide, SOS Children's Villages Worldwide January 31, 2014
  6. Statistics of the German Pension Insurance, Rente 2018, p. 163
  7. Stock of widow's and orphan's pensions from 1985 to 2017
  8. Orphans. The situation of orphans around the world, Humanium. Helps the children August 8, 2013
  9. It will always be a problem, Frankfurter Allgemeine August 19, 2016
  10. Gerrendina Gerber-Visser, Monika Imboden: Orphans. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . August 20, 2018 , accessed June 4, 2019 .
  11. Number of orphans in Russia at a record low since the Soviet Union, Sputnik Germany, December 3, 2018
  12. Grabner-Haider, Anton: Ethos der Weltkulturen: Religion and Ethik, Volume 13, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006
  13. ^ Strenge, I .: Codex Hammurapi and the legal status of women , Verlag Königshausen & Neumann GmbH, Würzburg 2006
  14. Babylon - The bloom on the Euphrates and the justice. Entertainment - The Law in History , 123.rechtnet April 26, 2004
  15. N. Molnár-Hídvégi: widows and orphans in the ancient Orient. In: The scientific Bible portal of the German Bible Society 04/2010. ( Memento from October 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  16. ^ S. N. Kramer: History begins with Sumer. Munich 1959, p. 86 ff.
  17. Nora Molnar-Hídvégi: widow and orphan. ( Memento of October 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) On bibelwissenschaft.de April 2010. Last accessed on December 14, 2013.
  18. Jan Assmann: Death and the afterlife in ancient Egypt . Beck, Munich 2001, p. 30; Susanne Bickel: La cosmogonie Egyptienne . P. 169; Alexandra von Lieven: Floor plan of the course of the stars . Pp. 192-194.
  19. PJ1553.A1 1908 cop3. The ancient Egyptian pyramid texts based on the paper prints and photographs of the Berlin Museum.
  20. Widows and Orphans. bibelwissenschaft.de
  21. Oldest Hebrew inscription deciphered, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, January 8, 2010
  22. ^ Pupils, Zeno.org
  23. Krause, J.-U .: Widows and Orphans in the Roman Empire , Habilitation Thesis, Volume 4, Steiner-Verlag, Stuttgart 1994/1995
  24. Laws (De legibus) Laws. After the translation by Franz Susemihl in: Platon's works, fourth group, ninth to fifteenth volumes, Stuttgart 1862, 1963, edited.
  25. ^ Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6th edition 1905–1909
  26. Cramer, F .: History of education and teaching in antiquity, Volume 1
  27. ^ Peffer, ME: Social security institutions in Greek and Roman antiquity: with special consideration of security in the event of illness , Duncker & Humblot Verlag, 1st edition 1969
  28. Weber, H .: Ausgerenzte Kinder, Historische Streiflichter, Der Straßenkinderreport, Zur Situation der Kinder in der Welt 11/2009
  29. ^ Trapper, T .: Home education from yesterday: Experiences and impulses for collective education of today and tomorrow. (Series of publications on education - teaching - education) paperback, Hamburg 1996
  30. ^ Trapper, T .: Home education from yesterday: Experiences and impulses for collective education of today and tomorrow. (Series of publications on education - teaching - education) paperback, Hamburg 1996
  31. Life and Teaching of Confucius. Bavaria 2 07/12/13
  32. Markus Meumann: Foundlings, orphanages, infanticide: Unserved children in early modern society. Wissenschaftsverlag, Oldenbourg 1995, ISBN 3-486-56099-9 , p. 180 f.
  33. ^ Z. Eriksson: Acta Pediatrica. Volume 4, Issue Supplement S1, April 1925, pp. 7-18.
  34. ^ Z. Eriksson: About institutional damage to children. In: Acta Paediatrica. Volume 4, Issue Supplement S1, April 1925, pp. 7-18.
  35. ^ Z. Eriksson: "Hospitalism" in children's homes: About institutional damage to children. Akad. Abh .; From the Munich Children's Clinic; Dir. Prof. M. v. Pfaundler, Akademiska Bokhandeln 1925.
  36. child abandonment . HLS December 09, 2006
  37. ^ Trapper, T .: Home education from yesterday: Experiences and impulses for collective education of today and tomorrow. (Series of publications on education - teaching - education) paperback, Hamburg 1996
  38. Orphans - Medieval Lexicon Aug 9, 2012 ( Memento from March 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  39. ^ Scheutz, M .: European hospital system. Institutional Care in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times, 2008
  40. ^ M. Meumann: Foundling children, orphanages, child murder: Unserved children in early modern society. Wissenschaftsverlag Oldenbourg, 1995, ISBN 3-486-56099-9 , p. 180 f.
  41. Eight . HLS 07/28/2016
  42. 100 data on insurance history. Museum of the German Insurance Industry 2005–2007
  43. History of mankind. New chances. zdf info 2013
  44. Pyo, G .: Kinder- und Jugendwohl, 2nd edition, Paju 2010, p. 58
  45. Kim, S .; Kim, H .; Choe, H .: Child Welfare, Paju 2013, pp. 98-99
  46. Beck, Reiner: Mäuselmacher or the imagination of evil, CH Beck Verlag 2011
  47. Pfaff, Cornelia: Children were also victims of the witch hunt, Wissenschaft.de May 28, 2001
  48. ^ U. Hammer: Electress Luise Henriette. Studies on the history and culture of Northwest Europe. Volume 4. Waxmann 2001
  49. WDG
  50. ^ Orphans, HLS August 20, 2013
  51. H.-P. Rosenberger: Famous and Places. 2nd corrected edition, Verlag Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt 2009.
  52. ^ Marshall, B .: France and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara 2005
  53. ^ History of the Casket Girls of New Orleans, www.gonola.com, October 16, 2018
  54. ^ Notker Hammerstein, Christa Berg: Handbuch der deutschen Bildungsgeschichte . CH Beck, 2005, ISBN 3-406-32464-9 , p. 430/31.
  55. Mercantilism. Strengthen economic power, bpb
  56. ^ Child labor in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
  57. Meike S. Baader, Florian Esser, Wolfgang Schröer: Childhoods in the Modern Age. A history of worry, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt aM / New York 2014
  58. Gerlinde Viertel: The beginning of the rescue house movement under Adalbert Graf von der Recke-Volmerstein (1791-1878) . Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1993
  59. L. Braun: The women question. European Literature Publishing House , 1st edition, Bremen May 4, 2011, ISBN 3-86267-422-3 .
  60. Marco Finsterwald: Contract children. Child removal by the Bern Youth Welfare Office 1945–1960 ( memento from October 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) and swissinfo.ch: Bern apologizes to contract children
  61. Gabenpfleger, Freemasons-Wiki, May 2, 2018
  62. The Pupil, Zeno.org
  63. ^ G .: City history of Rostock in numbers: Series 151-250, Haff Verlag, Grambin 2014
  64. poor and orphans school, 1743-1869, Hamburg State Archives
  65. ^ Orphanage, Universal-Lexikon, Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias
  66. ^ History of home education. In: Heimkinder (JsB), Philo Wiki ( Memento from December 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  67. ^ A. Mehringer: Heimkinder. Collected essays on the history and the present of home education. 4th edition. Reinhardt, Munich and Basel 1994.
  68. ^ J. Jacobs: The orphanage dispute: a contribution to the history of pedagogy of the 18th and 19th centuries. Trute 1931.
  69. ^ Richter, J .: "Good children of bad parents". Family life, child care and deprivation of custody in Hamburg 1884–1914 . VS Research series. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag.
  70. Ahnsen, H .: Child poverty - demands on social work . In: Guild newsletter. No. 1/1997, p. 2.
  71. ^ Emminghaus, A .: The poor system and poor legislation in European countries. Herbig Publishing House. Berlin 1870
  72. Dornseif, G .: Orphan Import and Maid Recruitment for Southwest, May 11, 2010 ( Memento of February 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  73. The Farmer. In: Windhuker Nachrichten , Winhhuk September 8, 1908.
  74. America's bravest postman. Skinny guys wanted, orphans preferred, SPIEGEL ONLINE March 28, 2018
  75. America's Orphan Trains, the Other Form of Slavery, World. History January 22, 2015
  76. The bloody record of the First World War. History. WORLD 11/11/2018
  77. Thomas Fuchs: Jakob Künzler. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . November 5, 2007 , accessed June 4, 2019 .
  78. ^ Niall PAS Johnson, Juergen D. Mueller: Updating the Accounts: Global Mortality of the 1918–1920 "Spanish" Influenza Pandemic . In: Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 76, No. 1, 2002, pp. 105-115
  79. Post-war society . Inheritance from the First World War in the Weimar Republic, Federal Agency for Civic Education April 27, 2018
  80. Jump up ↑ The New World, The Homestead Act, History-Knowledge, Nov. 30, 2014
  81. Hildermeier, Manfred: History of the Soviet Union 1917–1991. Munich 1998, p. 150 ff.
  82. SPIEGEL ONLINE, May 12, 1997
  83. ^ Spanish Civil War. Exodus of the children SPIEGEL ONLINE ONE DAY
  84. Windischbauer, E .: Kindertransporte 1938/39 to England, www.kindestransport.org
  85. Behrendt, G .: With the Kindertransport to freedom. From Jewish refugee to Corporal O'Brian. Frankfurt / Main, 2001
  86. Göpfert, R .: I came alone. The rescue of ten thousand Jewish children to England in 1938/39. Munich, 1994
  87. Harris, MJ; Oppenheimer, D .: Kindertransport into a strange world. Munich, 2000
  88. ^ Turner, H .: Kindertransport. An unprecedented rescue operation. Gerlingen, 1994
  89. ^ [The children of the master race - Organization Lebensborn, ZDF info, April 13, 2013 (video)]
  90. dradio.de, calendar sheet
  91. Kopp, V: Giving the leader a child. The SS organization Lebensborn eV, Böhlau Verlag 2007
  92. records management - EHRI, January 1st, 1942 to December 31, 1945
  93. ^ Child robbery by the National Socialists. Blond, blue-eyed, kidnapped. Deutschlandfunk 08.08.2016
  94. Gd's Forgotten Children ?, haGalil.com July 12, 2009
  95. ^ Jewish organization demands names of Holocaust orphans. New dispute over old questions, DOMRADIO.DE April 30, 2009
  96. The Lost Children of the Holocaust, AudiaturONLINE May 27, 2015
  97. New look at old suffering, SZ 02.08.15
  98. ↑ Orphaned by the atomic bomb, report by the contemporary witness, Mr. Yamaoka, Hiroshima-Platz Potsdam eV Jul. 2006
  99. ^ A time of great upheaval, Dlf Kultur April 22, 2015
  100. A day with consequences: The betrayed orphans of Maurice Duplessis. French TV documentary by Marc Petitjean, Arte 2003
  101. Mandela. From public enemy to president , history. zdf info December 6, 2013  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.heute.de  
  102. White blood. From the ruins into the sun. A story of apartheid arte. June 4, 2013 ( Memento from December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  103. Vatican: Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Retrieved February 1, 2011 .
  104. Nonnenmacher, P .: Cast out of the Empire. Orphans transported to Australia Frankfurter Rundschau November 16, 2009
  105. R. Steininger: The forgotten war. Korea 1950-1953. Olzog Publishing House. 2nd edition 2009
  106. ^ History of Adoption in Korea - KOREA ADOPTION SERVICES. Retrieved April 13, 2018 (Korean).
  107. [Olympian is looking for biological parents. Mom do you recognize me SPIEGEL ONLINE, 08-2018]
  108. F. Dikötter: Mao's Great Hunger. Mass murder and human experiment in China. Velcro-Cotta 2014
  109. BArch Berlin, DO 1, 17 283, letter from Dickel to Honecker, February 14, 1964
  110. ^ B. Leiber, M. Radke, M. Müller: Das Baby-Lexikon. ABC of early childhood. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2001.
  111. April 30, 2005 - 30 years ago: End of the Vietnam War, WDR. Retrieved March 16, 2017 .
  112. ^ The Scars of the Apocalypse, ZEIT ONLINE, April 26, 1985
  113. ^ The children of Operation Baby Lift. SPIEGEL ONLINE, April 8, 2005
  114. ^ Operation baby lift. ABC 2015 ( Memento from September 11, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
  115. Stolen children. planet know, August 2, 2016
  116. Argento, A .: Paula, you are Laura! Robbed children in Argentina. Ch. Links Verlag 2010, ISBN 978-3-86153-593-5 .
  117. ^ Orphanages in South Korea, Decades of brutal child abuse covered up, Nord West Zeitung, April 22, 2016
  118. Hundreds Had to Die for a Shiny Olympia, Welt, Geschichte May 4, 2016
  119. Death awaits in the orphanages, DIE WELT 06/12/1995
  120. The Harbin Children's Gulag. SPIEGEL ONLINE September 11, 1995
  121. China ends one-child policy. ZEIT ONLINE October 29, 2015
  122. Contemporary witnesses remember the disaster. DW April 26, 2011
  123. ^ Not, Frank Lothar: The "Stasi" as a place of remembrance in the unified Germany 1990-2010. Tectum publishing house. Marburg 2012
  124. Parental escape. The abandoned children of the GDR. Spiegel Online, October 11, 2010
  125. Oslo Agreement as a milestone in the Middle East peace process, bpb 09/12/18
  126. How ten orphans moved together on September 11, Berner Zeitung, September 11, 2016
  127. Lielischkies, Udo: Russia: Orphans as a political weapon, Weltspiegel, ARD as of June 20, 2013
  128. Madonna is allowed to adopt orphan Mercy. In: Die Welt , June 12, 2009.
  129. Sex orgies with home children. Süddeutsche Zeitung May 19, 2010
  130. Philippines: Thousands of Orphans, Vatican Radio November 14, 2013
  131. ^ Victims of the epidemic: Africa's rejected Ebola orphans SPIEGEL ONLINE GESUNDHEIT of September 21, 2014
  132. In China, the orphans of those executed are cast out - not by the "mother of the murdered children", EPOCH TIMES, September 24, 2018
  133. France brings Jihad children back from Syria - the government is in a dilemma, NZZ November 11, 2019
  134. Federal government wants to bring IS orphans back, Tagesschau May 31, 2019
  135. [1]
  136. M. Plotsidem: Orphans and Social Orphans in State Welfare Institutions in Ukraine - Legal Situation and Different Models.
  137. https://www.unicef.de/informieren/aktuelles/presse/2012/kinderrechte-ukraine/29574
  138. AIDS orphans at Avert.org (en)
  139. ^ AIDS Orphan's Preventable Death Challenges Those Left Behind
  140. ^ UNAIDS How AIDS changed everything 2015
  141. In Swaziland, many are just waiting for death, Welt, Politik, August 6, 2008
  142. 15 million AIDS orphans. In: Doctors newspaper, July 14, 2004
  143. CHILDREN AFFECTED BY AIDS. Africa's Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations, PRE - Publication, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) August 14, 2006 ( Memento of October 7, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  144. DUDEN, war orphan
  145. ^ The sad fate of the war orphans, NDR, as of November 19, 2012
  146. Wolfskinder Geschichtsverein e. V., website accessed May 24, 2012
  147. No language, no home. Contemporary history, Der Spiegel January 15, 1996
  148. Sonya Winterberg: We are the wolf children. Left in East Prussia. Piper Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-492-05515-4 The book deals with the fate of the orphaned wolf children in the former East Prussia.
  149. ↑ New start in life - After the Shoah, Canada took in over 1,000 Jewish orphans. Jewish Life Online, February 20, 2018
  150. Childhood in World War II, planetwissen, May 29, 2018
  151. Information about Josefine Stross (1901–1995) in the Biographical Lexicon of Psychoanalysts in Europe.
  152. Short biography
  153. ↑ Based on the biography of Erna Furman, p. 107, footnote 66, Anna Freud in collaboration with Sophie Dann , An experiment In Group Upbringing, in: 'The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child', VI, 1951. A group of six three-year -old former Terezin children is observed as regards group behavior, psychological problems and adaption.
  154. Help the refugee children. UNICEF as of August 2, 2013
  155. Over two million Syrian children in need. In: Zeitgeschehen, ZEIT ONLINE March 12, 2013
  156. Peter Scholl-Latour : Death in the rice field . dtv, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-423-36173-5 .
  157. Foreign Legionnaire No. 5720 Leonard Buholzer. Association netzwerk-Verdingt
  158. Yuval Noah Harar I (2015). A Brief History of Humanity, pp. 72f.
  159. ^ Hill, K .; Hurtado, AM; de Gruyter, A .: Aché Life History. The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. Aldine Translation, New York 1996
  160. Cunahá death in the rainforest GEO
  161. Deutschlandfunk, When glaciers loosen, February 16, 2008
  162. Childhood in Greenland. The northernmost children's home in the world, arte 2018
  163. ^ Mann, M .: The dark side of democracy. A Theory of Ethnic Cleansing, HIS 2007
  164. ^ J. Feix: Herodotus Historien . First volume, 4th edition, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 1988.
  165. Hubert Houben: Emperor Friedrich II. Ruler, man, myth. Stuttgart 2008, p. 144 f .; Wolfgang Stürner: Friedrich II. Part 2: The Kaiser 1220–1250. Darmstadt 2000, p. 449.
  166. ^ Tudor, M .: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Evaluative Labeling of Speech Fluency. University of Iowa 1939
  167. Huge payout in US stuttering case, BBC NEWS, August 17, 2007
  168. Clinical Drug Trials in Ukraine: Myths and Realities . Berne Declaration, September 2013 ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  169. A. Bergmann: The dead patient - modern medicine and death. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2004.
  170. A. Bergmann, Ulrike Baureithel: Heartless death. The Organ Donation Dilemma. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1999.
  171. Coen, A .: The Sadist's Experiment, enarro 2014 ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  172. Goodbye in heaven - The Sinti children from St. Josefspflege , planet school, SWR / WDR 2013
  173. Sehroeder, PW: Radiant cornflakes for orphans. Radioactive human experiment scandal shakes USA. Bill Clinton orders crisis conference. In: Berliner Zeitung , January 4, 1994.
  174. Australian University admits medical experiments on orphans , children without rights November 18, 2009 ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  175. Norbert Kühne : Early Development and Upbringing - The Critical Period. In: Teaching Materials Pedagogy - Psychology. No. 694, Stark Verlag , Hallbergmoos, 2012
  176. Jens Plückhahn: Permanent homes for infants and toddlers in the GDR from the perspective of attachment theory. Diploma thesis FH Potsdam, Potsdam 2012, p. 60 and p. 101 ff .; Bundesarchiv Berlin-Lichterfelde - Ministry of Health of the GDR BArch DQ 1/13585 u. at the; Journal for Medical Training in the GDR 1957, 21/22, p. 895 ff. / 1958, 7, p. 307 ff. / 1959, 22, p. 1443 ff. / 1960, 21, p. 1220 ff. And at the
  177. C. Burschel: Infant homes: The “forgotten” children's homes of the “economic miracle society”. from: W. Damberg, B. Frings, T. Jähnichen, U.Kaminsky (eds.): Mother Church - Father State? History, practice and debates of denominational home education since 1945. Münster 2010.
  178. J. Fleischhauer: Children affected by war. A neglected dimension of peacebuilding . Budrich UniPress 2008
  179. S. Hillmert: Half-orphans have to stand on their own two feet faster. In: Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, Issue 1/2002, pp. 44–69.
  180. Orphans. The stigma of being abandoned, SOS Orphanages Worldwide January 31, 2014
  181. ^ The fate of the French children in care. arte 2015
  182. Increased risk of suicide among orphans and half-orphans, esanum, Das Ärztewerk
  183. ^ Incidence of Suicide Among Persons Who Had a Parent Who Died During Their Childhood, Jama Network, 2015
  184. ^ Wolfgang Koeppen: The miserable scribes. Essays. Edited by Marcel Reich-Ranicki. Frankfurt (Suhrkamp) 2nd ed. 1983, pp. 249-251
  185. Spangler, Zimmermann: The attachment theory. Basics, research and application. Velcro-Cotta 1997
  186. Spangler, Zimmermann: Attachment and adaptation in the life course. In: Oerter et al .: Textbook of clinical developmental psychology. Beltz 1999 (Sem.app.34)
  187. ^ Grossmann, Grossmann: The attachment research: model, developmental research and results. In: H. Keller: Handbuch der Kleinkindforschung. Huber 2002 (Sem.app. 34)
  188. Early attachment trains the brain for love. Psychology, DIE WELT May 12, 2007
  189. a b Fritz Bamberger, new ed. by Walter Homolka: The teachings of Judaism according to the sources, Vol. 1 , Facs.-Dr. the orig. edition published in 1928–1930. Leipzig, new and adult Edition, Knesebeck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-89660-058-3 , p. 13, (accessed on February 18, 2016).
  190. ^ Fritz Bamberger, new ed. by Walter Homolka: The teachings of Judaism according to the sources, Vol. 1 , Facs.-Dr. the orig. edition published in 1928–1930. Leipzig, new and adult Edition, Knesebeck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-89660-058-3 , p. 350, (accessed on February 18, 2016).
  191. educalingo, Dictionary of Etymology
  192. ^ Fritz Bamberger, new ed. by Walter Homolka: The teachings of Judaism according to the sources, Vol. 1 , Facs.-Dr. the orig. edition published in 1928–1930. Leipzig, new and adult Edition, Knesebeck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-89660-058-3 , p. 378, (accessed on February 18, 2016).
  193. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam
  194. Quran Translation islam.DE. Sura 4: an-Nisa (The Women) March 31, 2020
  195. C. Ostermeier: Elements of a social security in Islam: An analysis of ideal-typical design and realpolitical implementation. Diploma thesis, University of Regensburg 2000.
  196. Kindwohlinstitut 2002, Kindwohl und Politik, p. 35
  197. ^ Robert L. Welch: The Future of Indigenous Museums: Perspectives from the Southwest Pacific. by Nick Stanley
  198. Alphonse A. Sowada, BI POKOMBAN ( Mask Festival ), p. 222
  199. Birgitte Sonne: www.érudit.org Who's afraid of Kaassassuk? Writing as a tool in coping with changing cosmology. In: Études / Inuit / Studies, Vol. 34, Number 2 (2010), pp. 107–127.
  200. Translation from Greenlandic (based on Birgitte Sonne): Kaassassuk , which means something like "he who will starve to death".
  201. Terra X - Fascination Universe: The Riddle of Harmony. In: ZDF on September 29, 2013.
  202. From the pain of the orphan to the triumph of the hero , Lower Austria children & youth advocacy. www.kija-noe.at. St. Pölten 2014 ( Memento from August 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  203. The motif of parentlessness in children's and youth literature . University of Vienna 2011
  204. Why heroes are often orphans ... http://behmel.blogspot.de/ July 27, 2013
  205. ^ The Moses Mendelssohn'sche Orphan Education Institution of the local Jewish community in Berlin, 1841, online edition, University Library, Frankfurt am Main 2013
  206. von Studnitz, p. 313, entry 54
  207. Edition used, p. 577 below
  208. ^ Riley, p. 136, entry from 1812
  209. Information on the history of the edition can be found in Moering, pp. 1254–1259. The collection of novels from 1812 still contains: Melück Maria Blainville , The Three Loving Sisters and the Happy Dyer and Angelika, the Genoese, and Cosmus, the rope jumper .
  210. Source, p. 393, 3. Zvo
  211. "James Bond says a lot about the dreams of modern men", Süddeutsche Zeitung, November 6, 2008
  212. ^ P. Barbier: Farinelli. Le castrat des Lumières. Paris 1995
  213. ^ F. Lippold: Handel's orphans. Handel's first benefit concert for the London Foundling Hospital in 1749.
  214. W. Lemfrid: Thoughts on Christian content of the Messiah by George Frideric Handel. Contribution to the program for the European Music Festival of the International Bach Academy, Stuttgart 29 August 1988
  215. Eckhard John: There were two orphans. In: Popular and Traditional Songs. Historical-critical song dictionary 2013
  216. Christine Debrie: Nicolas Blasset: Architecte et sculpteur ordinaire du roi, 1600–1659 , Nouvelles éditions latines, 1985.
  217. Tarnoeski, W .; Babovic, T .: In the footsteps of Ernst Balach. Eller & Richter publishing house. Hamburg 2nd edition 2011
  218. Work in the Wiktionary
  219. Tibet's orphans . Documentation arte September 26, 2013
  220. Sehwaisen - Objects by Gabriele Rérat
  221. ^ Gates finances Noah's Ark of Plants. SPIEGEL ONLINE, April 19, 2007
  222. Schopf, FJ: The rights and obligations arising from the jurisdiction, and as an appendix, the rights and obligations of Dominical and rustic real estate in general, Kiebnreich 1845, p. 84
  223. ^ From widows and orphans, BÖRSE ONLINE April 11, 2016
  224. The price of maturity: Microsoft shares become a capital investment for widows and orphans, Handelsblatt June 15, 2004
  225. ^ The Orphans of Versailles, SPIEGEL ONLINE, January 25, 2011
  226. Definition of し ゅ う せ き き ょ か - し ん ぱ ん - Chinese remaining orphan in the Japanese dictionary
  227. ^ An impeccable man, ZEIT ONLINE, Kultur, February 4, 2016
  228. ^ Rudyard Kipling: Something of myself and other autobiographical writings. Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-521-40584-X . ( online )
  229. Orphan Pages, RYTEWIKI 2018
  230. Orphan Pages, XOVI Handbook
  231. Tautz, D .: Evolution of Genes from Random Sequences, MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT 2019