Fairy tales ( diminutive of Middle High German mære = “customer, report, message”) are prose texts that tell of wondrous events. Fairy tales are an important and very old genre of texts in oral tradition (orality) and occur in all cultures. In contrast to the orally transmitted and anonymous folk tales is the form of the art fairy tale , the author of which is known. In German-speaking countries, the term fairy tale was coined in particular by the collection of the Brothers Grimm .
In contrast to sagas and legends , fairy tales are fictitious and their plot is neither fixed in time nor place. However, the distinction between mythological sagas and fairy tales is fuzzy, both genres are closely related. A well-known example of this is the fairy tale Sleeping Beauty , which Friedrich Panzer , for example, regards as a fairytale-like “defused” version of the Brünnhilden saga from the Nibelungen saga . The Waberlohe can be seen as trivialized as a rose hedge and the Norns as trivialized as fairies .
Characteristic of fairy tales is, among other things, the appearance of fantastic elements in the form of animals that speak and act like humans, of magic with the help of witches or wizards , of giants and dwarfs , ghosts and mythical animals ( unicorn , dragon , etc.); at the same time, many fairy tales have socially realistic or socially utopian features and say a lot about social conditions, e.g. B. about domination and servitude, poverty and hunger or family structures at the time of their formation, transformation or written fixation. After the folk tales had been fixed in writing, media diversification began (images, illustrations , translations, retelling, parodies , dramatizations , film adaptations, settings, etc.), which now took the place of oral transmission. In this respect, the “rescue” of the fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm is on the one hand to be welcomed, but on the other hand it also puts an abrupt end to the oral transmission of a mono-medial text type.
Telling fairy tales has been recognized as an intangible cultural heritage in Germany. In December 2016, the German Commission for UNESCO included fairy tale telling in the nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage .
Fairy tale research
Comparative fairy tale research was founded by the Brothers Grimm and later continued by Theodor Benfey in the 19th century. In 1910 Antti Aarne categorized fairy tales according to their main narrative content; this gave rise to the Aarne-Thompson Index, which is still used today in international narrative research. (In German, the abbreviation AaTh is often used to avoid confusion with AT for Old Testament). In 2004 Hans-Jörg Uther presented another revision. The classification has since been used as the Aarne-Thompson-Uther Index , or ATU for short.
The Russian philologist Vladimir Jakowlewitsch Propp made an important contribution to literary research in fairy tales in 1928 with his structuralist study of the morphology of fairy tales. Eleazar Meletinsky added important insights into the distinction between fairy tales and myth .
All fairy tales are based on a fixed plot structure, regardless of their content. This structure fulfills certain functions that are associated with “ archetypal ” actors (hero, opponent, helper, etc.) and can already be found in ancient times .
More recently, fairy tales have also been examined using different theoretical approaches from anthropology , oral history , psychology ( analytical psychology , psychoanalysis , psychological morphology ) and other individual disciplines. Marie-Louise von Franz and her student Hedwig von Beit are among the most important psychological fairy tale researchers . Von Franz published numerous monographs on the psychological interpretation of fairy tales. Her central thesis, based on CG Jung , is that in fairy tales archetypal contents of the collective unconscious are represented with their process-like interaction in the human psyche . Fairy tales thus contained psychological orientation knowledge in symbolic form and historically they would often have had the function of compensating for the one-sidedness of collectively prevailing values and views .
In fairy tales, good and bad are usually separated in the form of characters appearing good or bad; Exceptions to this are e.g. B. ambivalent trickster characters or animals that "deal well with the good and bad with the bad". In terms of content, the focus is usually on a hero or a heroine who has to deal with good and bad, natural and supernatural forces. Often the hero is an ostensibly weak figure like a child or the youngest son. Fairy tales often end with the good being extremely rewarded and the bad being extremely punished. As an example, a quote from two of the most famous fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm:
“And as it stood and had nothing left, suddenly the stars fell from the sky and were nothing but shiny thalers; and even though she gave away her little shirt, she wore a new one, and that was made of the finest linen. There it collected the thalers and was rich for a lifetime. "
“When the wedding with the king's son was about to be held, the wrong sisters came, wanted to ingratiate themselves and share in his happiness. When the bride and groom went to church, the oldest was on the right, the youngest on the left, when the doves pecked out one eye. Afterwards, when they went out, the oldest was on the left and the youngest on the right, when the pigeons pecked out each other's eye. And so they were punished for their wickedness and falsehood with blindness for the rest of their lives. "
Origin and early fixation of text in fairy tales
A study by Sara Graça da Silva and Jamshid J. Tehranis of the Royal Society , based on language comparisons, found in 2016 that the roots of some fairy tales such as The Blacksmith and the Devil can very likely be traced back to 6000 years.
Fairy tales are very old and go back further than any other literary form in human history; they can be classified according to different types and tentatively assigned to different ages. Magic fairy tales are among the oldest fairy tales . They show narrative structures as we know them from ancient Greek and Latin myths (sagas of gods and heroes), the narrative material of which also goes back well before the use of writing as a means of transmission.
In the written documents of all early advanced cultures, there are fairytale features, for example in the Gilgamesh epic , which contains motifs that also occur in fairy tales. The Ancient Egypt was rich in magic and animal stories. India is assigned a mediating role between the narrative traditions of Asia and the Middle East. Overly simplistic theses such as that of Theodor Benfey that European fairy tales are of Indian origin are considered obsolete, as identical fairy tale motifs can be found in widely separated and completely alien cultures. This fact is one of the most fascinating observations in fairy tale research. Carl Gustav Jung tried to explain this with the assumption of a “ collective unconscious ” of humanity. The theses of Bruno Bettelheim that originally fairy tales were always stories for children that are timeless and that can be told and understood in all societies are also out of date. In fact, they always clearly refer to social realities in the context in which they were created, even if motifs were borrowed from country to country.
The Italian Giambattista Basile , whose collection Il Pentamerone appeared in the first half of the 17th century, is considered the first great European folk tale collector and reteller . Of course, numerous motifs from his fairy tales can also be found in the Grimms' fairy tales . The same applies to Charles Perrault's first large collection of folk tales from 1697, entitled Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec des moralités: contes de ma Mère l'Oye . Admittedly, both collections bear the signature of their editors, especially the Perraults. But the Brothers Grimm's folk tales have also been linguistically revised, as have all other 19th century European fairy tale collections in the international succession of the Grimms. Oral versions that were left completely untouched only existed in the 20th century.
In the case of folk tales, no particular author can be determined. Oral transmission was exclusive for a long time and is still the natural form of transmission today. Nevertheless, the written tradition has also influenced the traditional oral narrative method since its inception, because fairy tales found their way into written literature as early as the Middle Ages. With the possibility of book printing since the end of the 15th century, the written dissemination naturally gained greater importance. Due to the oral narrative tradition, folk tales appear in many, sometimes very different, variants, the more numerous the older and the more widespread a fairy tale - i. H. an essentially identical combination of units of action - is. Conversely, very different fairy tales, even in far apart narrative traditions and across language barriers, show a striking number of similarities in the individual plot motifs, i.e. in the smallest isolable units of action. This has led to the Aarne-Thompson-Uther-Index , an extensive list of fairy tale types and a systematic cataloging of the units of action. The fairy tale is thus (like, for example, the folk song) a form of literature that knows neither originals nor imitations; even a term such as “change” in relation to a fairy tale that is similar to another is inadequate; The entirety of folk tale literature is in principle guided by the permutation of the units of action, no specific fairy tale X is “dependent” on another specific fairy tale Y, as is usually the case in traditional written literature. (In the poem Faust , Goethe clearly refers to the puppet show by Doctor Faust , but the Arabic fairy tale The Fisherman and the Spirit is not the model of the German folk tale The Spirit in the Bottle ; both fairy tales only use an identical central unit of action.) See also intertextuality .
European folk tales
German fairy tales
In German-speaking countries with the term fairy tale primarily the folk tale collection is fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm associated (1812), but there are numerous other collections of German folk tales, such as the collection of Ludwig Bechstein , by Johann Wilhelm Wolf as German Hausmärchen referred or those of Wilhelm Hauff , known as Hauff's fairy tales .
French fairy tales
In France, the first collection of fairy tales was created in 1697 by Charles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passé avec des moralités , and the expression contes de fée (fairy tales) was coined, from which the English fairy tales is derived. The element of the magical and fabulous already emerges in the naming. However, it is not only magical beings (of divine or diabolical origin) that make the fairy tale world so fantastic, but also objects with a magical effect that are of great use to the fairy tale heroes - apparently a legacy of Celtic mythology - or being bewitched into an animal, a Plant whose symbolic content can be questioned. Likewise, fossilizations play a role every now and then, which can be interpreted in depth psychology as well as the redemption through the tears of a compassionate person.
In the French fairy tales handed down from the time of the turn of the 18th century, however, the problems of a Malthusian society are reflected in which a hunger crisis that has existed since 1690 of falling births, child killing and neglect and abandonment as well as the sale of children by parents and especially through Stepparent leads. The crippling through illness, accident or mutilation of family members who are considered unproductive and who work as beggars is also an issue. The fantastic elements of French fairy tales are far less pronounced than in German fairy tales; they play less often in the forest, more often in the household, in the village or on the country road. Thus, they show clear socially realistic features: They show what can be expected from life. Important topics are again and again hunger, the compulsion to a de facto vegetarian life, in which meat is a rare luxury, or the lower-class utopia of full eating. The “search for happiness” on the country road is just a euphemism for begging. However, fantasies of transformation also flourish (into animals, princes, etc.) that express the compulsion to escapism .
The oral tradition of folk tales in England shows features that are far more optimistic and cheerful than in France or Germany. There are seldom complete stories, often only rhymes or songs, which, however, deal with the same characters as the German or French fairy tales. After all, hunger was hardly ever widespread in English agricultural society in the 18th century until early industrialization. More recently, Celtic and English folk tales have been collected by the Australian Joseph Jacobs .
Italian fairy tales
Here, too, the same characters and actions appear as in the French fairy tale, but they are often shifted to the aristocratic or commercial milieu and treated in a more comical- Machiavellian way, as in the style of the Commedia dell'arte , for example in the Pentameron by Giambattista Basile to which Clemens Brentano retold some stories.
More examples of European fairy tales
The Russian folk tales were collected by Alexander Nikolajewitsch Afanassjew , the Norwegian folk tales by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen . The Czech writer Božena Němcová (1820–1862), who is still popular today, is particularly famous for her collection of fairy tales (American edition 1921). With her work she also deliberately laid the foundations for today's Czech language. Many of her fairy tales have also been filmed and the fairy tale film Three Hazelnuts for Cinderella has been part of the standard program of German-speaking TV stations since 1973.
Non-European fairy tales
Ancient Egyptian fairy tales
Indian, Persian and Arabic fairy tales
The Indian tales can look back on a very long and diverse tradition. One of the most important Indian fairy tale collections is the approximately 2000 year old fairy tale collection called Panchatantra . At the beginning of the 20th century, the indologist Johannes Hertel made important scientific contributions to the development of the Panchatantra. The Panchatantra probably flowed into a Middle Persian collection of stories (a thousand stories ) and thus into the Arab story and fairy tale collection Thousand and One Nights , in which influences from Greek legends were also identified.
Chinese fairy tales
Many Chinese folk tales contain elements of traditional Chinese mythology ; a demarcation is difficult. Their more episodic, not narrated structure is typical. They were collected by Richard Wilhelm ( Chinese folk tales , Jena 1914).
Siberian fairy tales
Fairy tales of the indigenous peoples of North America
One of the first collections of fairy tales of the Native Americans belonged Karl Knortz ' fairy tales and legends of the American Indians (Jena 1871). Walter Krickeberg collected the fairy tales of the peoples of Meso- and South America . Heinz Barüske published Inuit fairy tales .
Fairy tale of the South Seas
Art fairy tale
The art fairy tales (also known as modern fairy tales ) are conscious creations of poets and writers. Sometimes they take up motifs from the folk fairy tale tradition, but mostly novel fantastic miracle stories are invented, which nevertheless remain connected to the folk tale through the aspect of the miraculous and the unreal. Its content is predominantly carried by the worldview and the ideas of an individual person and is subject to the influences of literary trends. The art fairy tale reached an early climax in the Romantic era and received decisive impulses for its further development. In the early romantic period, the emphasis was on very artificial creations, which left the boundaries of conventional fairy tales behind and were therefore no longer so easily accessible to the impartial fairy tale reader. However, that changed again with the poets of the late Romantic period, who preferred the simple fairy tale tone.
The most widely read author of fairy tales in the 19th century was Wilhelm Hauff (1802–1827). His fairy tale books Die Karawane , Der Scheich von Alexandria and Das Wirtshaus im Spessart were published for three consecutive years and, as the titles suggest, are set against different backgrounds. While in the first two volumes he relocates the plot to the Orient, the rougher north serves as the setting in the latter. All of his fairy tales are characterized by adventure, which can be explained by his own enthusiasm for the stranger.
The Dane Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) is one of the most popular fairy tale poets . He was inspired by the Brothers Grimm and the German art fairy tales. First of all, a clear reference to the popular can be seen in his fairy tales, but he soon developed his own, unmistakable style. In contrast to folk tales, which generally take place in an indefinite place, he carefully described the setting of his stories and paid attention to the proximity to the child's worldview. His stories have a simple and unaffected language and have a haunting narrative tone. His aim was to bring the wonderful into the reality of everyday life without creating a gap between the two, as was often the case with the romantics. In Denmark, as in Germany, Andersen's stories were primarily fairy tales for children. However, this contradicted his own self-image, because he saw himself as an author for all age groups.
The fairy tales of Oscar Wilde (1854–1900) have a socially critical background, which , in the spirit of Romanticism, draft ideal images in conflict with cruel realities or denounce the egoism and superficiality of the rulers from the perspective of the exploited victim.
Edith Nesbit (1858–1924) takes her child readers from a real situation into a magical world and at the end back to reality. In her last work, Meereszauber , she pursued peace education intentions. In the same style, Gerdt von Bassewitz (1878–1923) abducts his readers from the nursery into a heavenly world with a fantasy character in Peterchens Mondfahrt . The welcoming ballads of the allegorical nature spirits in the castle of the night fairy are impressive.
Selma Lagerlöf (1858–1940) received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1909 for her fairy tale novel The wonderful journey of little Nils Holgersson with the wild geese . Carlo Collodi's (1826–1890) adventures by Pinocchio have a similar background . In both sequels, a naughty child is raised through painful experiences.
Rafik Schami (* 1946) nests his oriental fairy tales The Honest Liar , Narrator of the Night and The Box of Wonder in frame stories similar to those from the Arabian Nights .
Heinz Körner (* 1947) and Roland Kübler (* 1953) have been authors and editors of very successful " alternative " fairy tales and fairy tale anthologies for adults since the 1980s . The colors of reality , How many colors does longing have . Under similar circumstances and also from the 1980s to the mid-1990s, the Hamburg publishing house Metta Kinau published several fairy tale anthologies, each in several editions.
Fairy tale parodies
Fairy tale parodies are parodies of well-known fairy tales. The plot differs more or less strongly from that of the original fairy tale. Sometimes the parody refers to a single fairy tale and sometimes to several at once. Well-known fairy tale parodies are:
- Roald Dahl : Confetti
- Roald Dahl: The Princess and the Poacher
- Iring Fetscher : Who kissed Sleeping Beauty awake?
- James Finn Garner: Bedtime Stories
- Ida Fleiß, Gert Mittring : number fairy tale
- William Goldman : The Bride Princess
- Mary M. Kaye : The common princess
- Walter Moers : Ensel and Krete
- Peter Rühmkorf : The keeper of the dung heap
- Brothers Grimm by Terry Gilliam
- Shrek - The daredevil hero
- The prince's bride
- 7 dwarfs - men alone in the forest
- 7 dwarfs - the forest is not enough
- The ProSieben fairy tale hour
- The Little Red Riding Hood conspiracy
- Fairy tales by Rolf Gozell
- Fairy tales by Christian Peitz
- Uncle Hotte's fairy tale hour by Oliver Kalkofe
Fairy tale collector
Masterful storytellers who collect fairy tales have probably been around since fairy tales existed. They contributed significantly to the creation and transmission of fairy tales and collections of fairy tales.
The best-known collectors of fairy tales include the Italian Giambattista Basile (1575–1632), the French Charles Perrault (1628–1703), Johann Karl August Musäus (1735–1787), Benedigte Naubert (1756–1819), the Brothers Grimm (1785–1863) ) / (1786–1859), Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769–1860), Ludwig Bechstein (1801–1860), the Norwegian Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (1812–1871), the Russian Alexander Nikolajewitsch Afanassjew (1826–1871) and the Swiss educator Otto Sutermeister (1832–1901). A collection of oriental fairy tales contain the stories from the Arabian Nights . The series The fairy tales of world literature founded by Friedrich von der Leyen presents fairy tales from all over the world.
Most of today's storytellers collect old folk tales and advocate their preservation and the tradition of storytelling. Awareness in the German-speaking area have u. a. the Germans Klaus Adam, Frank Jentzsch , Frieder Kahlert , Elsa Sophia von Kamphoevener , Christian Peitz and Michaele Scherenberg , the Austrians Eva Jensen , Norbert Julian Kober , Michael Köhlmeier , Erwin Stammler , Folke Tegetthoff , and Helmut Wittmann and the Swiss Jürg Steigmeier and Hasib Jaenike obtained. In the international arena are Naceur Charles Aceval (Algeria), Radha Anjali (India), Eth Noh Tec (Japan), Heather Forest (USA), Huda al-Hilali (Iraq), Jankele Ya'akobson (Israel), Saddek El Kebir ( Algeria), Laura Kibel (Italy) and Antonio Sacre (Cuba). In 1999, an educational institution called Goldmund eV was founded in southern Germany to train storytellers. There are now a few schools for storytellers, e. B. the fairytale school RosenRot in Munich or the fairy tale center Dornrosen in Nuremberg or the Mutabor school for fairy tales and storytelling in Trachselwald (Switzerland). The European Fairy Tale Society (EMG) was founded in 1956 in Rheine / Westphalia in Germany. With its 2,500 members, it is one of the largest literary societies and has been for several decades. a. Offers courses in fairy tale studies and storytelling.
A special form of the storyteller is the wandering mouthworker or banter, a representative of the "wandering people". Traveling people were to be found in Germany until the 1930s. These mouthworkers wandered around telling money and / or singing bank songs for a fee.
Festivals (storytellers, theater)
Throughout Germany there have been and are always churches that organize or have organized fairy tale festivals at short notice or for longer periods of time. Below are some examples that have been keeping a regular rhythm for a long time:
Since 1985 there has been the Brothers Grimm Fairy Tale Festival in the park of Schloss Philippsruhe in Hanau (birth town of the Brothers Grimm ) , at which from May to July several fairy tales from the children's and house fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm are presented to around 80,000 visitors per season .
The Yukon International Storytelling Festival has been an international gathering of storytellers in the Canadian Yukon since 1987 and takes place every summer in the capital Whitehorse . His focus is on the narratives of the peoples who live around the North Pole , especially the First Nations , the Alaska Natives and the Eskimos , but also the northern Siberian peoples.
From 1988 to 2006, Europe's largest storytelling festival, The Long Night of the Storytellers (grazERZÄHLT), took place in Graz every year . This event started in 2007 in Lower Austria under the name fabelhaft! NIEDERÖSTERREICH and has been part of the International Storytelling Festival since 2015 , which has since been held in Lower Austria, Styria, Vienna and Upper Austria.
Fairy tale forests, theme parks
In numerous municipalities, fairy tale forests or fairy tale zoos are often set up with several dioramas in which fairy tales are told using small figures, usually against the insertion of a coin. The fairy tale park in Salzwedel is a lot larger, and well-known German fairy tales are presented in 35 fairy tale huts.
- List of fairy tales
- Fairy tale film
- Music fairy tale
- Animal fairy tales
- Magic fairy tale
- Modern saga
- Fairy tale drama
- Kurt Ranke (founder), Rolf Wilhelm Brednich u. a. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of fairy tales . Concise dictionary for historical and comparative narrative research . de Gruyter, Berlin 1977–2015, 15 volumes, ISBN 3-11-005805-7 .
- Hannah Fissenebert: The fairy tale in drama: a study of German-language fairytale adaptations from 1797 to 2017. In: Christopher Balme (Ed.): Forum Neues Theater. 1st edition. Volume 55. Narr Francke Attempto Verlag, Tübingen, ISBN 978-3-8233-8314-7 .
- Helga Arend, André Barz (Hrsg.): Fairy tales - art or education? (= Series of lectures by the Walter Kahn Fairy Tale Foundation. 9). Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2009, ISBN 978-3-8340-0569-4 .
- Bruno Bettelheim : Children need fairy tales. (= German dialogue and practice. 35028). 20th edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-423-35028-8 .
- Ulf Diederichs : Who's who in fairy tales , Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG., Munich 1995, ISBN 3-423-30503-7 .
- Hans Honti: fairy tale morphology and fairy tale typology. In: Folk-Liv. Volume 3, 1939, pp. 307-318.
- Michael Küttner: About the spirit from the bottle. Psychedelic plot elements in the fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm. Pieper's MedienXperimente, Löhrbach 1999, ISBN 3-930442-42-6 ( Edition RauschKunde ), (Simultaneously: Gießen, Univ., 1993: Psychedelic plot elements in the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. ).
- Günter Lange (Hrsg.): Fairy tales - fairy tale research - fairy tale didactics. (= Series of lectures by the Walter Kahn Fairy Tale Foundation. 2). 2nd Edition. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2007, ISBN 978-3-89676-939-8 .
- Max Lüthi : The European folk tale. Form and essence . (1947). 11th edition, UTB / Francke, Tübingen / Basel 1997, ISBN 978-3-8252-0312-2 .
- Max Lüthi: Märchen (Metzler Collection), Stuttgart 1962, edited by Heinz Rölleke, 10th edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 978-3-476-20016-7 .
- Burkhard Meyer-Sickendiek : The fear in fairy tales. In: Burkhard Meyer-Sickendiek: Affektpoetik. A cultural history of literary emotions. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3065-6 , pp. 287-318.
- Almut-Barbara Renger: Between fairy tales and myth. The adventures of Ulysses and other stories from Homer to Walter Benjamin. A genre-theoretical study. Metzler, Stuttgart a. a. 2006, ISBN 3-476-01986-1 . (Also: Heidelberg, Univ., Diss., 2000)
- Rosemarie Tüpker : Music in Fairy Tales , Reichert-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2011, ISBN 978-3-89500-839-9 .
- Oskar Ruf: The esoteric meaning of fairy tales. Knaur, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-426-86007-4 .
- Michael Maar : Witches whisper. Why fairy tales are immortal. Berenberg Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-937834-53-5 .
- Frederik Hetmann : Fairy tales and fairy tale interpretation. Experience & understand. Königs Furt Verlag, Klein Königsförde / Krummwisch 1999, ISBN 3-933939-02-X .
- Hans-Jörg Uther (Ed.): Handbook to the "Children's and Household Tales" by the Brothers Grimm. Origin - Effect - Interpretation. De Gruyter Verlag, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-031743-5 .
- Fairy tale collection
- Fairy tale collection at Woxikon, listed by author
- Fairy tale bazaar
- Märchenstiftung narrator lists, reading libraries, fairy tale magazines
- Antti Arne, Stith Thompson: The Types of the Folktale. A Classification and Bibliography. 2nd, revised edition, Helsinki 1973.
- Hans-Jörg Uther: The types of international folktales. A classification and bibliography. Based on the system of Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson. Helsinki 2004.
- Hans-Jörg Uther: German fairy tale catalog. A list of types. 2015. Waxmann, Münster 2015. ISBN 978-3-8309-3332-8
- Almut-Barbara Renger: Between fairy tales and myth: the adventures of Odysseus and other stories from Homer to Walter Benjamin. A genre-theoretical study. Metzler, Stuttgart a. a. 2006, pp. 106-128.
- Almut-Barbara Renger: Between fairy tales and myth: the adventures of Odysseus and other stories from Homer to Walter Benjamin. A genre-theoretical study. Metzler, Stuttgart a. a. 2006, pp. 106-128, 145-248.
- Gotthilf Isler: Franz, Marie-Louise von. In: Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales. Concise dictionary for historical and comparative narrative research. Edited by Kurt Ranke together with Hermann Bausinger et al. From volume 5, edited by Rolf Wilhelm Brednich together with Hermann Bausinger. Volume 5, De Gruyter, Berlin 1987, p. 98.
- See the literature list in the Wikipedia article on Marie-Louise von Franz.
- Z. BCG Jung: On the phenomenology of the spirit in fairy tales. (1948) In: Collected Works. Vol. 9 / I, Olten / Freiburg 1976, §. 384-455.
- Marie-Louise von Franz: Psychological fairy tale interpretation. An introduction. Newly translated, revised and updated edition. Foundation for Jungian Psychology, Küsnacht 2012. ISBN 978-3-908116-72-1 . German first edition by Kösel, Munich 1986. English original: An Introduction to the Psychology of Fairytales. Zurich / New York 1970.
- Comparative phylogenetic analyzes uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktales. In: Sara Graça da Silva and Jamshid J. Tehrani, royalsocietypublishing.org. January 1, 2016, accessed October 20, 2019 .
- Fairy tales: history and meaning of traditional stories. In: Heike Untermoser, Philognosie GbR, philognosie.net. September 8, 2017, accessed October 15, 2019 .
- Everything about fairy tales, an important sub-genre of epic. In: Jokers GmbH & Co. KG, buecher-wiki.de. 2019, accessed October 15, 2019 .
- Robert Darnton: The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History. New York 1985, p. 30 ff.
- Darnton, p. 39.
- Darnton, p. 44.
- Pharaoh Cheops and the Magician - Ancient Egyptian fairy tales and stories , translated from the hieroglyphic, demotic and ancient Greek and provided with an afterword by Karlheinz Schüssler, with 8 colored plates, Manesse Verlag, Zurich 2003, ISBN 3-7175-2022-9
- How it all began ... , website of the International Storytelling Festival (ISF) , online at storytellingfestival.at