from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rafting in Canada
Ludovico Wolfgang Hart : Preparation of a surge (Trift) on the Wolf in the Black Forest. 1864

Rafting and drift ( "drift" from "drifting" within the meaning of) mean transport of floating tree trunks , logs or sawn timber on waterways , as in Germany was common until about the beginning of the 20th century and regionally until the end of the 50s . When the wood is tied together it is called rafting , otherwise drifting . Rafting is also known as flooding or floating of timber called "floated" so.

The raftsmen tied tree trunks to so-called sturgeons and in this way transported large quantities of wood. Salts were washed out of the wood so that it was less discarded when it was later dried. The drive through weirs was dangerous, however, the height differences between individual logs were sometimes more than a meter, and the raftsman got deep into the water. Behind the weir there were often whirlpools and shallows . Helpers were also available there to provide help in an emergency.


Depiction of rafting on the Upper Rhine, around 1600. Bort raft with boards as an oblast
Finland (1930s)

Antiquity, Mediterranean

Traunsee (1906)

The Old Testament ( 1 Kings 5.23  EU ) mentions that Hiram , the king of Tire , delivered cedar and fir wood in the form of rafts across the Mediterranean to King Solomon , who ruled his great kingdom of Israel from approx. 965 BC. Until approx. 926 BC Should have ruled. Theophrastus ( Hist. Plant. 5.8.2) reported that the Romans brought lumber from the island of Corsica on a raft with fifty sails .

Antiquity and Middle Ages, Germany

Julius Caesar wrote that the Helvetii had crossed the Rhine on rafts. Other writings report that the Magyars in their invasions in the year 926 in the Black Forest struck wood for rafts and ferries.

A document from the second half of the 12th century (approx. 1173/1174) in the Bavarian Main State Archives provides information on the amount of the taxes that Mittenwald raftsmen had to pay to the Schäftlarn monastery. Another document in Latin from 1258 mentions rafting on the Saale and in the archive of the city of Heilbronn a document from February 17, 1342 mentions rafting.

Modern times, Germany

The increasing population at the end of the Middle Ages and the emerging shipbuilding industry led to a lack of wood . In the 18th century, in addition to construction timber , much more firewood was transported from far away; H. also crooked and overgrown trunks. The rafting industry experienced a strong boom until the second half of the 19th century, when industrialization was in full swing, but the road network was not yet expanded to the extent it is today. That changed at the beginning of the 20th century when the railways and trucks made it possible to transport wood more gently and more quickly, even to places that were not on the river (see also the history of the railways , the history of the railways in Germany ). The rafting disappeared from the rivers, only the log rafting lasted a little longer than the Trift. After the Second World War , rafting was only of regional importance. B. on the Finow Canal , but disappeared almost completely by the end of the 1960s. There was only a brief renaissance in the GDR in the 1980s, when delivery bottlenecks arose in the planned economy . Until the end of the GDR, the Werbellinsee sawmill was fed exclusively with rafted wood; the long timber was let into the water directly next to the sawmill or at the Michen wood shelf, which is now a bathing area. The saw frame conveyor system pulled the rafted logs straight out of the lake.

In December 2014, rafting was included as a form of culture in the directory of intangible cultural heritage in Germany .


The Trift is the pre-form of rafting with untied tree trunks. The wood was thrown into the river, floated in the water, and brought back on land. Most of the time, firewood was treated in this way, but valuable wood was rafted under supervision. Drifting was mainly used during floods in spring and autumn. 2 to 3% of the wood sank or was lost in another way.

Ditches were also dug specially for the drift. The Elsterfloßgraben is 93 km long and supplied u. a. Merseburg and Leipzig with firewood.

In contrast to larger rivers, which are suitable without additional equipment for rafting, the drift streams in had middle and high mountains often tight corners and too little water. Then water reservoirs, ponds and reservoirs were created. Depending on the landscape, these were referred to as Klausen , Wooge , water / swell rooms, swell ponds , swellings, raft ponds , locks or drift lakes. The wood was pre-collected in it or a little further down the valley on the bank and only set off in a torrent when the flood began, for example when the snow melted .

In order to protect them from damage during the Trift, the mills , sawmills and hammer mills along the river were cordoned off and their operators were compensated for the failure by the forest contractors.

The Trift disappeared from the German waterways at the same time as the rafting in the middle of the 20th century.


In the Danube area , wood flooding and rafting were widespread, for example:

From the Franconian Forest , the rafting was also carried out intensively and led via Rodach , Main and Rhine to Holland .

Also in the river basin of the Weser (in addition to the Weser including Werra , Fulda , Aller , Leine , Harz area ) there was a noteworthy rafting operation. In particular, the city of Hann. Münden benefited from this type of timber transport ( stacking right ).

In the Saxon area , rafting was operated on the Elbe , the Mulde , the White Elster and their tributaries and streams, which come from the Elbe Sandstone Mountains and the Ore Mountains (both wooded). In addition to larger settlements, customers were ore smelting companies . Worth mentioning is the formerly important timber handling center in Pirna .


Rhine, Neckar and tributaries

Wasserstube Nonnenwag in Nagold , 19th century.

Rafting has been handed down in the Black Forest since the early Middle Ages and was a widespread profession there. With Wieden tied together tree trunks on the rivers moved to the destination. The necessary water masses were dammed up in so-called raft houses or floods and then released together with the raft for the drift . Over the centuries these waterways have been extended to Holland via Murg , Nagold , Enz , Kinzig , Neckar and Rhine . The small side streams were also made flowable in part. For cities like Gernsbach , Schiltach and Wolfach , rafting became the main line of business and was organized in so-called shipping companies. The oldest forest cooperative, the Murgschifferschaft , founded in the 15th century, still exists today . In the 18th century, the Dutch demand for wood led to the boom in the timber trade, but also to the deforestation of large regions of the northern Black Forest . The long and straight fir trees were ideally suited as building material for ships and as driving piles that served as a foundation for cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the swampy soils of the Netherlands. Particularly large and valuable fir trees up to 200 years old were called "Dutch". To this day, reforestations with spruce monocultures bear witness to the destruction of the natural mixed forest.

During this heyday of the Dutch timber trade, capital rafts of the Rhine swam downstream from Koblenz. With a length of 200 to 400 meters and a width of 40 to 80 meters, these were among the largest rafts ever built. The reason could be B. consist of about 1700 trunks and the upper load of about 2000 trunks. 400 to 500 men were needed to control it, for which huge quantities of food were carried along and accommodation, kitchens, a laundry, a bakery, a slaughterhouse and cattle stables were built on the raft.

Due to the expansion of the rail and road network, rafting was largely discontinued towards the end of the 19th century. After 1945 there were only sporadic rafts on the Rhine. In 1967 the rafting was completely stopped here. In the cities of Wolfach , Schiltach and Gengenbach , the tradition of raftsmen and the manufacture of rafts is practically kept alive in clubs and museums. Legends and stories tell about the time of rafting in the northern Black Forest. A story about the Holländer-Michl is The Cold Heart by Wilhelm Hauff .


In Tübingen, the Neckar raftsmen were greeted by the students with the mock shout “ Jockele lock! S'geit en Ailaboga! "Teased, which means something like" Jockele brems! There is an elbow! ”, A jackknife-like jamming of the rafts tied together in the river, caused by carelessness. The last raft went down the Neckar through Tübingen on October 26, 1899.

Bavaria, Austria, Danube and tributaries

Klause am Kraxenbach near Ruhpolding

With the emergence of cities in the 11th century, there was a strong need for wood as a raw material for building and economic purposes. The rafting industry began in the Austrian and Bavarian regions in the 12th century. The rivers Loisach , Isar , Inn , Lech and Iller were heavily used , through which the cities further down (especially Munich , Freising and Landshut ), but also cities on the Danube such as Ulm , Vienna and Budapest were supplied. Since houses were initially built entirely of wood and the cities were therefore more often victims of fires, the demand for lumber quickly exceeded the resources of the area. There were usually no more stately trees in the area when half-timbered construction prevailed. But stone buildings were dependent on considerable amounts of beams not only for the scaffolding and cranes required for erection, but also for ceilings and roof trusses. During the construction of the Frauenkirche in Munich between 1468 and 1488, for example. For example, master carpenter Heinrich required 147 heavily loaded timber rafts for the roof structure, 49 of which were room rafts and 43 sawn timber rafts with a total of around 630 solid cubic meters of round timber. At the Wolfratshausen customs office in 1496, 3,639 rafts moored at the mandatory landing site.

The salt works in Bad Reichenhall required large amounts of firewood to boil the extracted brine. The saltworks obtained the urgently needed fuel from areas in the Austrian Pinzgau , and the waters of the Saalach were used for the wood drift . The Saalforste are still the private property of the Free State of Bavaria, but are on Austrian territory. The Trift weir and parts of the bank walls and locks are still preserved from the former Trift systems.

Rafting on the Sulm near Gasselsdorf (1950)

The constantly departing rafts were also used to transport goods and sometimes to transport people. In 1501 z. B. according to the 'Summary extract and beschreybung the Khauf trade and Schefleuth to Lands Bayrn "following goods transported: curved ebony , paper , horse blanket , cheese , sheep's wool , Jew's harps , fustian , knitted shirts , chalk , shoes , copper water , lard , grindstones , Whetstones , hop sticks , seaweed , fish (also live). Since 1623 a travel raft, the Ordinari, has operated once a week from Munich to Vienna, which for three guilders per person transported its customers to their destination in seven days. Children were carried free of charge. The raftsmen organized themselves in guilds. A maximum of 20 raft masters were allowed to pursue their trade in Mittenwald and up to 24 in Tölz . Even in 1831 ten raft masters were still recorded in Munich. The raft trip peaked in 1848 with around 5800 rafts a year. Only the weirs of the modern age and modern means of transport such as the railroad brought rafting to a standstill (except for tourist purposes).

In Austria, numerous rivers were also used for timber transport, such as B. the Sulm in Styria or the Great Mühl in Upper Austria . The rafting on the Enns served not only to transport wood but also to transport the iron ore extracted from the Erzberg . The route above Steyr was very dangerous due to the many rapids, especially the one near Reifling , and could only be driven on when the water level was high. Shipping on the Enns ended in the 1860s with the opening of the Crown Prince Rudolf Railway . The Enns Museum , which is set up in the box of a former shop near Weyer , reminds of the time of the rafting .

Franconian Forest, Rodach, Main

In the Franconian Forest, the rafting was first mentioned in a document in 1386 and was occasionally operated until the 1970s. The Franconian fir trees were partly rafted across the Main and Rhine to Amsterdam . Today the rafting is carried out on short distances e.g. B. operated touristically on the Wild Rodach near Wallenfels .

The most common rafts on Rodach and Main were the board rafts called "Stümmel" in the Franconian Forest. They consisted of 960 to 1000 boards that were held together with bars and bars. Several stumps could be combined into "stump pieces". In the 20th century, the board rafts disappeared with the construction of the railway, which could transport the sawn timber much more gently.

The simplest form of raft construction was the "basic dome". It consisted of three to ten trunks with a maximum width of 2.60 m, firmly joined together at the front by a yoke and only connected to the outer trunks at the rear. The longest trunk, the "King", lay in the middle and made the raft manoeuvrable and agile for the winding and narrow streams.

Bavarian Forest, rain

The drift lock on the Ilz near Hals

Since the 14th century there has been a toll for raft trips on the rain for the first time . State rafting and rafting of the rain and flowing waters took place in the years 1849 and following. The measures were the installation of bell mechanisms and locks, exposure and cleaning of the rivulets of rock and the installation of bank protection. In 1856 the first state decree of a raft regulation came. In 1863 a towpath was laid on both sides of the river 1.5 m wide because of disputes with landowners. The Triftsperre cases rake is still reminiscent of the rafting on the rain.

For a good 30 years (from March 1636 to 1667) there was a ban on Holzfluder on the Regen from Zwiesel to Regensburg because of pearl farming in the river. Rafting and drifting damaged too many mussels. Up to 1200 mussels had to be opened to find pearls.

The Triftsperre on the Ilz near Hals is still in good condition today . This barrier, which was built between 1827 and 1829, significantly shortened the long way through the Halser river loop with an accompanying rock tunnel . Up to 100,000 sterling of wood was shipped here every year.

Weser and tributaries

When the demand for wood increased in the north German lowlands in the 12th and 13th centuries due to the expansion of cities, shipbuilding and the construction of ports, the Weser offered itself as a transport route to meet the demand with deliveries from the wooded mountainous region. Wood and wood products were transported both by ship and in and on rafts. The city of Hanover was supplied with wood from the Solling via the Ilme and Leine rivers . Since from the Weserbergland to the 19th century, only Hardwood was predominantly oak and, in lesser amounts verflößt beech wood, the wood had before Verflößung because of the high specific gravity dried. The trees were barked to speed up the drying process. In oaks, sapwood was also often removed. Nevertheless, the rafts had a draft of up to 80 cm and were therefore difficult to steer, so that the rafts did not contain more than 120 to 150 solid cubic meters of wood. By tying up wooden barrels (tons) the buoyancy could be improved. Such rafts were also called "barrel rafts". In addition to logs, processed wood ( beams , planks or boards ) was also rafted.

Over the Werra also came softwood from the Thuringian Forest to the Weser, which in Hann. Münden and Gimte were bundled into large Weser rafts. These so-called “board rafts” were the most common type of raft on the Weser in the 18th and 19th centuries. In order to be able to better satisfy the demand for wood, coniferous wood cultivation was started in the Weser Uplands at the beginning of the 18th century, although it only took on larger proportions in the middle of the 19th century. An initial report about the compilation of a raft made of spruce wood comes from Wahmbeck from 1870. Larger amounts from the domestic area were only rafted after the First World War .

With the advent of other modes of transport, especially trucks from the mid-1950s, rafting came to a standstill. In 1964 only 6 rafts passed the lock in Hamelin . After that, only individual rafts were built, especially for nostalgic reasons.

Wood from the southern Lüneburg Heath was brought to the Weser by rafting on the Ise , Örtze and Aller from around the 17th century . This mode of transport was discontinued after the First World War .


View of the wooden port of Hamburg harbor around 1850 as seen from Grasbrook . Raftsmen bring (center) fresh wood on the Elbe to the timber stores of the timber wholesaler JC Jauch & Sons , which are on the water. JC Jauch & Sons bought the wood as far as Poland and Russia .


Kimola Canal tunnel

In Finland, rafting is still very important today. The Kimola Canal , which was inaugurated for timber transport in August 1966, is 7 km long and connects the Kymijoki River via Lake Konnivesi with the downstream Pyhäjärvi (Kymenlaakso) . The canal construction began in 1962. The waterway was built by the government with the most modern technology at the time, but a large part of it was taken out of service in 1999; the last tree trunks swam through the canal on August 14, 2002. There are no locks, but there is a 12 m high dam near a tunnel, on which the wood was lowered with two 30 t cranes in order to overcome the difference in height.


Rafting on the Kostroma , a left tributary of the Volga

After the Russian Revolution , a rafting institute was founded in St. Petersburg, whose task it was to develop new technologies for rafting. In 2006 about 59,000 cubic meters of wood were transported by rafting. In 2008 rafting in Russia was carried out on more than 2000 rivers and 255 lakes, totaling about 142,000 km.


Rafting on the Alpine Rhine near Reichenau (1822)

Rafting and drifting were common on all rivers in Switzerland . The most important timber transport waters included the Aare , Alpine Rhine and High Rhine , Ticino , Rhone , Inn , Emme , Reuss , Limmat and Sihl . Rafted wood, for example, was loaded with goods on the Alpine Rhine from Reichenau to Rheineck , after the Rhine had been a free imperial road since 1291 (analogy to the free imperial city ).

The big cities and the mining industry were supplied, later also iron works in Gerlafingen , Choindez and Emmenbrücke . Wood was also exported, for example on the Rhine to the Netherlands, down the Rhone and via Inn and Danube to Vienna. It was customary for the rafts to be loaded with merchandise. There were guilds in various places, but rafting was free. In the 1830s the timber trade was also liberalized, which initially gave rafting a great boost. Railway construction and hard coal imports 30 years later brought about the end of this trade in Switzerland.

The tradition of rafting is still upheld on Lake Aegeri . Every three years, most recently in spring 2011, logging is carried out, combined with a rafting festival. The wood cut in the mountain forest on the southwestern bank is rafted across the lake to Unterägeri and lifted out of the Lorze river in the middle of the village . In 2005 the two forest owners, Korporation Unterägeri and Korporation Oberägeri, made a film to document the craft of rafting for the future. The Flösserweg exists on the Aare .


Rafting in Sweden began on a larger scale from 1300 and increased sharply from 1400 when coal and ore mining began. From 1800 the rafting continued to grow, when farmers sold their wood to sawmills, paper mills or for export. During this time, many rivers were dammed for hydropower and rapids that hindered rafting were removed, so that, for example, the Dalälven from Dalarna down to the sea was floatable from 1870. Rafting companies were established on the larger rivers, often until the 1960s-1980s, when rail and truck transportation became more profitable.

When the rafting season started in Dalälven , after cleaning the banks and damming the rivers, a small raft was traditionally built with a doll representing a rafting operator. The raft was greeted with cheers from all the raftsmen on its journey.


Rafting Memorial in Collegats

In Spain there was rafting primarily on the Ebro , Tajo , Júcar , Turia and Segura rivers and to a lesser extent on the Guadalquivir . There is evidence of gancheros (rafters) from the 16th century to the middle of the 20th century. José Luis Sampedro reflected the dangerous life of the gancheros in his novel The River That Leads us (1961). This was converted in 1989 by Antonio del Real into a film with Fernando Fernán Gómez and Alfredo Landa .

In Catalonia there was rafting from the 13th century until the 1930s when the construction of dams hampered rafting. Since 1979, the national rafting day has been celebrated in La Pobla de Segur on the first Sunday in July and since 1982, on the third Sunday in August in Coll de Nargó . A raft is built according to traditional methods and used to navigate the river.

In Pont de Claverol there is a rafting museum which has a permanent exhibition as well as a library and a documentary center for archive material, photos and videos. In the summer of 1998 the rafting museum opened in Coll de Nargó.

East Central Europe

Until the First World War , the Memel was of European importance in rafting. From Russia and Lithuania it brought up to 4,000 drifts with around 2 million solid cubic meters of wood to Tilsit , where the local mayor Eldor Pohl made a contribution to promoting rafting by building a wooden port.

North America

Pine Creek, Pennsylvania (1905)

The rafts on Pine Creek in Tioga County , Pennsylvania were often solidly built. The left raft pictured here served as a kitchen and dining room, the middle as a bedroom and the right as a stable for the towing used horses. These rafts were only built to transport timber and were sold as sawn timber at the end of the trip. The Jersey Shore, Pine Creek and Buffalo Railway line can be seen in the background .

When talking about the old days on the Altamaha River , the raftsmen often mentioned a pile of clothes called Rag Point . Anyone who passed it downstream on board for the first time had to make a donation by throwing an item of clothing on it. Those who didn't want to or couldn't do that were "ducked or docked" - dipped into the river or asked to pay for drinks in the saloons at their destination in Darien .

Long-serving raftsmen also always mentioned the "Holler", a kind of yodelling by the raftsmen in the early morning or late evening. There was an echo from up and down the river, and occasionally other lonely raftsmen replied.

Even when in the 1900s the land in the west and south of the river had long ceased to be inhabited by Indians, it was still a custom to call the banks “white” and “Indian” - or “injun”, like the raftsmen usually pronounced that. “Ease the bow to injun - push the bow to the Indians” was a typical command from the raft leaders to their helpers.

Current time

Rafting in the traditional sense no longer exists in Central Europe today. Today in Europe rafting is only done in Norway on the Telemark Canal and in Finland .

Large rafts are still used today on Canada's west coast off Vancouver and Vancouver Island . These rafts reach lengths of over a kilometer and are often well over 50 meters wide. The rafts are completely unmanned. There are only two or three men on the tugs.

There is also rafting in the Asian part of Russia . In Bangladesh , bamboo is rafted from the mountain forests to the coastal cities, for example for scaffolding.

Terms of rafting

Pause at the raftsmen with raft hooks
Europe's largest raft slide at Straßlach-Dingharting with a length of 365 m
Prince Edward on the raft slide at Chaudière Falls in Ottawa
Lock in the Kirnitzsch

Many of the technical terms mentioned here are not generally applicable, as the linguistic usage varied from region to region.

Breaking off - with a breaking off, firewood was collected from the river in order to direct it into a drift canal.

Bloch / Block - 3 to 6 m long sawn off part of a trunk for the production of wooden boards

Bare - place where the cut logs were brought from the forest to the river valley. Mostly it was a lane in which the trunks were transported with ropes and chopped up tree trunks as rolls.

Binding / hanging - binding the logs to raft joints and rafts at the binding site

Raft eye - the raft eye or Wiedloch is a hole worked into a timber beam that is used to tie timber into rafts.

Raft official - person appointed by the state authorities to supervise the course of the rafts, to prevent wood theft and to collect the landing fee. also: raft master, supervisor, chief raft commissioner, raft regiments

Floßfeld / Plötze - the long wood connected to a board.

Raft ditch - mostly artificially created water ditch for the transport of logs.

Raft hook - the raftsman's universal tool . The 1.50 to several meters long wooden poles with iron tips and hooks curved to the side were used to build rafts, steer, hold on and drive in blocks as well as push, turn, turn, roll and lift the wood.

Floßherr - (in the east Retmann ) is the person responsible during the raft trip, which he undertakes on behalf of the owner of the raft timber and the goods transported by the raft. He is also the owner or leaseholder of the pick-up area and is responsible for the raftsmen under his care.

Raft landing - the places where the logs for raft construction are collected, stacked and tied together to form individual rafts, or where the raft lands, its goods are unloaded and the raft is dismantled for the purpose of wood processing.

Raft order - the most since the Middle Ages existing raft regulations must be adhered to freeze the beginning specified by the sovereign directives, such as the periods of Spring rafts from March to May at the latest and autumn rafts from September. According to them, the Trift also had to end on April 23, the “Jörgetag” ( George's Day ).

Raft rake / protection - protective precaution to be able to slow down any logs drifting downstream. Raft rakes must be built very solidly so that they can withstand tidal waves and drifting logs.

Raft slide - the boat lane makes it possible to bypass the height difference at weirs or waterfalls without damaging the wood. In order to generate enough current, slats are attached to the bottom of the raft slide. These point outwards from the center in the direction of flow. As a result, the water shooting past in the direction of the underwater is pressed on the bottom in the direction of the walls, rises up the walls and flows on the surface from both sides towards the center. This creates a channel in the middle of the alley that is often visible on the surface of the water. This and the double circular flow automatically keep the raft in the middle of the alley. One of the most famous raft slides in Canada bypasses the waterfalls of the Rivière Chaudière . It became a well-known tourist attraction.

Fluder, fludern - raft and raft in the rafting language. The terms were used on the rain in the 20th century.

Joint - the joint or sturgeon is the structural unit of a raft (raft link, raft section).

Dutch - strong trunks suitable for ship masts with an average diameter of at least 34 cm and a length of 20 m (values ​​vary regionally)

Klause - dam made of wood, stone or earth for damming the drift water, with a gate to allow the driftwood to pass through.

Paths - smaller softwood trunk tied into the raft

Oblast - additional cargo in the form of wood (e.g. non-buoyant timber) or other cargo that is carried on the raft.

Riesen - Riesen or Riesbahnen are wooden slides on which wood was transported from the point of impact to the raft stream. They were v. a. Widespread in the Black Forest and the Alps.

Locks - barrages that allow logs to drift through the damming of the water. The river is dammed up to several thousand meters, and the tree trunks can be rafted even on small rivers without any problems.

Stacking fee / storage fee - deposit fee for storing wood.

Wasserstube - artificially created raft pond (water collecting basin) to feed a raft ditch.

Wieden - Wieden are extremely flexible and resilient wooden ropes that were used to tie the rafts or their cargo. They were made from selected 2.5 to 3.5 m long young trunks of willow, spruce, fir or oak that were cut in late autumn. They were heated in or over a (re) oven and then turned on by clamping the strong end in a "Hutzel bench" or a "Wiedenbock". In the 20th century they were increasingly replaced by steel cables.


Raftsman's Chapel


  • Dieter Anhuf (Hrsg.): Contributions to regional studies of Southwest Germany and applied geography . Mannheim geographic works; H. 46, Geographisches Institut, Mannheim 1998, ISBN 3-923750-72-2 .
  • Heinz Geistefeld: On the history of rafting administration in Saxony . Diploma thesis - Humboldt University Berlin, Forestry Faculty, Eberswalde 1956 (not loanable).
  • Thomas Gunzlemann, Christine Dorn: The rafting landscape in the Franconian Forest - a complex system and its relics . In: Local history yearbook of the district of Kronach. 24 / 2003–2006, pp. 83–161 (PDF)
  • Franz Hafner: The timber transport. Manual for moving, storage, loading procedures and main transport . Österreichischer Agrarverlag, Vienna 1964.
  • Karl Hasel , Ekkehard Schwartz : Forest history. A floor plan for study and practice . 2nd updated edition. Verlag Kessel, Remagen 2002, ISBN 3-935638-26-4 .
  • Roland Henne: Rafts from the Oberweser: "and always downstream to Kuhlbaum and Schnepper ..." . Verlag Jörg Mitzkat, Holzminden 2005, ISBN 3-931656-82-9 .
  • Henning Hopf: Investigation of the technical and economic development of rafting on the Finow Canal . Diploma thesis - FH Eberswalde, Eberswalde 2003.
  • Karl Friedrich Viktor Jägerschmid : Handbook for timber transport and rafting . Karlsruhe, 1827–1828 ( digitized at E-rara.ch ).
  • Hans-Walter Keweloh (Ed.): Rafting in Germany . Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-8062-0426-8 .
  • Hans-Walter Keweloh (Ed.): In the footsteps of the raftsmen - economic and social history of a trade . Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-8062-0561-2 .
  • Hans-Walter Keweloh: Technical dictionary of rafting . 2nd edition, Bremen 2015 (PDF; 530 kB).
  • Albrecht Milnik (ed.): In responsibility for the forest - The history of forestry in the Soviet occupation zone and the GDR . Brandenburg Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forests, Potsdam 1998, ISBN 3-933352-00-2 .
  • Ralph Rohsiepe: Development and importance of rafting on the Finow Canal . Diploma thesis - Humboldt University Berlin, Forestry Faculty, Eberswalde 1961 (cannot be borrowed).
  • Hanns Rothen: With the raft on the Saale - return to an extinct trade . 1st edition. Justus Perthes Verlag, Gotha 1995, ISBN 3-623-00749-8 .
  • Helmut Seebach u. a .: Old crafts and trades in the Palatinate . 3rd volume. Bachstelz-Verlag Seebach, Annweiler-Queichhambach 1994, ISBN 3-924115-13-3 .
  • Max Scheifele : The rafting on the Ettlinger Alb. From the history of the Alb valley . Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach 1993, ISBN 3-925825-60-6 .
  • Max Scheifele: When the forests went on a journey. Forest, wood, rafting in the economic history of the Enz-Nagold area . G. Braun Buchverlag, Karlsruhe 1996, ISBN 3-7650-8164-7 .
  • Max Scheifele u. a .: The Murgschifferschaft. History of the raft trade, the forest and the timber industry in the Murg Valley . Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach 1988, ISBN 3-925825-20-7 .
  • Daniel L. Vischer: The rafting on the Alpine and the High Rhine. On the history of timber transport on Lake Constance from 1600 to 1900. In: Writings of the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings. 131. Issue 2013, ISBN 978-3-7995-1719-5 , pp. 155-183.
  • Klaus-Peter Westrich (Ed.): Neustadt an der Weinstrasse. Contributions to the history of a city in the Palatinate . Verlag Meininger, Neustadt ad Weinstraße 1975, p. 637 ff.
  • Helmut Wilsdorf u. a .: mining - forest - rafts. Investigations into the history of rafting in the service of the mining industry and the mining transport problem . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1960.
  • Sigbert Zesewitz u. a .: chain shipping . 1st edition. VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-341-00282-0 .
  • Jürgen Delfs: The rafting in the river basin of the Weser . Volume 34. Writings of the Economic Society for the Study of Lower Saxony eV, Walter Dorn Verlag , Bremen-Horn 1952.
  • Karl Filser: Rafting on Bavaria's rivers: the history of an old craft . House of Bavarian History, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-927233-08-0 .

Web links

Commons : rafting  - collection of images
Commons : rafts  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Rafting  - Sources and full texts
Wiktionary: rafting  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Scheifele: The Murgschifferschaft. 1988, p. 177.
  2. ^ Casson, Lionel (1995): "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-5130-8 , p. 4, fn. 2
  3. Press release of the Standing Conference
  4. ^ Stephan Bammer and Claus Eder: Timber industry along the Isar . Lenggries 2004, ISBN 3-9805665-8-7 , p. 58.
  5. ^ A b c Siegfried Haider : History of Upper Austria. Oldenbourg, Munich 1987, p. 270.
  6. Forestry - then and now. ( Memento from July 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  7. ^ Description of a large Rhine raft
  8. Ulrich Neumann: History of raft shipping at Planet Wissen online [1] (accessed July 30, 2010)
  9. Ursula Wegner: Die Schwarzwald-Flößer ( Memento from December 16, 2003 in the Internet Archive ) ( RTF ; 50 kB) SWR2 Knowledge - Manuscript Service.
  10. The Jockele of the Ammerdaal Hexa Tübingen eV fool's guild
  11. ^ Ennsmuseum near Weyer, rafting exhibition
  12. Johannes Laufer, Peter-Michael Steinsiek: Sources on environmental history in Lower Saxony from the 18th to the 20th century, 2012, p. 335f.
  13. Geocaching: Kimolan kanava (in Finnish and English).
  14. ^ Markus Kaiser: Rhine. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . August 27, 2013 , accessed June 5, 2019 .
  15. ^ Anne-Marie Dubler : Flösserei. In: Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz .;
    Martin Illi: Sihl. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  16. Raiers Museum, Pont de Claverol (in English).
  17. Museu dels Raiers ( Memento of 2 September 2011 at the Internet Archive ) (in Catalan).
  18. ^ Hans-Walter Keweloh: Technical dictionary of the rafting . 2nd edition, Bremen 2015 (PDF; 530 kB).