|Cathedral of Our Lady
|Denomination :||Roman Catholic|
|Consecration date :||April 14, 1494|
|Pastor :||Hans-Georg Platschek|
|Parish :||Metropolitan Parish
To Our Lady
|Address:||Frauenplatz 1, 80331 Munich|
The Cathedral of Our Lady in Munich's old town , often called the Frauenkirche , has been the cathedral church of the Archbishop of Munich and Freising since 1821 and is one of the landmarks of the Bavarian capital, Munich .
The three-aisled late Gothic brick building with a surrounding chapel was consecrated in 1494 and is 109 m long and 40 m wide, the masonry of the nave is around 37 m high. Contrary to a widespread legend that the two towers with their characteristic domes differ by exactly one meter in height, they are almost the same height: the north tower measures 98.57 meters, the south tower 98.45 meters. Since the city administration in the city center does not allow any buildings with a height of over 100 meters within the middle ring and since a corresponding referendum in November 2004, no higher buildings may be built in the city area for the time being, the towers are visible from afar. The north tower is not open to the public. The south tower can usually be visited from April to October; However, due to urgent maintenance work, climbing the tower has not been possible since 2012 until further notice.
From the main portal, the rows of columns appear like translucent walls. They support the star vaults of the nave. There is a legend about the spatial effect of the church, which is connected to a “footprint” in a square floor plate in the entrance area of the nave, the so-called devil's kick .
In the 13th century the Wittelsbachers built a Marienkapelle on the site of today's Frauenkirche, at that time on the edge of the walled city . At her instigation, this received parish rights on November 24, 1271 by the Freising Bishop Konrad II . With this Konrad only formally confirmed the facts created by the Wittelsbachers. The late Romanesque three-aisled basilica had a double tower facade with a vestibule in the west and a choir in the east. Ludwig the Bavarian had the choir renewed in the Gothic style and donated a high grave there for his wife Beatrix von Schlesien-Schweidnitz , who died in 1322 , in which he was buried in 1347. Since then, the church has served as the burial place of the Munich line of Wittelsbachers. In the approximately 200 years of its existence, the church was richly endowed with altars, glass paintings and benefices by the affluent patrician families of the parish , which were later transferred to the new church.
Construction of the late Gothic church
There are several legends about the reason for the new building, such that Duke Sigismund saw Munich on a hunt and said that the city needed a church that could tell of it from afar. Another story tells of a girl collapsed and died during a mass in the old church because she could not be removed from the full church. Thereupon the duke swore to build a new and more spacious church so that something like this could no longer happen. In fact, however, the population growth and the increased self-confidence of the Munich citizens as well as their will to represent were the decisive factors for the new building. This was carried out by Jörg von Halsbach (also Jörg Halspach or Jörg Ganghofer), who at the same time (1470) built the old Munich town hall . He decided on a simple building with a simple image program. The city council had agreed to this as he was a builder who, for reasons of cost and material, was in favor of a brick building since there was no nearby quarry.
On February 9, 1468, Duke Sigismund and Bishop Tulbeck laid the foundation stone for the new St. Mary's Church, and in 1472 the old church was demolished. The construction progressed relatively quickly. The huge roof structure was erected by Master Heinrich von Straubing before the building was bulged. Master carpenter Heinrich required 147 heavily loaded timber rafts for the roof structure, 49 of which were room rafts and 43 sawn timber rafts with a total of around 630 solid cubic meters of round timber. The towers , apart from the spiers, were completed as early as 1488. It was finished after only 20 years, which was a very short construction time compared to other large churches. Shortly after completion, Jörg von Halsbach died and was buried in the church.
To finance the construction, the church was able to fall back on the already abundant foundations of the old church. B. Sold land and buildings. When the funds were exhausted in 1479, Pope Sixtus IV granted a full indulgence to those who made a pilgrimage to Munich every week from Sunday Laetare to Judica between 1480 and 1482, confessed their sins there and donated a weekly wage. The money raised in this way, over 15,000 Rhenish guilders, was used to finance the construction. The inauguration of the church, which is the last major work in the tradition of the late Gothic Bavarian parish churches with their simple, restrained style, probably took place on April 14, 1494 by the Freising Prince-Bishop Sixtus von Tannberg or a representative. Sixtus had long resisted the amalgamation of the Ilmmünster and Schliersee monasteries (see below) and was therefore not in favor of the new building. The side altars had already been brought into the church before the consecration and consecrated again (the goldsmith's Catherine altar, for example, was used liturgically again in 1471) so that mass could be celebrated there. The towers were not completed until 1525 when the characteristic " Welschen Hauben " were put on, after cannons had been erected on the hoodless towers a few years earlier during the Landshut War of Succession , which were supposed to serve the defense of Munich.
To Mary's Church opposite the old parish church of St. Peter upgrade, founded Duke Albrecht V 1492/95 the collegiate to Our Lady by combining the pins Ilmmünster and Schliersee , also relics brought the new auxiliary cartridge, the holy Arsacius from Ilmmünster and Sixtus of Schliersee. During the transfer of Arsatius, there were serious disputes with the local population, who did not want to give up "their" saints.
At the time of the consecration, the windows were also completed using old parts as a donation from the Wittelsbach family and the most important altarpieces. In 1502 the choir stalls were completed by Erasmus Grasser . New foundations were added in the 16th century.
Early modern age
In the course of the Reformation, the relics of Benno von Meißen , who was canonized in 1523, were rescued from Meißen in 1576, as they would otherwise have been destroyed there. The bones were transferred to the Neue Veste in Munich. The House of Wittelsbach saw this as a personal triumph in the fight against the protest. In 1580 the relics finally came to the Frauenkirche. There was great veneration, which led to a refurbishment operated by the court from 1601 onwards. The room was redesigned and repainted in Baroque style. In 1604 the sculptor Hans Krumpper created the Benno arch, a triumphal arch at the entrance to the choir, which spanned five altars, including that of St. Benno. A triumphal cross closed the arch at the top. In 1620 the monumental high altar, which depicted the Assumption of Mary and was the work of Peter Candids, was added. The cenotaph from 1622 for Ludwig the Bavarian made of black, polished limestone and bronze, adorned with bronze figures from an unrealized tomb for Albrecht V, was moved several times in history and was made by Hans Krumpper. Gradually, in the 17th and 18th centuries, all the altars were furnished with new paintings and retables. In 1770/72 Ignaz Günther made new door leaves and new reliefs for the choir stalls. In 1780, a pulpit by Roman Anton Boos was added.
From 1801 to 1927 the helmet bar of the northern tower of the Frauenkirche was the zero point for the first Bavarian land survey according to the Bavarian Soldner coordinate system .
In the course of secularization in Bavaria in 1802/1803, the monastery was lifted and parts of the furnishings were destroyed or confiscated by the Bavarian state. However, in the subsequent reorganization of the church administration, Munich became the seat of the archbishop, since then the Frauenkirche, built as a parish church, has also been a cathedral.
In 1821 the princely crypt was enlarged, which meant that the sanctuary was raised. For the exterior, Ludwig Lange and Matthias Berger had plans to replace the domed domes of the two church towers, either with neo-Gothic octagonal pointed helmets or with Renaissance hoods that were also modified. Both remained unfulfilled. However, there was a consistent regotization of the interior of the church. The neo-Gothic purification of the cathedral, which lasted from 1858 to 1868, in which a large part of the previous Renaissance and Baroque furnishings was removed, fell victim to the Benno arch as one of the first measures in 1858. The radical regotization measure was started in 1858 by the architect Matthias Berger and, after a dispute with the responsible building committee, was continued by Ludwig Foltz from 1863 until his death in 1867. The regotization measure was a historical clean-up from the point of view of art history and monument preservation , to which important works of art from previous epochs fell victim. However, it corresponded to the restoration practice of the 19th century, which was shaped throughout Europe by the ideas of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc . In addition, at that time the Gothic was seen as the most ecclesiastical of all styles. The interior of the Frauenkirche was therefore carried out in a rich neo-Gothic style, which mixed different periods of the Gothic period. The high altar of late Mannerism by the Flemish painter Peter Candid was replaced by a neo-Gothic winged altar (made by Anselm Sickinger based on a design by Matthias Berger) with rich bursts and wing paintings by the painter Moritz von Schwind , who thematized the life of Mary . All side altars were also replaced. A new pulpit by Anselm Sickinger, which was crowned with a richly decorated sound cover , replaced the pulpit with the sound cover figure by Roman Anton Boos . The vault was painted in color as a starry sky. The remodeling of the church was initiated by Archbishop Gregor von Scherr .
Max Ainmiller et al. Moritz von Schwind 1854: marriage of Duke Wilhelm V and Renata of Lorraine ( Munich City Museum ). The painting with the attempt to reconstruct the Gothic interior impressed the cathedral building committee so much that from 1858 the interior of the church was regotified and Schwind was commissioned to paint the high altar.
In the years 1930 to 1932, the neo-Gothic furnishings were subjected to extensive restoration work. The color scheme of the walls and vaults was changed, while the furnishings were retained. During the Second World War , the Frauenkirche was badly damaged by air raids from 1943 to 1945, the hall vaults collapsed and parts of the facility were destroyed. The neo-Gothic furnishings were not salvaged from the church during the war, as they did not have the historical significance of medieval originals. It was only when the first serious damage had occurred that attempts were made to at least recover the Schwind wings, which were destroyed in the subsequent bombing raid. After the end of the war, a large part of the side altars were still preserved from the neo-Gothic furnishings, but they were sawn up and cleared away during the clean-up work. The same thing happened with the original Gothic choir stalls, of which only the sculptures by Erasmus Grasser were hid and reused after the war.
During the reconstruction, the original Gothic axis window with rich tracery was removed and placed on the south side of the polygon. In its place, the so-called Scharfzandt window, whose Gothic glass paintings had been preserved, was moved into the center of the choir so as not to leave a void with a simple high altar. In accordance with the taste of the post-war years, the reconstruction of the church between 1948 and 1955 (1st phase, according to C. Th. Horn) only took place in a sober and unadorned form. By 1957, the two tombs were expanded and redesigned.
In the years 1971 to 1972 the altar area was redesigned and lowered according to the specifications of the Second Vatican Council . Between 1980 and 1981 the interior was redesigned and the vaulted ribs were painted in an ocher tone. In the years after 1984, the original dormers were reinstalled in the church roof, which had been omitted in the first construction phase. The approx. 120 epitaphs from the former cemetery of the Salvatorkirche on the outer walls of the Frauenkirche were preserved in 1982/83.
In the run-up to the 500th anniversary of the church's consecration in 1994, the towers and the interior were restored from 1989. Only the glass paintings of the choir windows and individual paintings and sculptures remain of the original furnishings, which were supplemented by other pieces that were brought to the Diocesan Museum in Freising after the purification . Since the thorough restoration from 1989 to 1994, the interior of the church is now more richly furnished than in the first decades after the war.
Architecture and equipment
The building is a late Gothic , three-aisled hall church built almost entirely of brick with a polygonal ambulatory choir, stabilized by side chapels on the long sides and ambulatory. The cornices that structure the structure are made of Pollinger tufa . It is the last and at the same time the largest hall church that was built in the royal seat of the Wittelsbach family .
The church is self-contained and kept simple on the outside - Jörg von Halsbach relocated the buttress , which is common in most Gothic churches , to the interior. The individual pillars are designed as continuous masonry and function as partition walls of the side chapels according to the same principle as the statics of the Gdańsk St. Mary's Church and the Albi Cathedral , both also brick architecture . The towers appear mighty and attract the eye, as they clearly tower above the ridge of the ship. Their square bases taper slightly upwards to the height of the roof ridge. There they merge into octagons and are closed by the so-called Welschen hoods , which were only put on in 1525. For a time they were considered a product of the early Renaissance , but the 'onion hoods' undoubtedly go back to the alleged temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. However, this is in truth the Dome of the Rock , which at that time was believed to be the ancient temple; by copying its roof shape one wanted to give the believers a reference to the heavenly Jerusalem . Images of the Dome of the Rock became known in the empire through the woodcuts in the work Peregrinatio in terram sanctam by Bernhard von Breidenbach from 1486 and through Schedelsche Weltchronik from 1493.
The exterior of the building has little ornamentation compared to Gothic churches built in rubble . Even in comparison with the brick Gothic of the Baltic Sea region , the wall design and overall structure are simple and clear. At the corners of the towers, the simplest tracery in the form of triangles and quatrains is attached, and reliefs made of shaped bricks can be found on the aisle's outer walls . But it is precisely this dignified simplicity that makes the building appear larger and more imposing than what could be achieved by lavish decoration. In this context, Pablo de la Riestra writes: “Indeed, the design has been condensed. The renunciation of formal wealth did not result in aesthetic impoverishment; on the contrary, it increased the tremendous power that this architecture exudes. This approach is in some respects similar to the modernity of the 20th century, which began with the motto “less is more”. ”The most extensive but equally discreet ornamentation is made up of the tuff stone friezes, the long encircling that the roof over the chapels wreath from the rest of the roof of the nave separates, as well as those of the floor structure of the towers.
Like the brick churches of the Baltic Sea region and those of the southern French Gothic , the facades of the Munich Frauenkirche hardly have any figurative decorations. Here he concentrates spatially on the sandstone portals and in terms of content on two motifs that recur at all entrances, namely the Mother of God and Christ as the Man of Sorrows . The figures are attached to the doors on consoles.
Numerous epitaphs are attached to the north, east and south of the outer walls. They are reminiscent of the cemetery that surrounded the church. For reasons of hygiene, the cemetery should be relocated, but the citizens successfully resisted it several times. Since 1773, however, burials were only allowed in family graves and in 1800 the paving took place. The stone epitaphs of the wealthier citizens still preserved are attached to the wall. Some of them are decorated with figures, some texts are barely legible or not at all legible. In 1984/85 they were preserved with the help of the Messerschmitt Foundation . One of the preserved tombstones is z. B. that of Cosmas Damian Asam .
The church has five portals, the main portal between the west towers and two portals each on the long sides of the nave. All are framed by keel arches . Those of the west portal and the south-east portal carry crabs . The tympana above the two north portals are covered with tracery . All the door leaves were created by Ignaz Günther in 1772 .
The main portal is dedicated to the Mother of God . The keel arch with crabs ends in a finial . The figurative decorations are the two figures of Christ as the Man of Sorrows and of Mary. They still come from the old church and were made around 1330/40. The door leaves were reconstructed in a simplified manner after the Second World War. In a medallion in the upper part of the door, which is designed like a tympanum , they show Mary as an immaculate received and as an apocalyptic woman in relief . The rest of the door is decorated with various motifs that refer, among other things, to the depicted saint, or to the areas of the church that can be reached through it. The two sides of the door are bounded by ionic columns . The other doors also follow this pattern, only the respective saints after whom the portal is named are added to the medallion. To the right of the door is the staircase to the south tower, which has not been accessible since 2012 until further notice due to repairs, and a relief with the scene of the Mount of Olives (Jesus prays while his disciples sleep). This relief served as an asylum mark (see house stamp ) for persecuted people.
The southwest door is dedicated to St. Consecrated to Arsacius of Milan, a co-patron of the church and patron of the Ilmmünster Abbey , who “brought” his relics with him when it was merged with Schliersee Abbey in 1492/95. An annunciation scene serves as a figure decoration on this portal. On the left is the angel saying his Ave; on the right Mary receives these words. Otherwise it is the simplest of the portals. The figures are copies. The originals from around 1400 can be seen today in the Freising Cathedral Museum.
Bridal portal and cornerstone
The south-eastern gate is called the "Bride Portal" or "Donatus Portal". It used to be called "Schrannentor". At times it was the most used entrance as it faces the Schrannenmarkt (Kornmarkt), today's Marienplatz . It is consecrated to St. Donatus of Arezzo , the co-patron of the Meissen Cathedral , from which the relics of St. Benno were transferred . Possibly because of its convenient location, it was the only one of the church portals to have a richly profiled Gothic garment with small figurative decorations in two archivolts , which were added around 1480 and 1860. The robe figures are female saints in the outer ring and male in the inner ring. An Annunciation is also shown in the outer archivolt. The angel standing on the left does not come from the time the church was built, but was created in 1896. On the portal sides depictions of the Mother of God and the Man of Sorrows can be seen, which were created around 1430. To the right of the portal is a votive plaque with the cornerstone inscription from 1468.
Text of the foundation stone inscription in Latin and German translation:
Clam fortuna ruit fragili pede tempus et hora
||Fate, time and hour hurry away secretly with frail feet
Nostraque sint semper facta dolenda nimis
||and our deeds must always be too deplorable!
Ecce Sigismundus princeps serenissimus urbis
||Look here, Sigmund, the most noble prince in town,
Bawarie Reni duxque comesque diu
||Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine by the Rhine, long may he be!
Huic animi pietas virtus prudentia summa
||The highest piety of the soul, virtue and wisdom belong to him.
Alma deo complens votaque digna pie
||He piously fulfills blessed and lofty wishes:
Virginis excelse templum dum construi cernit
||No sooner did he decide that a church would be built for the Most Holy Virgin,
Saxum fert primum letus honore Dei
||he lays the first stone, delighted with the honor of God.
Cristo dum libeat domus hec sibi congrua busto est
||God willing, this house is suitable for him as a tomb,
Cui corpus confert ossaque cuncta favet
||to whom he contributes his body and entrusts all his bones.
spiritus astra colat volitans ad littora pacis
||But let his spirit inhabit the stars and soar up to the shores of peace.
Lumine sic divo vita perennis erit
||So his life will be eternal in divine splendor.
Anno milleno quadringent sexaque geno
||In the one thousand four hundred sixty-eighth year.
Octavo dom [ini] sicque nono febrio
||of the Lord on February 9th.
epigramma illustrissimi principis et d 'd'
||Epigram to the most noble prince and lord
Sigismundi anno etatis sue 29 • Smd.
||Sigmund at the age of 29. Smd.
Above the text is a relief that shows the coat of arms of Duke Sigmund (* 1439; † 1501) on the left and himself kneeling in the middle, adoring the Madonna, who is on his right. Sigmund had withdrawn from the rule business in 1467. The government took over Albrecht IV. , Called the Wise. Sigmund, on the other hand, spent his time idling, but reserved patronage over the Frauenkirche, which is why he is also portrayed on the foundation stone inscription. A sundial is painted on the wall surface above the portal , which protrudes slightly from there.
In the northeast the ship has two sacristy grew: the former Gothic sacristy under the northern choir window is now home to a prayer room, the Blessed Sacrament Chapel . To the west adjoins today's sacristy, which was built in the Baroque era and is called Bennosakristei after the neighboring portal. This Bennoportal is dedicated to the city and state patron Benno von Meißen , whose relics came to Munich in the course of the Counter Reformation.
The north-western portal is dedicated to St. Consecrated to Sixtus . This pope and martyr is the patron saint of Schliersee Abbey and has been co-patron of the Church since the foundation of the Abbey of Our Lady. The figures that once adorned the portal are no longer known, but a stone image of the Savior in the sacrament chapel could originally have stood here. There is an interesting detail to the left of the portal. An asylum sign (cross head shaft with a fallen triangular base (see house brand ), as on the main portal) that signaled protection for the persecuted. This practice has long been forgotten, but has recently re-emerged as the Church has taken in people to be deported. Opposite the portal is the Bennobrünnlein, a work by Josef Henselmann from 1972, which replaced the old well that was destroyed in the war.
The high windows on the long sides and the ambulatory and the slimness of the pillars, as well as the light paint on the walls of the church hall, create a light atmosphere. When entering the vestibule one sees the eleven pairs of pillars as a white wall. These octagonal, unadorned pillars divide the space into three naves. The floor is covered by a diamond pattern consisting of a green-bluish and a reddish stone. The ceiling is designed as a star vault in the most beautiful late Gothic style. The services of this vault are very high and after the restoration in 1989/94 they are kept in the original soft ocher tone . Many small console figures can be seen at the beginning of the services, some of them cutting grimaces. These portraits of the craftsmen who were involved in the construction of the church express the increased self-confidence of the middle class in the late Middle Ages . The figures are painted in color . The vaulted apices of the central nave and side aisles are roughly level with the surrounding tuff frieze, as can be seen from the pictures of the destroyed church in 1945/1946. According to recordings from medium height, for example from the town hall tower, this is a good third of the tower height. The 21 chapels on the sides and the ambulatory are, as already mentioned, separated from each other by the buttresses that have been moved inwards. Their vault apex are a few meters lower.
Since a marble floor was installed during the renovation from 1990 to 1994, the duration of the reverberation is given as 11 seconds.
In the vestibule, which was restored to its original shape during the restoration from 1989 to 1994, the epitaph of the first Archbishop of Munich and Freising, Lothar Anselm Freiherr von Gebsattel (1761–1846), by Ludwig Schwanthaler, is on the left. Below it is a model of the church and its floor plan, donated by the Lions Club in 1997 . On the right hand are the paintings “The Marriage of Mary” and as the upper picture “St. Christophorus ”by Andreas Wolff.
The devil's kick is in the middle of the room . The place of the step marks the point from which no window could be seen from 1620–1858 (the choir window that you can see from there today was covered by the Benno arch and the high altar). During this time, a legend was invented to explain the - carefully designed - imprint: In view of the demanding task of building such a large church, the builder sought the support of the devil. This agreed on the condition that the church should be windowless. The devil went in after it was completed. When he was standing at the place of the print and no window was visible to him, he pounded with laughter, causing the step. But when he took another step forward, the many windows appeared and he should have realized that he was wrong.
The room is vaulted using cell technology (i.e. without ribs), and the grille at the transition to the church interior was made in 2000. On it is the Latin motto of Archbishop Friedrich Wetter, who has been retired in 2008 : “Pax Vobis” (“Peace be to you”). The other chapel grids were made in 1993 (some as early as 1985).
The entrance to the choir is flanked on the left by a colored stone carving of the Risen Christ from the time of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria (around 1320) from the old church. Christ presents his wounds, which are designed in the form of flowers. During the restoration of the figure in the 1980s, the original layers of paint were exposed. On the opposite pillar there is a Maria with child from around 1520. The colored wood carvings, which border on the formal language of the Renaissance, were made by a Passau master. Together the two figures again form the iconographic theme of the church.
The current design of the choir is the result of the renovation and restoration work at the beginning of the 1990s. Elmar Hillebrand designed the new main altar, the ambo , the choir stalls, a stone inlay carpet that connects the altar with the cathedra (as a symbolic connection between the Eucharist and the bishop) and at the end a Marian column on the choir head. The altar is laid out in the presbytery so that the priest can celebrate Holy Mass versus populum (facing the people) as well as versus absidem (with his back to the people).
For the daily choir prayers that the cathedral chapter performed with the provost, the dean and twelve canons, Erasmus Grasser created choir stalls with busts of apostles and prophets as well as smaller statuettes from 1495 to 1502. The stalls were also preserved in the Baroque era, survived the purification of the Neo-Gothic, but burned in the Second World War, but the figures had been removed and were preserved. Therefore, the Frauenkirche has the largest preserved ensemble of late Gothic figures in Germany. A large part of the late Gothic figure decorations that have been preserved were also used on the new choir stalls. Above the seats are the busts of the twelve apostles, each of whom is assigned an Old Testament prophet. Under the busts there is a Latin text from the Old and New Testament that shows what the representatives of the two books of the Bible are discussing.
The optical conclusion of the choir space is the statue of Mary by Roman Anton Boos on a column , which he made in 1780 for the sound cover of the pulpit at that time. This gilded figure, together with the putto kneeling at her feet, represents an extremely high quality example of early classicism . Twelve of the 16 gilded wooden reliefs by Ignaz Günther with scenes from the life of the Virgin are attached to the side below. They were created in 1774 to supplement the choir stalls and were originally placed under the figures of the choir stalls. The four missing panels are now in the Bavarian National Museum .
Crucifix at the transition from the main nave to the choir
Bronze relief of Pope Benedict XVI. by Josef Alexander Henselmann on the rear left pillar
Exterior of the choir
Figures and reliefs of the late Gothic choir stalls by Erasmus Grasser, which he made between 1495 and 1502, are attached to the outer part of the choir stalls and the choir grille. The small statuettes that can be seen around the choir represent all the saints who are represented in the church with their relics. These are: Korbinian, Lucia of Syracuse , Ottilia, Felix of Rome , Adauctus , Apollonia, Agatha, Helena , Blasius of Sebaste, Mauritius , Katharina , Eligius , Rasso, Agnes of Rome , Quirin , Oswald , Martha , Leonhard, Florian , Juliana , Sebastian , Wunibald , Maria Magdalena , Antonius the Great , Achatius , Severianus , Severus , Victorianus , Carpophorus , Christina , Rochus , Christophorus, Bernhard von Clairvaux , Egidius , Barbara , Afra von Augsburg , Justina, Georg, Margaretha , Elisabeth , Veit , Dorothea , Laurentius of Rome , Ulrich of Augsburg , Sigismund , Wolfgang of Regensburg .
The coats of arms of all previous archbishops of Munich and Freising are painted on both sides under the statuettes under the second choir bay. Under the third yoke there are reliefs of holy popes on the left and holy bishops and a pope among them on the right. At the end of the choir, parts of the Memming Altar are hung on both sides of the Marian column . This altar, a winged retable from the workshop of Claus Strigel , which was created in 1500, was acquired by the Priestly Society in 1860 to supplement the cathedral after the restoration. The altar consists of panel paintings, figures and reliefs. Next to the column are pictures of the hll on the left. Georg and Achatius hung up, right pictures by Urban and Martin von Tours . Latin supplications are written below the images and angels are depicted above the saint. In addition to the main part, the figure of St. Stephen and on the right of St. Laurentius placed on consoles. On the right column of the end of the choir there is a relief of Peter and pictures of St. Margarethe and Anthony the Great, on the other column a relief of Thomas and depictions of St. Maria Magdalena and Nicholas.
By donating a certain amount one acquired the right to a grave in the church. This was very popular because in earlier centuries people wanted to lie with the relics that gave salvation and blessings, the closer the better, because they would then get more of their rays. This was also one of the reasons why the citizens resisted for a long time, and successfully, against moving the cemetery away from the church.
By donating a perpetual mass one could acquire the right to a private chapel. These were even more coveted than just a single grave site and in some cases in the hands of a family for centuries. Many foundations were also transferred from the old to the new church, so that the chapels are often analogous to the location of the earlier chapel and the old patronage was retained. The canons who held mass in a chapel lived from these foundations and their proceeds (if land was donated). These canons are called beneficiaries . This practice of benefiting was slowly discontinued after the Reformation, and people began to pay the canons. The Eternal masses were up to the secularization completed the pen 1,803th
The bright interior is due to the fact that the chapels only partially have colored glazed windows, a tendency of the late Gothic hall churches.
North tower chapel / Tulbeck chapel
In the passage from the entrance hall under the divider arch on the west wall is the epitaph of the canon Bernhard Eisenreich, died 1584 and on the east wall that of Lucas Wagner, died 1567. In the chapel itself stands on the east wall, on the left at the passage to Church interior, the only surviving neo-Gothic side altar , made in 1863 by J. Wirth. This is mainly in green and gold and has a richly worked crack .
As an essay, it contains a relief of Mary with a picture of the donor of Bishop Johannes Tulbeck made of red Adneter marble , an Austrian limestone . The altarpiece contains a Marian relief (around 1475). On this the founder, Bishop Johannes Tulbeck, worships Mary, who is holding Christ in her arms. He carries an imperial orb in one hand as a sign of rulership, but the apple also stands for the fact that Mary is the new Eve who eradicates sin and that he is the new Adam . The relief is flanked by the hll. Elisabeth and Agnes . St. Frederick stands in the midst of it, with St. Ottilia at his side , all late Gothic figures, which, like the relief, are based on the taste of Neo-Gothic. The predella of the altar contains a Renaissance Lamentation of Christ , which was commissioned by a canon canon who is also depicted on it.
On the opposite side is the last preserved late Gothic flag cabinet from a Munich guild . This cabinet (around 1470) belonged to the guild of wine and brandy pourers, which can be recognized by the painted pewter mugs. The guild cabinets contained their flag, which was carried by a member during church processions .
In front of the altar is the tombstone of Johannes Tulbeck from his former high grave in the chapel. This is an important Munich work, created after 1476, made of red marble. The dead person is shown asleep, his head resting on a pillow. The pictorial program, i.e. Mary and the Redeemer, can again be found on his clothing.
The window above the tombstone is a glass painting with scenes from the work of St. Benno and St. Korbinian by Richard Holzner (1931). The arms of the Tulbeck family (a kind of barrel) and the episcopal arms of Johannes Tulbeck (the barrel and the Freising Mohr) on the right are relief above the window.
The epitaphs of Chamberlain Joh. P. Bianchi († 1615) and below that of Canons Franz Tichtl († 1520) can be seen on the north side under the arch to the north aisle. Opposite is an altarpiece with the risen Christ from an earlier reredos in the Tulbeck Chapel, which its beneficiary, Canon Henry Anslew, had erected around 1600, and the epitaph of Canon Joh. P. Pronner († 1618).
Former Apollonia Chapel
In 1416, the Tichtl family from Munich donated a permanent Mass grant, the celebration of an anniversary and an eternal light , all of which was supplemented by Franz Tichtl in 1432 with a Thursday Eucharistic procession. The procession lasted until the 19th century. The patrons of the chapels are St. Margareta and the Three Kings , 1442 around the hll. Korbinian, Apollonia , Felix and Adauctus added as co-patrons.
Today there is a confessional room in the chapel , which was added in 1993. Above this hangs the altar sheet of the old altar from 1690, a work of the Munich court painter Franz Degler. The glass paintings in the window of the chapel depict the secrets of the rosary and were made in 1961 by Josef Auer based on cardboard designs by Alois Miller, created in 1934. On the opposite wall of the entrance hangs the epitaph of Cardinal Franziskus von Bettinger , which was made of red marble, next to it is a list of nobles who died in the First World War . On the pillar opposite the epitaph hangs a bronze Immaculata by Elmar Dietz , which was donated by the Bavarian nobility in 1959.
The altar of the chapel was donated by the Giesser and Schluder families in 1468, but in 1518 it came under the patronage of the Barth patrician family , whose burial place is also there. In the tradition of the family, the male members were named after the Three Kings (Caspar, Melchior, Balthasar). The stained glass in the chapel shows Christ as a benefactor and was created by the artist Robert Rabold. The epitaphs of the Barths (late 16th century to 1763) are embedded under this window.
The altar painting (Adoration of the Holy Three Kings) is an important early Baroque work by Ulrich Loth (1628), in which the artist creates light and shadow with virtuosity. While the kings adore the baby Jesus and are bathed in spotlights, one can only faintly see the donors in the hayloft of the stable. In the upper picture the evangelists and in the predella Saints Leonhard , Onophrios the Great , Katharina and Agatha are shown, all secondary patrons of the chapel. Opposite the altar are the death shields of the Barth and Giesser families.
Thomas and Korbinian Chapel
An altar was consecrated to the Apostle Thomas as early as 1349 . The foundation was made by Heinrich Stupf and Konrad Wilbrecht. Since 1651, a miraculous image of the Virgin Mary called "Maria Rosen" has been venerated in the chapel. It was worshiped in 1633 when a tailor swore that he would dress a picture of Mary in case his house was spared a fire. When his house was not burned, he selected this early Gothic figure and clothed it. The image of grace was destroyed during the purification in 1859 .
On the west wall hangs the preserved predelle image of the early baroque altar, which shows how Thomas is allowed to reach into the side wound of Jesus . A wooden plaque with a Coronation of Mary by Josef Knabl and the epitaph by Albert Lerch, a beneficiary of the chapel, hangs above the picture. On the floor are two Gothic keystones that were recovered from the rubble after the war. However, they could no longer be integrated as they would be too heavy for today's vault construction .
The glass painting by Robert Rabold from 1965 shows saints from the archbishopric: Anianus , Irmingard von Tours , Edigna , Marinus , above Rupert von Salzburg , Korbinian, Benno, Otto von Freising and finally the Mother of God. The gravestone of an unknown knight from 1600 and the epitaph of the beneficiary Ignaz Kremponer († 1690) are set under the window.
The main altar of the chapel consists of two wings of the neo-Gothic north choir pillar altar. The wings show legends from the life of St. Korbinian on the right and from the life of St. Benno von Meißen on the left wing. The altar was painted by Maximilian Menz in 1865. The panels are framed by mock architecture, which was painted by Elmar Hillebrand during the restoration of the church in 1993. On the altar is a small painting, painted around 1610, on which Mary is depicted with the baby Jesus, sprinkled with roses by angels. It was acquired in 1992 and is intended to commemorate the patronage of the "Mariä Rosen".
Chapel of St. Blasius and the Innocent Children
The chapel patronage has been known from the previous church since 1439 and was expanded to include the Seven Sorrows of Mary in 1959 .
The altarpiece of the original baroque furnishings was removed in the course of the purification in 1860 and transferred to Frauenchiemsee to serve as a high altar there. From the baroque ensemble only the predelle painting by Jacopo Amigoni with the depiction of the Bethlehemite child murder (1717 to 1720) has survived. It hangs on the west wall.
The main altarpiece is a representation of the Ecce Homo theme from 1599. It is a foundation of the Munich patrician Franz Füll von Windach and comes from the Ecce Homo altar of the broken Benno arch.
As is typical of Mannerism , there is a large crowd in the picture, the people in meaningful, unnatural (mannered) poses. The coloring is just as typical of this late phase of the Renaissance. The signature of the painting can no longer be deciphered, but is now equated with Johann Rottenhammer . He also created the top picture showing Job . This is to be interpreted here as the pre-embodiment of Christ, who just like Jesus in the main picture has to suffer. The predella is assigned to a student of Rottenhammer and shows the saints Bernhard , Dionysius , Egidius , Justina and Sophia .
Rottenhammer also created two narrow pictures belonging to the ensemble, which the patron saint of the donors, the hll. Francis of Assisi and Barbara show and a late Gothic figure of St. Flank Blasius . The figure refers to the other patronage of the chapel. Opposite the chapel, the preserved parts of a bronze epitaph are attached to a pillar. The epitaph was commissioned in 1614 by the ducal personal physician Jacob Burchard († 1618) for himself and his family from Hans Krumpper.
Chapel of St. Sebastian and Agnes
According to tradition, the chapel was the burial place of the Society of Priests. This is reminiscent of an epitaph with several bronze reliefs on the north wall. The reliefs were created by Hans Krumpper in 1620 and show the Madonna of the protective cloak, the sufferer Job , the prophet Enoch and the evangelist Johannes.
The altar panel shows Christ on the cross in the "lonely cross" type, around him a desert, lonely and dark landscape. In this, the radiant body of Jesus stands out in particular. The picture is attributed to Anthonis van Dyck and dates from the first half of the 17th century. The picture was acquired by the Metropolitan Chapter in 1821 after the archbishopric was established. On the altar is a miraculous image of the Mater dolorosa (Mother of Sorrows), which still comes from the baroque interior and is a copy of the miraculous image of the Herzogspitalkirche . The picture on the west wall comes from the former Petrus altar of the broken off Benno arch. It shows the crucifixion of Peter and comes from the hands of the Venetian Cosmo Piazza . The oval top picture above shows a blessing Christ, painted by Hans Krumper. Both paintings were created around 1604 and are composed in a late mannerist manner.
The chapel's stained glass is composed of two different ages. In the lower area are the hll. Michael and Nikolaus pictured, above the hll. Bartholomäus and Wolfgang . These panes date from after 1468. The upper part of the glass painting dates from around 1390, so it still comes from the old church, and depicts scenes of the Passion.
Former St. Andrew's Chapel, today the entrance to the sacristy
The first chapel in the ambulatory was originally dedicated to the Apostle Andrew . However, it has been without an altar since the construction of the Bennos sacristy at the beginning of the 17th century. The sculptures of the late Gothic winged altar by Master von Rabenden and pictures by Jan Polack are in a new retable from 1994 in the Michael, Florian and Sebastian chapel in the ambulatory. Instead of an altar, there is a large neo-Gothic stone epitaph for Archbishop Gregor von Scherr (1856 to 1877) by Paul Sayer. Von Scherr had initiated the redesign of the church in the neo-Gothic sense. The painted relief on the opposite wall, which shows the death of Mary, was created around 1500.
The former high altar painting by Peter Candid on the north wall, completed in 1620, depicts the Assumption of Mary. Along with the paintings by Peter Paul Rubens for Neuburg, the Freising Cathedral and the Munich Augustinian Church, it is one of the most important altarpieces of this period in southern Germany. It is also said to be the largest painting on a wooden background. The picture is divided into two areas: below the astonished apostles stand around Mary's empty coffin, while above Christ receives and crowns his mother in a circle of angels. The window above the altar painting, designed with panes in 1965 by Max Lachner, shows the apocalyptic woman.
The chapel lattice with the symbol of the broken wheel refers to the patronage of St. Catherine of Alexandria , which also existed in the previous church in the same place. In 1446, the doctor Peter Lamparter donated a permanent mass grant to this chapel. In the new building, the goldsmiths' guild got the chapel and undertook to equip it in the future. Hence traditionally rich furnishings. Because she was granted the right to be buried in the chapel in 1692, the widow Catharina Ducatin donated a new altarpiece with pictures by Andreas Wolff . In 1960, as part of the World Eucharistic Congress, an ostensorium with a relic from the hand of St. Pius X , which is now embedded in a reliquary in the north wall of the chapel. The main picture of the altar shows the legendary transference of the relics of St. Catherine of Alexandria to see Sinai through angels. The head of the saint lies on a cloth and is raised by putti , the body by other angels. The upper picture shows the holy secondary patrons Peter and Bartholomäus , the predella the hll. Ursula and Katharina.
The glass painting contains panes from around 1430 from two different windows from the previous church. The four above are from the Three Kings Master, whose works can also be seen in other parts of the church. In front of the lower, walled-up part of the window hang the upper picture of the former high altar of Peter Candids , which shows God the Father, as well as the predella with the Annunciation scene.
Chapel of St. Anna selbdritt and Georg of the court brotherhood
The chapel is a Wittelsbach foundation and had its equivalent in the previous building. In 1437 Duke Ernst and his wife Elisabeth Visconti (illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Milan) founded a perpetual mass. The keystones of the vault refer to these two. They show the Wittelsbach rhombuses and the "Mandlfresser", the Visconti snake. The foundations were supplemented in 1473 and 1481. The court brotherhood was founded in 1496. Around 1510 Wilhelm IV ordered a new altarpiece from the court painter Hannsen at the time. The mural painting that has not survived (also carried out by Master Hannsen) and the outstanding, life-size wooden figures of famous late Gothic masters probably originate from this order. In 1512 the first provost Johannes Neuhauser donated a benefit. Neuhauser, a half-brother of Albrecht IV, was an influential person in the court brotherhood. In 1630 the Gothic altar was replaced by a baroque one with paintings by Ulrich Loth , which was put up again after the restoration.
The chapel window is partially walled up. The glass painting in the upper part with a scene of the Annunciation was made around 1500 and is a Munich work. Before the added part is St. Anna herself hung down from the vault. It comes from Stephan Rottaler , who made it between 1515 and 1520. The type of Anna herself third is shown here typical for the area north of the Alps, since mother Anna appears much larger than Mary and Jesus. The baby Jesus in Mary's arms holds an apple as a sign that Christ is the new Adam. Maria stands at Anna's feet and holds onto her dress. Both stand on a cloud raised by putti. The wooden figure is painted gold except for the flesh . Below her are the wooden figures of St. Rasso (left) and Georg (right). Both wear late Gothic armor and extremely long lances. Rasso also holds a sign, Georg is standing on the kite, which is very small here. St. Rasso is the work of the master von Rabenden, St. Georg by Hans Leinberger . Both were created around 1520. The neo-Gothic death shield of Count Preysing among the statues dates from the 19th century. On the west wall is a masterpiece by Hans Leinberger, the figure of St. Christophorus (around 1525). It originally comes from the Püttrich monastery , which no longer exists today. There she stood on the facade so that everyone could see her, as it was said that the sight of St. Christophorus protect against sudden death. The figure of Christophorus carries the baby Jesus on her shoulder. She holds a long stick in her right hand. The robe of Christophorus is extremely agitated and twisted, as if wind were passing through it, as is the cloak of Jesus. The altar sheet by Ulrich Loth shows how St. Georg kills the dragon. In the background stands the princess whom legend says he saved. The predella shows the holy imperial couple Heinrich and Kunigunde .
Today's sacrament chapel is located in the former Gothic sacristy . This is a closed room that is inserted into the lower half of the chapel. Since the room protrudes from the outside like the present-day Bennosacristy, it is almost square, unlike all other chapels. At the same time, a gallery was created by adding this closed space in the upper half of the chapel. Like the main portal, the entrance to the Sacrament Chapel is designed as a house portal. However, instead of two figures, two pinnacles are placed on the half-columns . The portal was damaged during the war and is left in this state. To the left of the portal there is a door leading to the gallery. An asylum sign is embedded above the door, as on the main and north-west portal, only that this one can still show a colored version. The epitaph of the first provost Johannes Neuhauser († 1516) is placed between the staircase and the portal together with the associated holy water font. With the position of the epitaph, the canons should commemorate Neuhauser on their return from the choir prayer . The red marble epitaph, which is often represented in the church, shows a representation of vanitas , a skeleton that is eaten away by worms and other animals.
The epitaph of the pin Dean Philip Dobereiner († 1576) on the other side of the portal is an extremely fine quality of its work of Mannerism. In his with scrollwork are ornamented frame two small paintings. Two figures serve as columns on the left and right sides of the frame. On the upper part of the frame is a crucified Christ, to the left of him stands Mary on the capital of the column below, to the right of him St. Apostle John . In a niche under the cross there is an image of Christ resting . At the end of the lower part of the frame, a skull can be seen, also a symbol of transience. The entire frame is colored.
The case of the large automaton clock on the partition between the Sacrament and Sebastian Chapel probably contains the oldest still functioning picture automaton. On the watch case itself there are two lions holding a small dial in their hands. A rooster sits above them (added in the first half of the 18th century). The machine is crowned by four small and one large pegs. There are three figures above the front dial: God the Father and below him Jesus and Mary. At certain times of the day, God moves the sword he is holding while Christ and Mary pray at his feet for the people. The figures were created around 1500 and are attributed to Erasmus Grasser. The lower part of the front of the case is also adorned with two busts of prophets and painted floral motifs on all sides. The structure was expanded in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries or adapted to the taste of the time. The clock was originally used to show the times of prayer for the canons . Today it rings for choir prayers at 12 noon, and the sculptures are also moved.
The baroque altarpiece "Holy Heaven" on the west wall of the gallery dates from the 17th century. The painting “Saint Wolfgang” by Kaspar Gottfried Stuber from 1715 on the east wall was originally a ceiling painting of the northern staircase chapel. The glass window in the gallery with motifs from the life of Mary was designed by Joseph Eberz in 1931 and reconstructed after the war destruction in 1957. The sacrament chapel is intended exclusively for silent prayer. The weekday masses are also celebrated here.
The window on the back wall of the square, cross-ribbed room brings together several Gothic glass paintings: at the bottom in the middle there is a votive disc by Caspar Barth, painted in 1518 by Jacob Kistenfiger , on which Barth together with Anna selbdritt and St. Arsatius can be seen. To the left of it is a guild disc of the wine taverns and to the right a fragment of a representation of the Jesse root . Both parts were created around 1500 and were originally located in the St. Salvatorkirche . Above it are two representations from the martyrdom of Catherine of Alexandria , the wheel miracle (the wheel with which she is to be martyred is destroyed by a lightning bolt that strikes at a prayer of her, and kills 4000 pagans at once) and hers subsequent beheading. This glass painting was also made around 1500 in Munich and was originally in the Salvatorkirche. At the end of the window, Christ is enthroned as Pantocrator , again attributed to Jacob Kistenfiger. The interior of the church was created by Max Faller in 1984 . The stone figure of the redeemer to the left of the window was created around 1450 in Munich. It is still preserved in its original version.
Michaels-, Florians- and Sebastianskapelle der Chorleviten
The first of the choir chapels has in its choir grille as a reference to St. Sebastian a crossbow. As in all other choir chapels, stylized rose tendrils are still attached to the choir grille.
Originally, the so-called "legend window", which was created around 1490, was used in the five-lane window. Today it is in the Rupertus Chapel. In addition, there was a late Gothic winged altar from 1491 with shrine figures from the chapel cartridge. This altar was sold to Schmidham near Warngau in 1696 . It was replaced by a baroque retable depicting the same saints. This altar was donated by Sebastian Höger and executed by the sculptor Andreas Faistenberger . Of Faistenberger's work, too, only the monumental figure of St. Sebastian received. Today the statue of Sebastian hangs on the right wall of the chapel next to four late Gothic panels with Passion pictures by Jan Polack (around 1510). Opposite her hang on the north wall the preserved wings of a neo-Gothic resurrection altar from 1863, which was destroyed in 1945 and donated by the Munich magistrate, by Max von Widnmann . The reliefs show the appearance of the angel to the women who want to anoint Jesus' body ( Noli-me-tangere Scene) and Jesus' apparition on the way to Emmaus .
The new main retable was created in 1994 based on the model of the shrine of the Michael, Florian and Sebastian altars and contains the figures and paintings of the former Andrew altar from the chapel of the same name, which was located at the site of today's sacristy entrance.
The paintings of the 1513 altar are by Jan Polack, the figures by the master von Rabenden. Originally intended for the church of St. Nikolaus auf dem Haberfeld , a side church of the parish, the altar was moved to the Frauenkirche when it was demolished in the late 16th century, where it was located until the 19th century. Then it was dismantled, losing the original shrine. The parts were put back together for the restoration and refurbishment of the church. Stylistically, the altar marks the transition from the late Gothic to the Renaissance - the Gothic elements have completely merged into floral elements (e.g. the branches of the shrine). When the altar wings are open, the figures of the Apostle Andrew, St. Rasso, a knight and the holy hermit Onuphrius the Great . St. Andreas is enthroned in the middle and holds his attribute, the St. Andrew's cross, as well as a book. To his left is Rasso, in his hands a flag with the Bavarian diamonds. Onuphrius is covered with a kind of fur as a sign of his hermitism. He is holding a cross with a bell in one hand and a staff in the other. He also wears a crown that indicates his noble origins.
The open wings show reliefs with scenes from the Passion of Christ. At the top left, Jesus prays in the garden of Gethsemane , below he is scourged. At the top right is shown how soldiers beat him with sticks, underneath he collapses under the cross. When closed, the wings show images from the life of St. Andreas: top left Maximilla, the governor's wife Aegeas, whom according to legend he converted in Patras, to the right the dispute between him and Aegeas, whom he could not convert, bottom left the scourging at the behest of the governor and the crucifixion at bottom right an X-shaped cross and his legendary two-day sermon to the congregation. Reliefs of Rasso and Onuphrius are again attached to the inactive wings. The predella of the reredos shows the preaching of the Lord .
The current window of the chapel was installed in 1955 and consists of various old panes, e.g. B. Parts of the original main choir window - the so-called Duke 's window - and the Astaller window , donated in 1395 by the then Mayor Astaller.
Chapel of the Arch Brotherhood of Our Lady of Altötting
In the main chapel there is the miraculous image of the former arch brotherhood of Our Lady of Altötting, a ducal foundation. The figure, which shows a Maria with child, is made of ivory and dressed in a precious dress. Mary and Jesus also both wear tapered crowns. The miraculous image is in a glass shrine on the back wall of the chapel, in front of which there are two preserved benches from Ignaz Günther's facility.
On the left wall of the chapel there is a panel of a Madonna in a protective cloak . The picture was donated by the rich patrician family Sänftl at the beginning of the 16th century. In the picture, Maria wears a dress with a corn pattern (this type of iconography is therefore also called the Madonna of the Corn Dress). Angels spread Mary's wide cloak over humanity kneeling below. On the right side the clergy (represented by priests, religious, bishops, cardinals) kneels and on the left side the secular classes (citizens, patricians, etc.). In the right corner you can also see the donor couple with their children and the family coat of arms. On the left is a petition to Maria. In front of the right wall of the chapel is the epitaph of a canon from the 18th century, attributed to Roman Anton Boos . A crying putto sits on a tombstone and leans on a skull.
The stained glass window represents a unit and shows three scenes from the life of Mary. It is a major work by Peter Hemmel von Andlau and is one of the most precious in the Frauenkirche. It was donated in 1493 by councilor Wilhelm Scharfzandt for the Rupertus Chapel. It has been embedded in the main chapel since 1955. In the middle of the first two lines of the window is Christ as Man of Sorrows, on the right St. Matthias the founder, his coat of arms can be seen on the edge, St. Thomas the wife of the founder, her coat of arms is depicted on the left edge. In the next two lines, the founder of the (arch) diocese of Salzburg, St. Rupert of Salzburg in full bishop's robe. It is surrounded by a large number of people, the scene takes place in a Gothic sacred architecture. The scene is framed by gold-colored tracery architecture. In this are the hll. Maria Magdalena, Agnes and Urban I. can be seen. In lines eight and nine the presentation of the Lord follows . Here Jesus is shown to the priest over the altar for circumcision. This scene is surrounded by silver tracery. In it three holy virgins: Dorothea , Apollonia and Ursula . The 14th and 15th sections show the birth of Christ. The child lies on his mother's coat, both parents adore him. The family is in a room with a view of the landscape in the background. Here the tracery is gold again, the saints in it are Georg, Barbara, Joachim and Katharina von Alexandrien. As a final figurative representation, a scene of the Annunciation can be seen, above these tendrils down to the tracery of the window.
Chapel of the Sacrifice of the Virgin
The patronage of the chapel commemorates the Sacrifice of the Virgin Mary , which has only been handed down through the Apocrypha . H. their offering in the Jerusalem temple. After the introduction of the Roman rite in the church at the beginning of the 17th century, a sacrament house was set up in the chapel . It remained there until the present sacraments chapel was established in 1984.
In the center of the chapel is a grand piano retable with the central image of the so-called "Munich Cathedral Crucifixion". The crucifixion from around 1440 still comes from the previous church. In the past it was often attributed to the Munich city painter Gabriel Angler (c. 1405 to c. 1470), but was probably made by an unknown artist. The middle section and the four panels of the outer wings are brought together in this newly made retable, the four inner panels on the wings are now in a museum. The main panel shows a crucifixion that gave the reredos their name. In the halos of the mourning group in the foreground, consisting of St. Veronica , the Mother of God, St. John, the apostle, Mary Magdalene and an unknown saint are the words: "Mary help us out of trouble through your son's bitter death". The four wing pictures that frame the main picture are black and white copies of the originals, which were designed in a modern way in 1993 by the artist Dietrich Stalmann. In the closed state of Lent, the altar presents four images that show the Annunciation at the top left, the birth in a winter landscape to the right, the prayer on the Mount of Olives before Judas' betrayal at the bottom left and the Entombment at the bottom right.
In the predella of the altar is the silver relief of the reliquary (the relics are again in Ilmmünster ) of St. Arsatius admitted. The shrine used to stand on the cross altar, which was in front of the choir room during the Gothic period. This important Munich work was made in 1496 by the goldsmith Hans Löffler. The saint is depicted lying down in the episcopal regalia. According to legend, Arsatius was Bishop of Milan, where he is said to have brought the relics of the Magi and the brazen serpent of Moses - the chapel lattice is adorned with a snake on a column as an allusion to it.
On the north wall of the chapel hangs the Coronation of Mary in Heaven by Johann Rottenhammer (around 1605/6) and on the opposite wall is the finding of the true cross by St. Helena attached. Both paintings were formerly altarpieces in the adjacent, broken off so-called stair chapel. On the south wall there is also a silver figure of St. Josef , a baroque work (around 1680/90) by Franz Keßler, which expresses the heyday of the veneration of Joseph at that time.
The glass paintings in this chapel are also a special treasure - the five-lane salvation mirror window, donated by Duke Sigmund in 1480, which includes the two older cycles of the Epiphany and the “red-green Passion” (both around 1430 and still from the old church). The salvation mirror was a popular spiritual work in the 15th century that combined scenes from the old with scenes from the New Testament.
The Munich patrician Wilhelm Scharfzandt donated an altar in 1473 as well as a permanent mass grant for this chapel. It is consecrated to Rupert von Salzburg. He is the patron saint of the Archdiocese of Salzburg, whose suffragan bishopric was the Freising diocese until secularization. In 1493, the glass paintings by Peter Hemmel von Andlau were installed, which have been in the main chapel since 1955.
In the window above the portal there are valuable fragments of glass paintings from 1430, 1512 and from the end of the 16th century. Under the window are the late Gothic sculptures of Mary with Child and the Redeemer (repetition of the subject) from around 1440, which were moved into the interior of the Frauenkirche to protect them from weathering, the colored version of which was exposed during the restoration. Both figures are very graceful and fragile and are committed to the soft style . To the right of the portal is a 1942 memorial stone to Pius XII. who, according to the stone, celebrated mass several times as a nuncio in Munich. It was made for the silver jubilee of Pius.
Above the Sixtus portal is the glass painting " Angels protect the earth", a work by Karl Knappes from 1961. To the right of the door is an epitaph for Cardinal Joseph Wendel (by Hans Wimmer ) embedded in the wall, to the left a sandstone relief from the early 16th century, the Mary and St. Shows Margareta and Apollonia.
Above the Arsatius portal is a glass painting showing the coats of arms of Michael von Faulhaber and Joseph Cardinal Wendel , the archbishops who had the Frauenkirche rebuilt and rebuilt after the war.
Cenotaph of Ludwig of Bavaria
At the western end of the south aisle there is a cenotaph for Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian, who died in 1347, by Hans Krumpper from 1622. Ludwig's bones are not in this mock grave, but in the crypt. In the choir of the previous building, Ludwig the Bavarian had a high grave built for himself and his first wife Beatrix von Schlesien-Schweidnitz on the imperial altar (remains are behind the choir at the entrance to the crypt). Duke Albrecht IV replaced this in the course of the new building. The ruling couple was reburied around 1468. A tumba was built over the grave. The entire complex was remodeled by Hans Krumpper in 1622 on behalf of Maximilian I , elector from 1623, and was originally located in the middle of the high choir until 1860. After that, it was relocated several times and finally moved to its current location in 1962. During the 1980s, the cenotaph was restored with the help of the Messerschmitt Foundation .
Inside the windowed case made of polished black limestone is the late Gothic commemorative plate made of red marble for Emperor Ludwig, an important Munich stone carving of the late Gothic period by Hans Haldner . It is divided into a heavenly and an earthly scene: Ludwig is enthroned in heaven with the insignia of rulership, and under him the dukes Ernst and his son Albrecht III are reconciled . after the quarrel about Agnes Bernauer (Ernst had had Albrecht's mistress, an Augsburg bather's daughter, drowned). Ludwig mediates here to a certain extent. Thus this scene should be a model for the Wittelsbachers and remind them of their great ancestors.
The bronze figures in the magnificent case show Duke Wilhelm IV (1508–1550) on the west side and Albrecht V (1550–1579) on the east side. Wilhelm wears a fur hood, knee breeches and cow mouth shoes , Albrecht wears the vestments and the chain of the knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece and holds a drawn sword in his right hand. The figures include putti on the corners of the cenotaph, displaying their coats of arms and those of their wives. Looking north on the case sits the genius of good rule in peace, wearing a laurel wreath , scepter and orb . To the south lies the genius of good rule in war, sword drawn. They show Maximilian's ideal of rulers. The imperial crown on the pillow between the two towers over the cenotaph. It was intended not only to commemorate Ludwig's imperial dignity, but also to underline Maximilian's claim to power. The four kneeling standard-bearers who are standing around the cenotaph and guarding it were intended for the planned grave monument of Duke Wilhelm V and his wife in St. Michael's Church, which was not erected. Skulls and bones made of bronze, which are attached to the housing, remind of the transience of humans.
The stained glass under the same yoke commemorates the World Eucharistic Congress that took place in Munich in 1960. The tombstone of Jörg von Halsbach († 1488), his portrait and that of the builder of the roof structure, Heinrich von Straubings , by Jan Polack and the tombstone of the blind court musician and organist Conrad Paumann († 1473) are located on the wall field between the cenotaph and the vestibule .
The current crypt was created in 1971 when the choir level was lowered, and a larger crypt was created after the war-related reconstruction. The room is kept sober with exposed brick walls and a concrete beam ceiling.
When the lower church was redesigned, the coffins of the Wittelsbachers buried in the Frauenkirche were moved into new wall niches and walled behind grave slabs. Some of the people buried here were previously buried in other places, such as the members of the Wartenberg family , a branch of the Wittelsbach family.
The ancestor of the Wartenberg family , Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria , had donated the church of St. Nicholas of Tolentino and St. Sebastian, including the family funeral, in Munich, where his wife and most of his descendants found their final resting place. Duke Ferdinand himself was buried in the Frauenkirche after his death in 1608. After the Church of St. Nicholas of Tolentino and St. Sebastian was profaned and auctioned in 1807, King Maximilian I Joseph ordered the transfer of the 24 members of the Wartenberg family buried there to the Frauenkirche in 1808; In 1823 they were put there in new coffins.
On the entrance wall of the lower church today, inscriptions remind of the following Wittelsbachers who are buried here (rulers highlighted ):
- Beatrix von Schlesien-Schweidnitz , Duchess of Bavaria, Roman Queen (* around 1290 - † August 24, 1322) - (first wife of King Ludwig IV.)
- Emperor Ludwig IV the Bavarian (* 1282; † October 11, 1347)
- Duke Ludwig (* 1347; † 1348)
- Elisabeth, Duchess of Bavaria (around 1309 - March 21, 1349) - (first wife of Duke Stephan II)
- Princess Agnes of Bavaria († November 11, 1352), stigmatized clarissess
- Duchess Margarethe, Duchess of Croatia (* 1325; † 1360)
- Ludwig V , Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke of Upper Bavaria (* 1315 - † September 18, 1361)
- Stephan II , Duke of Bavaria (22 December 1316 - 13 May 1375)
- Margarethe, Duchess of Bavaria (1333 - 19 September 1377) - (second wife of Duke Stephan II)
- Johann II , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (* 1341; † August 8, 1397)
- Duchess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Munich (* 1374; † February 2, 1432)
- William III. , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (1375--12 September 1435)
- Ernst , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (* 1373; † July 2, 1438)
- Adolf , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (7 January 1434 - 1441)
- Princess Barbara (June 9, 1454 - June 24, 1472), clarissess
- Duchess Susanna (born July 15, 1499; † 1500)
- Siegmund , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (born July 26, 1439 - † February 1, 1501)
- Duchess Sidonia (May 1, 1488 - March 27, 1505)
- Albrecht IV , Duke of Bavaria-Munich (December 15, 1447 - March 18, 1508)
- Kunigunde of Austria (March 16, 1465 - August 6, 1520) - (first wife of Duke Albrecht IV)
- Duke Wilhelm (February 17, 1529 - October 22, 1530)
- Duchess Susanna (April 2, 1502 - April 23, 1543)
- Wilhelm IV , Duke of Bavaria (13 November 1493 - 7 March 1550)
- Ernst , administrator of Salzburg and Passau, pledgee of the County of Glatz (born June 13, 1500 - † December 7, 1560)
- Albrecht V , Duke of Bavaria (February 29, 1528 - October 24, 1579)
- Duchess Jacobäa Maria (June 25, 1507 - November 16, 1580)
- Duchess Anna of Austria (7 July 1528 - 16 October 1590) - (wife of Duke Albrecht V)
- Duke Philipp Wilhelm , Cardinal , Archbishop of Regensburg (born September 22, 1576 - † May 18, 1598)
- Duke Ferdinand (January 20, 1550 - January 30, 1608)
- Duchess Maximiliana Maria (July 4, 1552 - July 11, 1614)
- Maria Pettenbeck (February 5, 1573 - December 5, 1619) - (wife of Duke Ferdinand)
- Count Albert von Wartenberg (May 3, 1601 - December 6, 1620)
- Duchess Maria Renata (August 3, 1616 - March 1, 1630)
- Duke Karl Johann Franz (born November 10, 1618 - † May 19, 1640)
- Countess Anna Juliana von Wartenberg (* 1611; † July 8, 1650)
- Countess Maria Claudia von Wartenberg (born May 26, 1632 - † July 27, 1663)
- Count Ferdinand Ernst von Wartenberg (* May 20, 1630 - † September 1, 1675)
- Count Ferdinand Marquard von Wartenberg (* May 25, 1673 - † April 4, 1730)
- Princess Maria Anna Karoline (August 4, 1696 - October 9, 1750), clarissess
- Princess Notburga Karolina Maria (March 19, 1883 - March 24, 1883) - (daughter of King Ludwig III.)
- Princess Dietlinde Maria Theresia (January 2, 1888 - February 14, 1889) - (daughter of King Ludwig III.)
- Prince Wolfgang (July 2, 1879 - January 31, 1895) - (son of King Ludwig III.)
- Marie Therese of Austria-Este , Queen of Bavaria (* July 2, 1849 - † February 3, 1919) - (wife of King Ludwig III.)
- Ludwig III., King of Bavaria (7 January 1845 - 18 October 1921)
- Prince Karl (April 1, 1874 - May 9, 1927) - (son of King Ludwig III.)
- Princess Hildegard (March 5, 1881 - February 2, 1948) - daughter of King Ludwig III.
- See also: Tombs of European Monarchs
Altar and episcopal tombs
In front of the west wall of the crypt there is a simple altar. The altarpiece shows a series of Passions from Expressionism by Karl Caspar . It was created in 1916/17. The central picture is a Pietà ; it refers to the complaint of the mothers who mourn their sons who died in the war. To the left of the altar ensemble, the archbishops of Munich and Freising, who have died since 1952, are buried in wall niches behind grave slabs:
- Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber (born March 5, 1869; † June 12, 1952; Archbishop 1917–1952)
- Joseph Cardinal Wendel (born May 27, 1901; † December 31, 1960; Archbishop 1952–1960)
- Julius Cardinal Döpfner (born August 26, 1913; † July 24, 1976; Archbishop 1961–1976)
In the middle of the south wall of the crypt is the access to the chapter crypt, in which around 100 graves of canons and Munich patricians as well as nobles from the end of the 17th century are set in the side walls. The archbishops were also buried here until 1917. The chapter crypt is normally not open to the public.
On the west gallery is the main organ with 95 registers from 1994 (with two 4-manual console: a mechanical console behind the back positive, and a movable electric console on the lower choir gallery), in the south aisle at the level of the choir is the choir organ ( Andreas organ) with 36 registers from 1993. The choir organ can be played from the 3-manual mechanical play cabinet as well as from the two 4-manual console of the main organ. Both organs with a total of 131 registers and 9833 pipes form the largest organ in Munich. These can also be heard in the organ concerts in Munich Cathedral, which take place every year from the beginning of July to mid-September.
In the sacrament chapel there is a two-manual organ, which was built in 1985 and comprises eleven stops (exclusively with wooden pipes). The cathedral also has a positive chest with five registers from 1981.
The Munich cathedral bell is one of the most valuable historical bell ensembles in Germany due to the five medieval and two baroque church bells that are still preserved . The large, around eight-ton volley bell is one of the largest church bells in Bavaria and is one of the most beautiful sounding bells of the Middle Ages in Europe.
In the Frauenkirche, in a side chapel, the relics of St. Bishop Benno von Meißen , who is venerated as the patron saint of the city of Munich. The shrine is opened every year at Vespers on the feast of St. Benno carried in a procession through the cathedral in June.
The church is registered as an architectural monument in the Bavarian Monument List under the number D-1-62-000-1808. In 1994 the Deutsche Bundespost issued a special postage stamp worth 100 pfennigs on the occasion of the 500th anniversary.
Since September 1, 2014, Hans-Georg Platschek has been the parish priest in Alten Peter ; at the same time he took over the pastoral position at the Frauenkirche permanently as administrator.
There are numerous telecommunications systems in the north tower of the Frauenkirche. A relay station previously used by the BND has since been removed.
Church services are regularly broadcast live from Munich Cathedral: The Munich church radio broadcasts Holy Mass on DAB + in the Munich metropolitan area from Monday to Friday at 5:30 p.m. and on Sunday at 10 a.m. Selected church services will also be broadcast as a video live stream on the website of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising.
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- Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 .
- Monachium sacrum. Church history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 . Anton Mayer: The Cathedral of Our Lady in Munich. Munich 1868.
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- Joachim Sighart : The Frauenkirche in Munich. Your story and description, initially designed from an art historical point of view . Landshut 1853 ( e-copy ).
Architecture and building history
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- Lothar Altmann: The late Gothic building history of the Munich Frauenkirche. A summary. In: Ars Bavarica. 82, 1999, pp. 29-38.
- Volker Liedke: The church master Jörg von Halspach. The builder of the Munich Frauenkirche. In: Ars Bavarica. 82, 1999, pp. 39-77.
- Lothar Altmann: The late Gothic construction phase of the Frauenkirche, 1468–1525. An inventory u. Interpretation of known data and Facts. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 1-20.
- Sigmund Benker: Chronical notes on the construction of the Frauenkirche. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 44-46.
- Susanne Fischer: To the keystones of the Munich Frauenkirche. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 47-68.
- Rosa Micus: On the regotization of the Munich Frauenkirche as reflected in its representations. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 69-102.
- Christl Karnehm: The Munich Frauenkirche: initial fittings and baroque redesign. Herbert Utz Verlag, ISBN 3-8316-6113-8 ( online version , PDF file).
- Gerhard Gruber: The leadership of the cathedral renovation 1990–1994 by the Archbishop and the Metropolitan Chapter of Munich. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 183-202.
- Carl Theodor Horn: The building measures of the dominant restoration from 1989 to 1993. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 143-182.
- York Langenstein: The new version of the interior of the Frauenkirche as part of the restoration and redesign measures in the years 1991 to 1993. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 103-142.
- Hans Ramisch: The Munich Frauenkirche. Restoration and return of her sculptures for the 500th anniversary of the consecration on April 14, 1994. Pfeiffer, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7904-0626-0 .
- Hans Ramisch: The restoration of the works of art from the Munich Frauenkirche and the project of the artistic equipment for the anniversary year 1994. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 603-658.
- Susanne Fischer: Representation of the House of Wittelsbach. The Duke window of the Munich Frauenkirche. In: Austrian magazine for art and monument preservation. 66, No. 3/4 2012, pp. 358–365.
- Günter Hess: Triumph and Vanitas. Jacob Baldes ode to Peter Candids high altar picture in the Munich Frauenkirche. In: Günter Hess (ed.): The death of Seneca (Bibliotheca Instituti Historici Societatis Jesu) . Schnell + Steiner, Rome 2009, ISBN 978-3-7954-1249-4 , pp. 181-207.
- Karl-Ludwig Nies : The bells of the Munich women's cathedral. Verlag Sankt Michaelsbund, 2004, ISBN 3-920821-48-3 .
- Bernhard Mayrhofer: Cathedral clock in Munich. In: Martin Gastberger, Norbert Jocher (Hrsg.): Renovavit (yearbook of the Association for Christian Art in Munich eV / special volume) Kunstverl. Fink, Lindenberg 2001, ISBN 3-89870-033-X , pp. 215-224.
- Éva Nyerges: An unknown picture by Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra in the Frauenkirche in Munich. In: Yearbook of the Association for Christian Art in Munich. 21 1999, pp. 17-27.
- Susanne Fischer, Cornelia Andrea Harrer: The stained glass windows of the Munich Frauenkirche. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 1998, ISBN 3-7954-1188-2 .
- Hans Ramisch, Markus Hundemer: The late Gothic Tumba for Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian from 1468, a work by the Munich sculptor Hans Haldner. Monumental. Edited by Susanne Böning-Weis, Karlheinz Hemmeter. Munich 1998, ISBN 3-87490-654-X , pp. 548-563.
- Dorothea Diemer: The tomb of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria in the Munich Frauenkirche. 1st edition. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 1997, ISBN 3-7954-1138-6 .
- Georg Brenninger: The organs of the Munich Frauenkirche. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 581-592.
- Susanne Fischer: The windows of the Frauenkirche in Munich. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 395-436.
- Peter Frieß: Biblical automatons in the Munich Frauenkirche. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 533-556.
- Peter Germann-Bauer: Munich goldsmith's work in the treasure of the Frauenkirche. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 455-504.
- Jutta Kriewitz: The case of the automatic clock in the Frauenkirche as a mirror of changing equipment. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 557-574.
- Eva Langenstein: The bars of the Munich Frauenkirche. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 437-454.
- Franz Lehrndorfer (Ed.): The organ work in the Munich Cathedral to Our Lady. Cathedral Parish Office of Our Dear Lady, Munich 1994.
- Bernhard Mayrhofer: About characters, color changes and other clock things. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 575-580.
- Brigitte Volk-Knüttel: The high altar of the Munich Frauenkirche from 1620 and its paintings by Peter Candid. Monachium sacrum. Art history. Festschrift for the 500th anniversary of the Metropolitan Church of Our Lady in Munich. German Kunstverl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-06116-9 (2), pp. 203-232.
- Messerschmitt Foundation (ed.): The epitaphs at the Frauenkirche in Munich. Munich 1986.
- Arthur Schlegel: Ludwig's tomb in the Frauenkirche in Munich and portraits of the Bavarian dukes of the Renaissance. In: Upper Bavarian Archive. 93, 1971, pp. 207-222.
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Handbooks, church and travel guides
- Peter Pfister (Ed.): The Cathedral of Our Lady in Munich (Schnell, Großer Kunstführer, Vol. 235). Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7954-2031-4 .
- Peter Pfister: Metropolitan Church to Our Lady in Munich (Schnell, art guide No. 500). 10th, revised edition. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7954-4298-9 .
- Dehio-Handbuch der Deutschen Kunstdenkmäler; Bayern IV: Munich and Upper Bavaria, Darmstadt 1990.
- Klaus Gallas : Munich. From the Guelph foundation of Henry the Lion to the present: art, culture, history. DuMont, Cologne 1979, ISBN 3-7701-1094-3 (DuMont documents: DuMont art travel guide).
- Christian Behrer: The underground Munich . City core archeology in the Bavarian capital. Buchendorfer Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-934036-40-6 , chap. 4.2.2: The Frauenkirche, p. 84-106 .
- Hans Ramisch, Peter B. Steiner: The Munich Frauenkirche. Wewel Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-7904-0626-0 .
- Franz Berberich: Guide through the cathedral to Our Lady in Munich. Munich 1931.
- List of the bishops of Freising and the archbishops of Munich and Freising
- »Annunciation« and »St. Johannes Baptist und Cäcilia « (Church of the Annunciation Chapel, Frauenkirche Munich), painting by Joachim Sandrart from 1664.
- Website of the Munich Cathedral
- 360 ° panorama inside
- Archdiocese of Munich and Freising
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- Photos of the furnishings in the Frauenkirche, in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database .
- Skyscrapers in Munich: Nobody builds over 100 meters
- Enclosed space or cubature of the Munich Frauenkirche
- Joachim Sighart : The Frauenkirche in Munich. Your story and description, initially designed from an art historical point of view . Landshut 1853, p. 100 ff .
- Monika Maier-Albang: So close to heaven - The Frauenkirche, in: Munich, The history of the city, ed. by Joachim Käppner, Wolfgang Görl and Christian Mayer, Munich 2008, p. 31.
- Erwin Schleich: The second destruction of Munich (New series of publications by the Munich City Archives, vol. 100), Stuttgart 1978, pp. 166–169.
- Erwin Schleich : The second destruction of Munich (New series of publications by the Munich City Archives, vol. 100), Stuttgart 1978, pp. 166–169.
- Josef H. Biller u. Hans-Peter Rasp: Munich, art and culture, city guide and manual. 3rd updated edition, Munich 2009, pp. 136–142.
- Rolf Toman (Ed.): Gothic - Architecture, Sculpture, Painting (p. 214). Ullmann & Könemann; 2007
- Latin on stone. Frauenkirche . Website of the Faculty for Linguistics and Literature Studies at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich , Classical Philology / Subject Didactics of Ancient Languages. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung: The voices of the Lord. Accessed February 16, 2020 .
- "The Munich Liebfrauendom - a tour" (explanations by Roland Götz from the Archbishopric Archive Munich-Freising), viewed on February 24, 2020 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rx6vD6CJhss
- Josef H. Biller, Hans-Peter Rasp: Munich Art & Culture. Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7787-5125-5 , p. 143.
- On the burial and reburial of the Counts of Wartenberg in Munich
- Exact description of the Wartenberg Crypt in St. Nikolaus and Sebastian in Munich
- Detailed description of the organs in the Munich cathedral on the website of the cathedral organist Msgr. Hans Leitner.
- Jann Opus 199, Munich, Liebfrauendom, main organ . www.jannorgelbau.com. Accessed February 1, 2018.
- Jann Opus 197, Munich, Liebfrauendom, choir organ . www.jannorgelbau.com. Accessed February 1, 2018.
- See the website of the cathedral organist Msgr. Hans Leitner .
- Jann Opus 108, Munich, Liebfrauendom, Sacramentskapelle . www.jannorgelbau.com. Accessed February 1, 2018.
- Jann Opus 55, Munich, Cathedral, chest organ . www.jannorgelbau.com. Accessed February 1, 2018.
- The relics of Heil. Benno in the Frauenkirche in Munich . In: Pastoral sheet for the Archdiocese of Munich-Freising . Volume 1, Munich 1861, pp. 46-47.
- SZ: April 1, 2014
- BND stationed technology in the bell towers of the Frauenkirche. SZ.de, March 17, 2018, accessed on March 18, 2018 .
- BT-Drs. 19/1951 , cf. Answer to question 4