The masonry brick , in the technical jargon for short brick (from Latin tegula "roof tile": from tegere "cover"), synonymous called brick and brick , is an artificially produced stone from ceramic material, which is used in building for masonry construction . The arrangement of the bricks in a wall, their association , can be designed differently.
The clay brick is the oldest prefabricated building element; it is formed from clayey loam and fired in ovens. The term "brick" is widespread, but amateur in that "stones" are not fired, but bricks are. In a figurative sense, the term “brick” is used for other cuboid objects such as clay bricks and adobe , also for burnt stones in other shapes such as roof tiles (especially in southern Germany and Switzerland, where “bricks” usually only refer to roof tiles and not masonry bricks; these are called bricks).
The term "brick" is preferred for medieval buildings, but is mainly used in southern Germany and Switzerland for masonry bricks (where bricks usually only mean roof tiles ). Simple clay bricks can be burned (“baked”) in brickworks at just 900 ° C. They are mechanically not very stable and open-pored, which is why they can absorb a relatively large amount of water. Therefore, they are usually plastered to improve weather resistance. The clay bricks fired at higher temperatures (instead of meadow loam) are harder and are considered to be more durable.
Clinkers are products made from “blue” clay, which are richer in aluminosilicates . Due to the higher silicate content, they are fired at 1200 ° C. Due to the strong sintering, they absorb less water, are frost-resistant and more weather-resistant overall. They are therefore mostly unplastered or used as plaster clinker, depending on the iron content, they give a building the typical appearance of yellow to red to brown nuances. The possible firing temperature depends on the starting material, since the blank may sinter but not become soft in a shape-changing manner.
Terracottas are decoratively designed brick elements that are considerably larger than traditional (shaped) bricks. Terracotta is often distinguished from simple baked clay according to the quality of the clay used. In the history of architecture and art, however, terracottas and bricks are only distinguished by size and shape.
Bricks are joined to the masonry with mortar . The appearance of the (unplastered) “masonry” is determined by the type of masonry bond and the joints . Mortar is not required if the wall is built with formwork blocks or hollow concrete blocks (often incorrectly called "concrete bricks").
Regionally known as facing bricks or facing bricks , facing bricks were mainly attached to facades to clad masonry in the 19th century . They are clinker bricks in a geometrically very precise rectangular shape with a smooth surface. Such facades stand out clearly in design compared to facades with bricks, as the joints are very narrow and precisely laid out. In large cities like Berlin , Leipzig , Halle and Dresden in particular , entire streets were covered with facing bricks, whereas in the Münsterland mostly hand- painted bricks were used. Often, villas and settlement houses were and are provided with facing bricks.
Hand-formed bricks are especially made for restorations .
Along with wood, unprocessed rubble , plant fibers and leaves, adobe bricks are the first building material used in the early settlements of the Neolithic Age (around 8000 to 6000 BC). Compared to walls made of unshaped clay, brick walls have many advantages: the stones are easier to transport, the walls are more stable and do not require any formwork when erected. The oldest bricks were found in 1952 during archaeological excavations in Jericho (7500 BC).
The technique of firing clay for vessels was known in the Neolithic but was not used for bricks. Instead, lime was burned, which was processed into screed .
The first bricks ( clay bricks ) were hand-formed and therefore irregular in shape. Bricks with a smoothed shape have been around since about 6300 BC. Known from Mesopotamia . It was here between 5900 and 5300 BC. The use of forms developed. Between 3100 and 2900 BC For the first time baked clay in brick form was used on a large scale and the technique of glazing was developed and perfected. The Ishtar Gate is an outstanding example of the level of development of the techniques reached in Babylonian times. It was built under Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC).
The perfectly fired one-hand brick, which is used in the proportions 1: 2: 4 as a prefabricated and optimally rationalized building element, was first used between 2800 and 2200 BC. Developed in the then Indus culture or Harappa culture. This tile can be added in any direction.
In the second book of Moses of the Bible the physical exertion of brick- making is described from this time: "(The Egyptians) ... made their life angry for them with hard work in clay and bricks ..." .
Early Chinese brick architecture
Bricks were used in China from around 1000 BC. Used. Typical of Chinese brick buildings was the abandonment of mortar, which was possible due to the large dimensional accuracy of the bricks produced, and the construction of hollow masonry that was filled with rubble.
Antiquity and late antiquity
For the architecture in the Roman Empire , the fired brick had an increasing and ultimately great importance. The Romans spread building with fired bricks throughout the Roman Empire. Thin bricks are typical of Roman brick.
The extensive use of fired bricks for masonry continued in the 1st century BC. A, but could not be proven at all in the city of Rome until the time of the reign of Augustus (27 BC to 14 AD). Probably for this reason the description of the technique of building with dried and fired bricks took up little space with Vitruvius . By 100 AD, the technology was already widespread throughout the empire through the Roman legions, who erected field bricks everywhere. Up until this time, brick walls were regularly plastered or clad. In the 2nd century, bricks were often used as a decorative surface, replacing tufa and other stones as cladding for the concrete walls invented by the Romans (Latin: opus caementitium ). Individual brick layers inserted into the facing of the cast masonry are referred to as brick penetration . The heyday of brick building in Rome ended again at the end of the 2nd century.
The construction of the Constantine Basilica in Trier is an example of a large brick building in the area of Germany. The bricks were originally plastered on the outside and covered with marble on the inside.
In the Byzantine Empire and in the west of the Roman Empire, brick building was further developed. The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (built between 532 and 537 AD) is built entirely of bricks. Typical of the Byzantine brick building are very thin bricks and joints, some of which are even thicker than the bricks. In the Western Roman Empire there are outstanding examples of brick architecture such as the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna .
While the tradition of brick building in Italy has continued uninterrupted since the Romans, brick disappeared completely in Northern Europe with the end of the Roman Empire. It was reintroduced by monks in the 12th century and spread because of the better dimensional accuracy compared to natural stone in the present valley. The Roskilde Cathedral and begun in 1160 St. Mary's Church in Kalundborg in Denmark are early examples.
The heyday of decorative building with shaped bricks was the brick Gothic , widespread especially in the area of the Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Order ( North German brick Gothic ), but no less in the Netherlands and Flanders as far as the Strait of Dover . The defining model for the Baltic Sea area was the Marienkirche in Lübeck , which has the highest brick vault in the world. Worth mentioning is the Chorin monastery near Eberswalde or the Marienburg . The reasons for the revival of brick technology in the 12th century have not been conclusively clarified. In any case, the poor availability of natural stones plays an important role. Another reason is the availability of the raw material. However, in parts of the distribution area, brick was more expensive than field stone . And in Kraków's Wawel there are Gothic brick buildings on a limestone rock. The letter tiles for decorating floors were a niche product .
The St. Marien Church in Stralsund (first mentioned in 1298) was the world's tallest building from 1625 until its 151 meter high Gothic spire was destroyed by lightning in 1647 . Since then, the tower of Landshut Martinskirche , which was completed in 1500, has been the highest brick tower in the world at 130.60 meters. An example of brick Gothic outside of the northern distribution area is the cathedral of Albi in France.
Renaissance and Baroque
In the Renaissance and Baroque periods , the use of exposed brickwork decreased in some regions, but increased in some. The bourgeois brick gables of the Netherlands and the north German Hanseatic cities are largely works of the Renaissance. In France , the wing of Louis XII , which still belongs to the Gothic style, was in charge of the of the Blois Castle introduced a fashion of brique-et-pierre , i.e. the combination of brick and stone, which can also be found in areas where there was not a single representative brick building until then. The first large brick building in the city of Cologne was the armory, built between 1594 and 1606, today the Cologne City Museum . In Münster, whose medieval buildings were made of Baumberger sandstone , the Erbdrostenhof was built in the Baroque period from 1753–1757 and the prince-bishop's palace made of brick from 1767–1787 .
Overall, the brick spread as a building material instead of house stone and clay-filled half-timbering in ever larger regions, on the other hand it was increasingly covered with plaster or stucco (it was often covered with mud before). Under the veneer, brick was probably the most widely used building material not only in Italy at the time because brick making was cheaper than bricking and transporting it. In addition, bricks are lighter than most natural stones. That is why Brunelleschi built the dome of the Florence Cathedral out of bricks.
In England brick architecture with exposed masonry did not begin until 1450 in the late Gothic Tudor style and experienced a heyday until 1650. After the great fire of 1666, only stone and brick buildings were allowed to be built in London . Bricks dominated because of their lower price.
Since the end of the Middle Ages, the compartments of half-timbered houses have been increasingly filled with brick.
In the 19th century, exposed brick was often used for factory and train station buildings, far beyond the traditional area of distribution. Brick buildings were very popular in northern Germany again in the brick neo-Gothic. In keeping with tradition, multi-storey tenements were built in Berlin with clinker bricks from Niederlausitz, but also bricks from the Oberhavel. Today there is the open-air museum Ziegeleipark Mildenberg . In areas with no brick tradition, plastered brick construction became the standard construction method in the 19th century. For some large civil engineering projects, hard-fired clinker was used, the Göltzschtalbrücke is still the largest brick bridge in the world. It was built from clinker bricks to achieve load-bearing capacity and weather resistance.
For economic and structural reasons, steel, concrete and glass replaced bricks and house stone as building materials, because they have a more favorable relationship between load capacity and dead weight. Brick expressionism and homeland security architecture continued the tradition of brick building in the 20th century, but not only in northern Germany. Important industrial buildings ( power plants , steel works , coking plants ) were built from bricks or at least clad with clinker in the middle of the 20th century. The Berlin Cathedral rests on a foundation of pillars made of bricks.
Outside of the European cultural area, there is extensive brick architecture in Islamic buildings in regions with little stone (such as the Samanid mausoleum in Bukhara or the Kherua mosque in Bengal ). In addition, almost all buildings of Mughal architecture are made of bricks in their core. That is true of the Taj Mahal .
In Hindu temples and in buildings in Buddhist tradition, bricks were used in the natural stone-free alluvial plain of the Ganges , which in many cases were plastered and painted in color. Examples can be found in Bengal , in Bhitargaon , in Sirpur or in Bagan ( Myanmar / Burma ). Bricks were also used in corresponding regions in China. The Maya site of Comalcalco , built in the alluvial land of the southern Mexican Gulf coast , is - as a major exception among the Maya temples - also built from bricks, which, however, were clad with stucco and then painted.
The starting material loam or clay is first dissolved in water for a few weeks or, if water is added several times, stored outdoors over the winter and frozen through. This "freezing out" causes the clay to become finely crumbly. These work steps are still carried out for quality products, clay is entered horizontally in large basins and excavated vertically. With this "mauling" the moisture is balanced out, gases escape which could burst the brick when burning and the material is mixed as a result. Then the clay is cleaned of solid or organic components, occasionally sand or clay is added and finally the mass is pressed into a mold frame that is open at the top and bottom or a box that is only open at the top (brick model), which traditionally took place from the month of May. Sometimes brick signs are applied in these forms . Excess material is scraped off and the shape overturned - this results in the hand-streaked bricks . As a visible feature, they have typical pinch folds. (This processing is still used for culturally and historically significant restorations.) The bricks are air-dried for several weeks in an airy drying shed in areas where rain is to be expected. In regions close to the coast, a closed drying shed is necessary, as the almost constant wind would dry the bricks too quickly and cause them to break. In the 18th and 19th centuries, unbaked bricks were called air stones , or under- burned bleaching stones .
For firing, the shaped bricks are stacked alternately with coal in a kiln . The kiln is then covered with clay and bricks of poor quality. The following firing process takes about 14 days, with the bricks only being exposed to a temperature of 600–900 ° C for about three days. The rest of the time is used to warm up and cool down, during which the finished bricks must not crack. In a kiln, the quality of the bricks is very different, a third is fired at too high a temperature and tends to splinter, a third is fired at too low a temperature and weathered more quickly. Often individual bricks were only half of good quality and therefore usable to a limited extent. The fired bricks are therefore sorted according to quality. A significantly better yield is achieved in shaft furnaces , which are often lined with limestone . This is possible because such clay bricks can only be burned at temperatures up to a maximum of 900 ° C and lime only changes into quicklime at temperatures above 900 ° C. A shaft furnace can be charged about five times a year using conventional technology in Central Europe.
In contrast to painting, bricks were cut out of a lump of clay at the beginning of the Middle Ages and then dried and fired.
The series of pictures shows the production method of hand-streaked bricks. Around 200 brick manufacturers make a living in Dukatole from the production of bricks.
With industrialization , production was soon mechanized. At first there were machines that did the scraping and shaping. Only then did a process prevail in which the bricks are given their shape by extrusion and then cut. Extruded bricks have a very smooth surface. Special shapes such as perforated bricks can be manufactured in the extrusion process.
There have been other advances in burning. First of all, the flashing flame made the temperature in the kiln more even and thus reduced the reject rate or the proportion of poor quality. There were ovens with continuous fire ( ring ovens ), in which various chambers were continuously burned. There were no warming up and cooling down phases for the entire furnace. Tunnel kilns have become commonplace in which the bricks move through the kiln on trolleys during firing, allowing continuous loading. In contrast to this, the brick remained stuck in the ring kiln and the fire spread through the chambers. The innovations in production made it possible to master the enormous construction work of industrialization with the factory halls, workers' settlements, tenements and representative town houses. More than a million bricks were needed for a Berlin tenement, the building of the Anhalter Bahnhof in Berlin consisted of 16 million bricks.
Sand-lime bricks (or sandstone bricks ) have been known since 1855 and were manufactured in large quantities towards the end of the 19th century using patented manufacturing processes. They were made of sharp-edged silica - containing sand , which should be as free of earthy components as possible, such as clay and humus . As lime was fat lime (white lime), Magerkalk (Graukalk) or hydraulic lime (black chalk) into consideration. The mixing ratio of lime to sand was about 1: 6.
The bulk density of bricks is between 1.4 and 2.0 kg / dm³, depending on the firing conditions.
Air-dried bricks ( adobes ) are not burned, but rather air-dried over a longer period of time. The consequence is that they soften again when water is absorbed and are therefore only used in dry regions with little rainfall. These bricks are known as mud bricks .
- Load capacity of these bricks: about 150 kg / cm²
Burned bricks are burned in a kiln (see Burning clay minerals ). In contrast to air-dried bricks, they are permanently solidified, but not particularly weather-resistant because they have a high porosity and water absorption capacity. They are used in interior construction ( backing bricks ) or usually covered with plaster on the finished structure.
- Load capacity of these bricks: about 250 kg / cm²
Hard-fired bricks are fired at higher temperatures and are therefore harder and denser than normal fired bricks . They are used outdoors. This type includes facing bricks (VMZ), clinkers, sometimes paving clinkers and roof tiles (clay roof tiles). Clinkers are burned so hard that the pores of the material to be burned are closed by sintering . They take up very little water and are very resilient.
- Load capacity of these bricks: about 500 kg / cm²
- Texture of the clay
The color of the bricks depends primarily on the minerals contained in the clay. A high iron content (red iron (III) silicates) leads to light to dark red (brown) colors due to the oxidation of the iron, depending on the firing temperature and the firing atmosphere. A high lime content and low iron content lead to yellow tones.
The proportions of clay and sand in the brick mass can be varied. Particularly heavily skimmed bricks are part of the regional architectural style in the very north of France and are called bricque de sable there, which translates as " sand brick ".
- Organic additives
The color nuances can be influenced by oxidizing (oxygen excess in the furnace atmosphere) or reducing (oxygen deficiency in the furnace atmosphere) firing, which can be adjusted by means of the fuel and air supply. An old possibility was the addition of wet tree trunks during the firing: The reducing atmosphere created in the furnace (at the temperatures required for firing, carbon monoxide and hydrogen are produced from coal and water) enables blue color tones through elemental iron (oxidation level 0). Since the furnace is damaged here, this technology was limited to a few special cases.
The color palette can be greatly expanded by applying engobes before firing. This technique has been used in Europe since the Middle Ages and for Islamic brick buildings since the early Middle Ages. In addition, many colors and shades can already be found in the heyday of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar II .
In Burgundy and then in Franconia and Hungary , glazed roof tiles were used to decorate the roofs. This architectural feature was developed in Burgundy (a well-known example is the Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune ) and came to Hungary through the marriage of a queen, where Buda Castle in Budapest is particularly famous for it. Glazed bricks were used in the early advanced cultures of Mesopotamia . In medieval architecture, you can find them from the Mudejar architecture of Spain to the brick Gothic .
The traditional small-format brick is an elongated cuboid , the largest edge length (length) of which is slightly more than twice the average edge length (width). The difference corresponds to the width of the vertical joint, the butt joint . Taking into account the joint , a brick walled in lengthways, the runner , corresponds to exactly two girders walled in crossways . The necessity of laying bricks in bond because of their load-bearing capacity determines their format.
The "monastery format" for hand-painted bricks is not a uniform system, but differs in the individual building schools, as regional standardization was not necessary during the hand-made brick Gothic. It was used not only in monasteries or other spiritual buildings, but also in purely secular ones. In the Baltic Sea region and the Netherlands, from the Romanesque period (with the exception of the first bricks made according to Italian dimensions) to the beginning of the Renaissance, mainly these bricks were built, which were taller than modern formats. The Dutch name for such bricks is 'Kloostermop (pen)', the Danish 'Munkesten (er)' (plural endings in brackets). Fritz Gottlob gives the average dimensions of 28 cm × 15 cm × 9 cm up to 30 cm × 14 cm × 10 cm, the height can be up to 12.5 cm in individual cases. The joints were usually 1.5 cm thick.
Industrialization and railroad construction made it possible to transport building materials over longer distances and the suppliers had to be interchangeable. In Germany in 1872, for example, the “imperial format” for bricks (today “old imperial format”) was introduced: 25 cm × 12 cm × 6.5 cm. This enabled a building to be built from bricks of various origins. The use of these “imperial bricks” was mandatory for state buildings. For other buildings it had become more economical to use and manufacture standardized bricks. This brick format was proposed by the Berlin builder Adolf Lämmerhirt in 1869. This combined the number with the planning dimension of 1 cubic meter building. A cubic meter of masonry including a 1 cm joint and the usual losses at the corners consisted of 400 bricks.
With the metric system, the (new) imperial format with 24 cm × 11.5 cm × 6.3 cm and the normal format with 24 cm × 11.5 cm × 7.1 cm became necessary. With this brick base and a centimeter mortar joint , the buildings were gridded in 1/8 meter units (octametric system) . A missing or additional mortar joint for internal and external dimensions always results in a difference of ± 1 centimeter. On this basic dimension called grid dimensions of other construction trades were later such as windows and doors, coordinated and standardized in their dimensions.
Choice of brick formats
Countries and certain regions have developed their own formats. For Germany, formats and densities are regulated in DIN 105 .
|origin||designation||Measures in cm)|
|Germany||Hamburger format (HF)||22.0||10.5||6.5|
|Germany||Monastery format (s) (KF)||28… 30||14… 15||9… 10|
|Germany||Reichsformat, old or Hoffman's RF from 1872||25th||12||6.5|
|Austria||Old Austrian format||29||14th||6.5|
|Egypt||Ancient Egyptian (here palace of Marqata 18th Dynasty)||33||16||10|
|current||Germany||Thin format (DF)||24||11.5||5.2|
|Germany||Normal format (NF)||24||11.5||7.1|
|Austria / Hungary,
Russia ( GOST )
format kisméretű tégla
|Switzerland||Normal brick (for SIA 266) - Switzerland||25
|Netherlands||Waalformat (WF) - Netherlands||21st||10||5|
|Netherlands||Waaldickformat (WDF) - Netherlands||21st||10||6.5|
The following applies to all tile formats listed in the table (with the exception of two Swiss formats):
- 1 × length = 2 × width + 1 joint thickness
Most of the formats listed were based on the module , a cube consisting of six normal or eight thin-format bricks (including joint thicknesses) with an edge length equal to the edge length of a brick. The other dimensions of the brick blocks were determined from this, deducting the predefined joint thickness.
Bricks can be shaped before or after firing. Mold frames are used for shaping prior to firing. The clay must be relatively moist (water content: 17 to 30 percent by mass based on the dry raw material) and dried to a 0.5 to 3 percent water content before firing so that the stones do not crack during firing. The bricks of the brick Gothic were made in this way.
After firing, bricks can be hewn or ground. Bricks were ground in particular to compensate for differences in size and thereby achieve narrower joints.
Bricks in the 21st Century
In the new building, the traditional small-format brick is of little importance as load-bearing masonry . Bricks got bigger and bigger and perforated because of their weight. The perforated brick has cavities with the same stability, which make it easier to handle and in larger formats. At the same time, the trapped air provides better thermal insulation . To put it more precisely, heat losses through thermal conduction in the material are reduced. In order to improve these properties, the brick material itself is made porous . For this purpose, the raw clay is mixed with flammable substances such as sawdust or plastic balls. These substances burn out at high temperatures during manufacture, and the combustion gases leave pores in the interior of the brick during sintering. A previous foaming with blowing agents is less common and less effective, such products are called "foam clay". For large formats, the old standard dimensions form the basis and are given as multiples of the normal or thin format. A modern variant of the brick is the "plane brick".
As facing masonry , bricks are traditionally popular, especially in northern Germany, due to their brick architecture. The building materials industry has developed a range of formats, tints and surface structures in order to meet the individual wishes of architects and building owners. This includes the split tiles, which consist of two opposing clinker surfaces and which are split for facing and placed on the masonry. The offer includes bricks glazed in different colors as well as bricks manufactured in bulk due to different compositions. Yellow, red, blue and brown tones up to almost black bricks are possible as colors, the latter are very dark brown tones. In contrast to historical bricks, which created a lively picture through impurities in the clay, wall surfaces made of industrially manufactured bricks often appeared "sterile" at first. In modern production, an overly uniform image can be prevented by targeted flame exposure during fire, the application of granules and the structuring of the surfaces during production. "Rustic molded baking bricks" are made according to historical models by mechanically throwing the clay into molds.
Old bricks (demolition bricks) are now salvaged from demolitions and reused for renovations and new buildings in traditional construction. This form of recycling has a long tradition, as bricks are an expensive building material. This can already be observed in buildings in Mesopotamia or in Roman bricks and it can be found in medieval buildings. In the preservation of historical monuments , it is difficult and complex to repair damage to historical brickwork with modern bricks in other formats and smoother colors. Demolition bricks are sometimes used in such cases. There are a few companies that produce traditionally and can manufacture bricks based on historical models. Because of the small number of pieces and the highly manual production, custom-made products are more expensive than industrially produced standardized bricks.
"After-work bricks" are special bricks that have been decorated with dates, texts, sayings or ornaments. This term is common as a generic term for ornate bricks. The bricks were originally burned in the kiln, i. H. under the open sky. One fire involved an amount of 5000 to 10,000 bricks, the reject rate was very high. In order to ask for the blessing for the success of the fire, the first and the last brick were decorated with rising suns and moons. Defensive tiles (roof tiles) were decorated according to the order, i.e. H. provided with wave and jagged patterns, which were probably modeled on a lightning mark and were intended to protect the house and residents from the bad weather. There are also flower, cross and animal motifs as good luck charms and hand and children's footprints can be found. The tradition lasted until the pre-industrial times, the decorations can still be found on extruded roof tiles. In times of manual production, the soft clay was decorated with it. This often took place after work was done - at the end of the day.
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- front of the house there is coal-containing ash, which is provided free of charge by local businesses. This coal, which previously remained in the ash due to incomplete combustion, is filtered out of the ash using a sieve. The pieces of coal obtained are larger than the fine ash from burned coal.
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