Marienkirche (Lübeck)

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South view of the Marienkirche in Lübeck with the buttress above the aisle
Main nave of Lübeck's Marienkirche with the 38.5 m high vault

The Lübeck Marienkirche (officially St. Marien zu Lübeck ) was built from 1277 to 1351. The Lübeck Citizens and Market Church has always been a symbol of power and prosperity in the old Hanseatic city and is located on the highest point of Lübeck's old town island. The church is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Lübeck Old Town . St. Marien is considered the "mother church of brick Gothic " and one of the main works of church building in the Baltic Sea region . It belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany .

The mother church of north German brick Gothic

St. Marien zu Lübeck from the east

The Marienkirche in Lübeck was the model for around 70 churches of this style in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the building is given outstanding architectural importance. With the Marienkirche in Lübeck, the up-and- coming Gothic style from France was implemented with north German brick . It houses the highest brick vault in the world (38.5 meters in the central nave).

The construction of the Marienkirche is a three-aisled basilica with insert chapels , ambulatory and chapel wreath as well as transept-like vestibules. In the west, the church has a monumental double tower facade . Including the weathercocks , the towers are 124.95 and 124.75 meters high.

One of the peculiarities of St. Mary's Church, copied many times in brick Gothic, is, as Georg Dehio emphasized, that the towers have Gothic windows, but no buttresses, and, like Romanesque church towers, consist of similar, not very high storeys. Close to the coast, it is above all St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk , whose tower was not built based on the Lübeck model, but based on Flemish and Flemish brick Gothic. The material diversity of Lübeck Marie Towers is little attention: the wall corners are made of granite blocks , and below the window there circumferential ledges of limestone.

As in other examples of brick Gothic, there are portals made of ashlar at the Marienkirche . The west portal made of sandstone is particularly elaborately designed, but changed in a neo-Gothic style; Through a front arch made of tracery (nowadays the west portal is usually closed) one entered a vestibule with fine, original early Gothic stone carvings on both sides. The step portal with the church door is in the back wall. The north-western portal, created 1320-1330, southeastern gate, and have the letter chapel into the ship jambs of limestone. The outside portal of the letter chapel is again made of sandstone. Only the north-eastern portal has a brick wall.

The Marienkirche is in the merchants ' quarter , which stretches from the storehouses on the banks of the Trave up to St. Marien. It is the main parish church of the council and the citizens of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck and was therefore built near the town hall and the market .

Building history

View into the almost 40 meter high vault of the central nave
Floor plan (around 1900)
Interior view around 1820 (engraving from Zietz, views of the city of Lübeck )

In 1159/1160 Heinrich the Lion moved the Oldenburg diocese to Lübeck and founded a cathedral chapter . In 1163 a wooden church was built, which was replaced by a Romanesque brick church from 1173/74 . In the beginning of the 13th century, however, it no longer met the spatial and representative requirements of the self-confident, economically strongly emerging citizens. Romanesque sculptures of the furnishings of this second Marienkirche are shown today in the St. Anne's Museum .

Gothic cathedrals in France and Flanders made of natural stone were the models for the new building of the three-aisled Lübeck basilica . It is the absolute example of sacred brick Gothic and was a model for many churches in the Baltic Sea region (e.g. Nikolaikirche (Stralsund) , Nikolaikirche (Wismar) ).

Before that, no brick church had been built so high and vaulted . A system of buttresses deflects the thrust of the vault outwards via a buttress and thus enables the enormous height. Part of the “North German rigor” of Lübeck's longwall is that the pillars that support the arches do not end in pinnacles . This severity is also demonstrated by the struts of Bremen Cathedral, which are made of sandstone except for the southeast corner.

The incentive for the City Council of Lübeck to undertake such an enormous construction project was the bitter dispute with the Diocese of Lübeck . As a symbol of the long-distance merchants' desire for freedom and the secular power of the city, which had been free from the empire since 1226, with the church building in the immediate vicinity of the Lübeck town hall and the market, the Romanesque bishop's church of the city, the Lübeck Cathedral , founded by Heinrich the Lion , was clearly and not accessible Exceeding size and thus of course also underlining the claim to supremacy over the other members of the Städtehanse (1356), which was forming around the same time .

During the construction of today's church there were two major changes to the plan: First, it was to be a hall church with a tower. Soon after work on the choir began, a decision was made in 1260 for a simplified form of the French ambulatory choir and a basilical cross-section. In the west building, the original plan was followed for a longer period, the top full floor between today's towers was still built as the tower room of the one-tower.

Around 1310 the letter chapel was added to the east of the south tower . It was both a vestibule and a chapel and, with its portal, formed the second main entrance to the church in the direction of the market. Originally presumably dedicated to Saint Anne , the chapel received its current name in the post-Reformation period when wage clerks moved there. The chapel (12 m long, 8 m deep and 12 m high) is vaulted by a star vault and is considered a masterpiece of high Gothic. It has often been compared to English cathedral Gothic and the chapter house of Marienburg . Today the letter chapel serves as a winter church for the church services from January to March.

Around 1390, the city council built its own chapel, the mayor's chapel, on the south-east corner of the ambulatory, which can be recognized by the alternation of glazed and unglazed brick in the exterior masonry. The newly elected council was installed in office in the stalls that were still preserved. On the upper floor of the chapel is the bar , the specially secured place of storage of the city privileges, documents, festivals and the contracts of the Lübeck council. This part of the church is still owned by the city today.

Before 1444, the eastern end of the ambulatory was extended by a one-bay chapel with a 5/8 end - the last Gothic extension of the church. This chapel was used to hold prayers of the hours as part of the veneration of the Virgin Mary , the times of the Virgin Mary or Marientids ( Middle Low German ) and was therefore given the name Marientidenkapelle or Sängerkapelle .

The Marienkirche has a total of nine larger side chapels and another ten smaller ones, most of which are named as burial chapels after the Lübeck council families who used and donated them.

See: Chapels of the Marienkirche in Lübeck

Destruction and rebuilding

Pre-war recording of the Lübeck dance of death
Central nave, looking west, before the destruction
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0054, Lübeck, ruins around Marien-Kirche.jpg

On the night of Palm Sunday from March 28 to 29, 1942, the Marienkirche (as well as the cathedral and the Petrikirche ) burned out almost completely in the air raid on Lübeck , in which one fifth of Lübeck city center was destroyed. The famous death dance organ, on which Dietrich Buxtehude and most likely Johann Sebastian Bach , among others , had played, was also destroyed.

Overbeck: Entry of Christ into Jerusalem (1824)

Thirty-six medieval wooden sculptures and panel paintings alone were burnt as works of art, the Gregory Mass by Bernt Notke , the monumental Lübeck Dance of Death (originally by Bernt Notke, replaced by a copy in 1701), the carved figures of the rood screen , the Trinity altar by Jacob van Utrecht (formerly Bernard van Attributed to Orley ) and the Entry of Christ into Jerusalem by Friedrich Overbeck . Of the sculptures by the carver Benedikt Dreyer , the figures of saints he created on the west side of the rood screen and the organ sculpture on the Great Organ from the period 1516–18, as well as the man with the counting board, burned . Furthermore, the medieval windows of the castle church built into the Marienkirche from 1840 were destroyed; the flags of the Hanseatic Legion and a precious medieval rarity, a Danish ship's flag captured in the sea ​​battle in the Oresund (1427) , were burned .

An impression of the interior can only be gained from the pre-war photographic interior documentation by Lübeck photographers such as Wilhelm Castelli .

During the war, the Marienkirche was protected by an emergency roof and the choir vault was restored. The actual reconstruction began in 1947 and was largely completed twelve years later. Due to the experience of the night of the fire, it was decided not to use wood again for the supporting structure of the roof and the spiers. Instead, all the spiers of Lübeck churches that were rebuilt after the war are made using a specially developed process ( hollow slag body , Trautsch-Pieper system ) in lightweight concrete under the copper roofing. A glass window in the north side of St. Mary's Church was dedicated to the builder Erich Trautsch , who originally developed this process.

Postage stamp (1951) for the 700th anniversary
High altar with closed Swarte winged altar in Advent 2010

In 1951, the 700th anniversary of the church could be celebrated under the restored roof. For this purpose, Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer donated the new pulse bell, and the memorial chapel with the fallen bells in the south tower was inaugurated. In the stained glass window in the chapel, the names of major cities in the former eastern regions are listed in alphabetical order as a reminder. The Marienkirche is one of the centers of the Cross of Nails because of its destruction in the war . A plaque on the wall indicates the futility of war.

There was a long discussion about the design of the interior in the 1950s, and not just because of the paintings (see below). The predominant here was a purist and unhistorical view of the Gothic spatial effect, which, as a result of the destruction, was brought back to the essential, the pure form . The new concept should also do justice to the (then) dual task of the Marienkirche as a bishop's church and parish church. Finally, in 1956, the church council and church leadership announced a limited competition and invited six architects to participate, including Gerhard Langmaack and Denis Boniver . Boniver's draft was largely adopted on February 8, 1958. At this meeting, the then Bishop Heinrich Meyer vehemently demanded the removal of the Fredenhagen Altar (see below), which he also did.

The interior reconfiguration after Bonivers design was carried out in 1958/59, while an underfloor heating system were a new tile floor still present grave plates because of the incorporation of Gotland - Limestone recorded and used to increase the presbytery. The northern remainder of the stone rood screen substructure was demolished. The choir was separated from the ambulatory by three-meter-high whitewashed walls. The Fredenhagen altar was replaced by a simple altar block made of shell limestone and a crucifix by Gerhard Marcks hanging from the belt arch . On December 20, 1959 the inauguration of the newly designed choir took place.

At the same time, a treasury was set up in the space between the towers for the treasure trove of paraments from the Marienkirche in Gdańsk , which had come to Lübeck on loan from EKU after the war . This was removed in 1993 and the Parament Treasure was brought to the St. Anne's Museum . A large organ gallery was set up above the treasury. The organ itself could only be installed in 1968.

The roof turret

The gilded roof turret , which protrudes 30 meters above the nave roof , was recreated in 1980 based on old drawings and photographs. The rider's glockenspiel only rang when Lübeck was still independent and the funeral service took place in the Marienkirche when a member of the Senate had died.

The frescoes in the Marienkirche - and Lothar Malskat

After the fire in 1942, under the plaster that had cracked off due to the heat, the medieval painting of St. Mary's Church came to light in many places and was partly documented by photos during the war.

In 1948 Dietrich Fey was commissioned to restore the Gothic frescoes . As his assistant he hired the Lübeck painter Lothar Malskat , whose work soon became the biggest art forger scandal after the Second World War . As there were no paintings in the upper storey of the choir , Fey Malskat had saints frescoes in the style of the time around 1300 "added" according to his own design. In 1951 a commission of experts criticized his work as improper, but it was only after Malskat's self-disclosure in 1952 that a judicial clarification came about.

In the public perception it was and is often overlooked that the actual “forgeries” Malskats only make up a small part of the rich painting of the church and were washed off shortly afterwards at the instigation of the then bishop.

The "Annunciation scene with an angel between two pilgrims" glowing in the red-green-ocher triad high up from the north wall of the nave, which is the motif for postcards and the template for the two stamps of the charity commemorative edition 700 years Marienkirche Lübeck from 1951 in one edition of four million is not, as is often read, an invention of Malskat, but a real painting of the 14th century, which is documented by photos from 1944.

Lothar Malskat entered the literature through the novel Die Rättin by Günter Grass , in which he plays an important role.


The Marienkirche was richly endowed by foundations of the council, the offices ( guilds ) and families and individuals. At the end of the Middle Ages it had 38 altars and 65 vicarages .

From the medieval furnishings are preserved:

The baptismal font
Last Supper relief in the ambulatory, the dark spot on the lower left is the mouse, a symbol of Lübeck
  • Sandstone reliefs from Heinrich Brabender's workshop in the ambulatory (1515) with scenes from the passion story : in the north the washing of feet and the Last Supper , in the south Christ in the garden of Gethsemane and his capture. As part of the Last Supper relief, there is a symbol of Lübeck: a small mouse that is also significant in the Lübschen world of legends and gnaws at a rose bush (Whoever touches the mouse should return to Lübeck in his life. Other interpretations mean happiness for those who touch it ).
  • In the Marientide Chapel there are remains of the original stalls and the Antwerp altar (see below).
  • St. Johannes , wooden statue by Henning von der Heyde (around 1505)
  • St. Antonius , stone statue donated in 1457 by councilor Hermann Sundesbeke , member of the Antonius Brotherhood
View into the mayor's chapel
  • In the mayor's chapel in the southern ambulatory, parts of the original Gothic pews have been preserved.
  • With the Lamentation of Christ , one of the main works by the Nazarene Friedrich Overbeck hangs in the prayer chapel in the north ambulatory.
  • The choir screens are recent reconstructions. In 1959, when the refurbishment was carried out, the choir was closed off with walls facing the passage. These were canceled again in the 1990s. The brass rods of the choir screens were largely preserved, while the wooden parts were almost completely burned in 1942. The oak frame and crown were reconstructed after the remains.
  • Since 2003, Günther Uecker's installation “Injury Connections, Fourteen Broken Crosses” has been on permanent loan in the ambulatory to the right of the altar .

Antwerp reredos

The impressive Antwerp reredos in the Marientidenkapelle were made in 1518. In 1522 it was donated for the chapel by the merchant Johann Bone from Geldern . After the chapel was converted into a confessional chapel in 1790, the altar was moved several times in the church. During the Second World War it stood in the letter chapel and thus escaped destruction. The double-winged altar shows the life of Mary in 26 painted and carved scenes , the death of Mary in the center of the carved feast day side (the small associated group of the Assumption above it was stolen in 1945), below her funeral procession , on the left the Annunciation and on the right her burial. The carved wings of this transformation show the birth of Mary at the top left, below the presentation of Jesus in the temple, and at the top right a shortened root Jesse and below the twelve-year-old Jesus in the temple. The painted second transformation (to be seen in Lent ) shows scenes from the life of Jesus and the life of Mary: in the middle the adoration of the shepherds, the adoration of the kings, the circumcision of Jesus and the flight to Egypt, flanked by the marriage of Joachim and Annas, the rejection of his sacrifice, his offering of thanks and his giving to the poor when they left the temple. If the altar is completely closed (nowadays in Holy Week ), the master's Annunciation from 1518 can be seen.

Before 1869 the wings of the predella , which show the legends of the holy clan , were removed, sawn into panels and sold. Two parts of it came in 1869 from the private collection of the mayor of Lübeck, Karl Ludwig Roeck, to the collection of today's St. Annen Museum. Two more panels from the outside of the Predelle wings were acquired by the Schleswig-Holstein Cultural Foundation and have also been in the St. Anne's Museum since 1988. Two of the remaining panels are in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart and two in a private collection in Stockholm .


Epitaph of the mayor Heinrich Brockes II († 1773)

In the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the interior of the church was filled more and more with epitaphs , so that one could say that the church became the hall of fame of the Lübeck patriciate . The epitaphs in the main nave, which were only permitted from 1693, had to be made of wood for structural reasons, while they could also be made of marble in the aisles. While almost all wooden epitaphs of the 84 epitaphs preserved up to the 20th century fell victim to the fire after the bombing, 17 mostly stone epitaphs have survived on the walls of the aisles, albeit some with severe damage. Since it was essentially baroque work, it was deliberately neglected in the first phase of the reconstruction and was only partially restored from 1973 onwards. But they still give an idea of ​​how richly the Marienkirche was once furnished. The oldest epitaph, a coat of arms epitaph still based on medieval models, is that of the mayor Hermann von Dorne, who died in 1594 . The multiple restored epitaph of the Schonenfahrers and councilor Johann Füchting († 1637) is a Dutch work by the Amsterdam sculptor Aris Claeszon from the transition period from the late Renaissance to the early Baroque. After the phase of the excessive cartilage style , the examples of which were all burned, Thomas Quellinus introduced a new type of epitaph in Lübeck and created epitaphs in the dramatic style of the Flemish high baroque for the councilor Hartwich von Stiten made 1699, the councilor Adolf Brüning made 1706, the Mayor Hieronymus von Dorne († 1704) and Mayor Anton Winckler (1707), who were the only ones to remain undamaged. In the same year, the Lübeck sculptor Hans Freese created the epitaph for the mayor Gotthard Kerkring , who died in 1705 , whose oval portrait is held by a winged death figure. A well-preserved example of the epitaphs of the next generation is that of Mayor Peter Hinrich Tesdorpf, who died in 1723 . In the grave chapel of the Tesdorpf family there is the bust of the mayor Johann Matthaeus Tesdorpf by Gottfried Schadow , which the council presented to him in 1823 for his council anniversary and which was placed here in 1835. The grave monument of Mayor Joachim Peters von Landolin Ohmacht (around 1795) is one of the last epitaphs .

Fredenhagen Altar

The Fredenhagen Altar (1906)
Crucifixion group (fragment) of the Fredenhagen Altar, set up in the ambulatory, status 2008

The main piece of furniture from the Baroque period , the 18-meter high high altar made of marble and porphyry (1697), donated by the merchant Thomas Fredenhagen and designed by the Antwerp sculptor Thomas Quellinus , was badly damaged in 1942, but not destroyed. After a long argument from 1951 to 1959, at the instigation of the then Bishop Heinrich Meyer, the decision was made not to restore the altar, but to remove it and replace it with a simple limestone altar table and a bronze crucifix by Gerhard Marcks . The then Lübeck museum director judged the art-historical significance of the altar as the only work of art of European standing that the Evangelical Church in Lübeck had created after the Reformation. Individual pieces of the altar are now placed in the ambulatory: the crucifixion group with Mary and John, the marble predella with a relief of the Last Supper and the three crowning figures, the allegories Faith and Hope and the risen Christ. The other surviving remains of the altar are stored above the vault between the towers. The discussion as to whether it is possible and desirable to restore the altar as a major work of baroque art of European standing is still ongoing.

Stained glass

All windows and thus all glass paintings were destroyed in 1942 except for remains. This fate also met the windows of the castle church, which were saved in the 19th century when the church of the castle monastery was demolished and later built by Carl Julius Milde in St. Marien . Alexander Linnemann from Frankfurt created windows for the church . During the reconstruction, simple diamond-shaped windows were built in lead glass , with sparse decoration, which usually shows the donors' coats of arms. Some windows have been artistically designed:

  • The windows in the Marientidenkapelle show the coats of arms of the Hanseatic cities of Bremen , Hamburg and Lübeck as well as the text of the Lübeck cantata by Dietrich Buxtehude : Schwinget sich Himmelan ( BuxWV 96).
  • The monumental, 270 cm × 980 cm large west window Weltenrichter / St. Michael / The Last Judgment was designed in 1963 by Hans Gottfried von Stockhausen .
  • In the window of the memorial chapel in the south tower, in which the destroyed bells lie, coats of arms of cities, states, Prussian provinces and historical settlement areas remind of the German eastern territories
  • The two windows in the Dance of Death Chapel, designed by Alfred Mahlau in 1952–1955 and made in the Berkentien glass workshop in Lübeck in 1956–1957 , take up the motifs and shapes of the Lübeck Dance of Death , which was burned there in 1942 . They replace the imperial window donated by Kaiser Wilhelm II on the occasion of his visit to Lübeck in 1913 and placed under his protection by the Lübeck Senate on June 5, 1914 . It was made by the Munich court glass painter Karl de Bouché and, in a historical style, showed the confirmation of the city's privileges by Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa.
  • The letter chapel got windows designed by Johannes Schreiter in 1981/82 . Their torn diamond pattern reminds of the destruction of the church, but also of the torn nets ( Lk 5,6  EU ) of the disciples of Jesus .
  • In December 2002, based on a design by Markus Lüpertz, the tympanum window was added over the north portal of the Dance of Death Chapel. This window, like the window in Johannes Schreiter's letter chapel, was manufactured and installed in the Derix glass art workshop (Taunusstein).


The devil at the Marienkirche in Lübeck, sculpture by Rolf Goerler, 1999
Memorial stone of the St. Mariengemeinde
Exterior view (1929)

The Marienkirchhof , located south of the church, gives the impression of the medieval townscape through its closings, the north facade of the Lübeck town hall , the office building and the Marienwerkhaus . Lübsche legends interweave almost impossible to find details of sculptural design on the facade; a large granite cuboid to the right of the entrance was not temporarily stored there or forgotten by the church building hut, but is said to have come there by the devil's hand. According to legend, the devil is said to have participated in the construction of St. Mary's Church in the belief that it was a question of building an inn. A devil figure created by Rolf Goerler in the Marienkirchhof commemorates this story. In the west and north of the church, the churchyard shows itself as a free space, the medieval, small-scale buildings have been cleared. At the corner of Schüsselbuden and Mengstrasse alone , the foundation stones are reminiscent of the Maria am Stegel chapel (1415), which was used as a bookshop before the Second World War. A decision was made against its reconstruction after the war at the end of the 1950s and the remaining outer masonry of the ruin was removed.

The pastorate, the Wehde , after which the inner block courtyard Wehdehof is named after, is a three-part structure with facades from the 18th century on Mengstraße opposite the churchyard .

The memorial to their fallen, created by the sculptor Hermann Joachim Pagels in 1929 for the parish, is made of Swedish granite from Karlshamn . It originally stood in front of the window of the mayor's chapel. In 1920, the results for its tender were publicly exhibited in it.

The Devil's Stone, which is located at that point today, was at that time at the foot of the south tower.

The main inscription on the front of the Sankt Marien Memorial is:

The St. Mary's Parish

their dead

1914 1918

(added after the Second World War)


1939 1945

there are passages of text along the upper edges


God our confidence

BWV 197


But now remain faith, hope, love

( 1 Cor 13,13  LUT )


Lord set us free

Old Dutch thanksgiving prayer


Since the Reformation, the Marienkirche was the preaching place of the leading Lutheran clergyman of the city, until 1796 of the superintendent . Then the respective senior changed ; three of them were pastors at St. Mary's. From 1934 to 1973 St. Marien was the episcopal church of the bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lübeck . Since the formation of the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church , St. Marien has been the preaching point of the respective provost of the Lübeck church district. In the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany , which was formed in 2012, St. Mary is the preacher position of the provost for the Lübeck area of ​​the Lübeck-Lauenburg church district.

Other well-known pastors of the Marienkirche were

Once three generations followed one another:

Music at St. Marien

Already in the Middle Ages there was a rich church music in the Marienkirche . For example, the Marientidenkapelle had its own choir. After the Reformation through the church ordinance of Johannes Bugenhagen , the choir of the Katharineum took over the task of organizing the services of the church. The school received the proceeds from the foundation of the chapel. Until 1802 the cantor was also the school teacher and responsible for choir and community singing. The organist, on the other hand, who as a foreman also had to take on administrative tasks in church accounting and building maintenance, was responsible for the organ and instrumental music.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the cantors of St. Mary's Church created a choir library of over 2,000 works. Her 69 sets of printed part books and one set of handwritten voices remained in the church until 1814 and were then donated as a diplomatic gesture of Lübeck before the Congress of Vienna to the newly founded Society of Friends of Music in Vienna , where they are still located today. The library was cataloged by Kerala J. Snyder ; the catalog is accessible online.

Main organ

Great organ

St. Marien had an organ as early as the 14th century, as the official title of "organist" is attested in a will in 1377. In 1516–1518 , the first large organ on the west wall , built under the foreman Martin Flor , was built in Luebisch at a cost of 10,500 marks as a replacement for the large organ from 1396. It had 32 registers , which were divided into two manuals and pedal . This organ, most likely the first and only Gothic organ facade with a thirty-two foot principal (deepest pipe around 11 meters long) in the Western world of that time, has been expanded and rebuilt over the centuries. Among other things, the Marien organist and master organ builder Barthold Hering († 1555) repaired or added to this work. Jacob Scherer added a breastwork on a third manual in 1560/1561 . From 1637 to 1641 Friedrich Stellwagen carried out extensive work, which is why it served him as a model for the organ of St. Mary's Church in Stralsund . Otto Diedrich Richborn added three registers in 1704. In 1733 Konrad Bünting exchanged four registers, changed the arrangement of the manuals and built in manual couplers. His son Christoph Julius Bünting expanded the organ in 1758 with a small swell with three voices, the action of which could be played from the manual of the breastwork.

At the beginning of the 19th century the organ had grown to three manuals and pedal, 57 registers and 4,684 sounding pipes. In 1851, however, a new organ was built, built by Johann Friedrich Schulze in the spirit of the times, with four manuals, pedal and 80 voices behind the late Gothic prospect by Benedikt Dreyer , which was restored and expanded by Carl Julius Milde .

Instead of this great organ, which was burned in the bombing raid in 1942, the organ building company Kemper & Sohn built what was then the largest organ in the world with a mechanical action mechanism . It has 100 registers with 8,512 pipes on five manuals and pedal; the longest measures eleven meters, the smallest only a few millimeters. The stop action works electrically and has free combinations; the register panel is created twice.

Increasingly occurring tonal and constructive defects on the main organ were confirmed by Hans-Martin Petersen, the organ expert of the North Church , in a report from 2010. On May 9th and 10th, 2014 an “International Organ Symposium on the Future of Organs at St. Mary's” took place, which also included the dance of death organ, which is infected with mold. At the end of 2014, the parish council issued a tender for a new main organ in the westwork. The new instrument is intended on the one hand to take into account the musical tradition of the 16th and 17th centuries, and on the other to enable symphonic, romantic and modern organ music. After a decision by the parish council in November 2016, the instrument is now being further planned on the basis of the design of the organ building companies Johannes Klais (Bonn) and Manufacture d'Orgues Thomas (Ster-Francorchamps, Belgium). Cooperation with another company is being considered. The future instrument is to be a double organ with two console tables for a baroque part (three manual) and a symphonic part (five manual).

However, an initiative has been set up to prevent the Kemper organ from being demolished and is committed to a comprehensive renovation and maintenance of the traditional instrument.

The Kemper organ from 1968 has the following disposition :

Dance of the Dead organ (choir organ)

Dance of Death Organ

The dance of death organ was older than the great organ . It was built in 1477 on the east side of the north transept , known as the Dance of Death Chapel because of the dance of death installed there , and was used for the musical arrangement of the masses celebrated there . After the Reformation , it was used for devotionals and communion celebrations. In 1549 and 1558 Jacob Scherer expanded the organ with a Rückpositiv , among other things , and in 1621 the organ received a breastwork . Friedrich Stellwagen also carried out extensive repairs on this organ (1653–1655). After that, only minor modifications were carried out. Due to this fact, the organ gained the interest of the professional world as part of the organ movement , together with the Arp Schnitger organ in St. Jacobi Hamburg and the small organ of the Lübeck Jakobikirche , and was fundamentally restored in 1937 with the aim of maintaining the state of the 16th ./17. Century to restore. The disposition was traced back to that of the 17th century. But this organ also burned together with the Dance of Death on Palm Sunday 1942.

In 1955, the organ building firm Kemper & Sohn restored the dance of death organ to the dimensions of 1937, but now in the northern ambulatory, facing the high choir. The new astronomical clock took its original place. This post-war organ, which was very susceptible to repair, was replaced in the same place in 1986 by the new dance of death organ , built by the Führer company in Wilhelmshaven . With a mechanical action mechanism on four manuals and pedal, it has a total of 56 registers with around 5,000 pipes. This organ is particularly suitable for accompanying devotions and casualia as well as for performing older organ music up to Bach.

As a special tradition at St. Mary 's, the chorale Nun all thank God is accompanied with both organs, timpani and a brass ensemble in the year-end service on New Year's Eve .

Other instruments

Schwarz organ (1723)

Also on the rood screen there had been a positive organ as a continuo instrument of the choir set up there since 1664 - the third organ in the church. The cantor at the time, Samuel Franck , made sure that the head of the church acquired an organ positive with five voices, including the fifth, octave and dulcian 16 ', "for the sake of the current age of music" . Because there was no organ builder in Lübeck at that time ( Friedrich Stellwagen died in 1659), the positive was commissioned from the organ builder Michel Berigel in Lüneburg . This instrument was in service until 1854. In 1854, the breastwork removed during the renovation of the large organ (built by Jacob Scherer in 1560/61) was installed here. This rood screen organ had one manual and seven registers and was replaced in 1900 by a two-manual, pneumatic work by the organ builder Emanuel Kemper, while retaining the facade . This organ also burned down in 1942.

A former house organ from East Prussia has been in the letter chapel since 1948 . The letter chapel organ , a one-manual work with eight parts in bass and treble division, was built by Johannes Schwarz in 1723 and has served as the organ of the castle chapel of Dönhoffstädt near Rastenburg since 1724 . From there it was acquired by the Lübeck organ builder Karl Kemper in 1933. After a few years as an accompanying instrument for church music performances in the high choir of the Katharinenkirche , Walter Kraft initially brought this organ as a transitional instrument to the letter chapel, which was the first room in the Marienkirche to be prepared for services again after the war has been. Today the baroque organ is used to accompany devotions and Sunday services, which are celebrated in the letter chapel as a winter church from January to March.


Two organists in the 17th century in particular shaped the musical tradition at St. Marien: Franz Tunder from 1642 until his death in 1667, and his successor and son-in-law Dietrich Buxtehude from 1668 to 1707. Both were prominent representatives of the North German organ school and performed as organists as well as composers . In 1705 Johann Sebastian Bach came to Lübeck to “listen” to Buxtehude, and in 1703 Georg Friedrich Handel and Johann Mattheson were guests at Buxtehude. Since then, the position of organist at St. Marien has been considered one of the most outstanding organist positions in Germany.

With the Lübeck Evening Music , Tunder and Buxtehude were the first to introduce church concerts that were detached from the service. Buxtehude developed a fixed form for this as a series of five concerts on the last two Sundays of the Trinity period and on the 2nd to 4th Sunday in Advent . The very successful series was continued by Buxtehude's successors Johann Christian Schieferdecker (1679–1732), Johann Paul Kunzen (1696–1757), his son Adolf Karl Kunzen (1720–1781) and Johann Wilhelm Cornelius von Königslöw (1745–1833). They all composed a number of biblical oratorios for the evening music , including Israel's idolatry in the desert (1758), Absalon (1761) and Goliath (1762) by Adolf Kunzen and The Rescue of the Child Mose and The Born World Savior (1788), Death, Resurrection and court (1790) as well as David's complaint on Hermon after the 42nd Psalm (1793) by Königslöw.

This tradition came to an end around 1810. The taste in music and church had changed, and external circumstances (occupation by Napoleonic troops in the "French era" and the resulting financial difficulties in Lübeck until the middle of the 19th century) made it impossible to hold such lavish concerts.

In the early 20th century it was the Marian organist Walter Kraft (1905–1977) who revived the tradition of evening music, first with an evening of Bach organ music (1926), then annually with mixed choir and organ programs. In 1954 Kraft created the “Lübeck Dance of Death” as a new evening music.

Even Ernst-Erich Stender (Marie organist as successor Krafts 1973-2009) the tradition of Abendmusiken led as organ concerts by candlelight in the summer months on. In early 2009, the Kreuz organist Holger Gehring was appointed Stender's successor . He should start his service here on May 1st, 2009. After intensive negotiations with the church council of the Kreuzkirche, Gehring withdrew the notice that had already been given and decided to stay in Dresden. Instead, Johannes Unger was appointed as the new Marian organist.

List of organists


--- From 1801 to 1970 the organists were also cantors.

Lübeck boys' choir at St. Marien

Since 1970 there has been a boys choir at the Marienkirche with the Lübeck Knabenkantorei an St. Marien (founded in 1948 as Lübeck Kantorei ) , which sings regularly in the Sunday and holiday services. Also in 1970 the choirmaster Hans-Jürgen Wille was appointed cantor at St. Marien. The choir has been under the direction of Marienkantor Karl Hänsel since 2017. The performance of Bach's St. John Passion , formerly as part of a church service, today as a church concert , on Good Friday has become a Lübeck tradition, as is the annual Christmas singing.

The Marienkirche in Lübeck today

The community

Since the introduction of the Reformation church order by Johannes Bugenhagen by the City Council in 1531 Protestant , the church of St. Mary's Church now belongs to the Lutheran Evangelical Church in Northern Germany . Church services take place every Sunday and public holiday at 10 a.m.

Mondays to Saturdays in the summer season as well as in Advent, a short devotion ( word on everyday life ) with organ music at 12 noon (after the movement of figures on the astronomical clock) gives tourists and locals the opportunity to reflect.

Since March 15, 2010, anyone wanting to visit the Marienkirche in Lübeck has to pay two euros.

The astronomical clock

The new astronomical clock

The astronomical clock (built 1561–1566) was a jewel in art and sacred history.
It stood behind the high altar in the ambulatory and was completely destroyed in 1942. Only one dial, which had been replaced during an earlier restoration, remained in the St. Anne's Museum. The new astronomical clock, which was set up on the east side of the north transept in the dance of death chapel, is the work of Paul Behrens , a Lübeck master watchmaker , who planned it as a life's work from 1960 to 1967, collected donations for it, made it in the clock parts himself and it waited until the end of its life. The facade is a simplified copy of the original. Calendar and planetary disks, moved by complex mechanics, show the day and month, the position of the sun and the moon, signs of the zodiac (13 astronomical , not 12 astrological ), the date of Easter and the golden number . At 12 noon the carillon sounds and the movement of the figures in front of the blessing Christ (originally electors, since the reconstruction after the war eight representatives of the peoples of the earth) starts.

The carillon

The carillon in the south tower consists of 37 bells (three octaves ). 28 came from the Katharinenkirche in Gdansk . They were cast by Schilling in Apolda in 1908 , came to the Hamburg bell cemetery during World War II and were installed here in 1953/54. For this, 8 bells that had been lost were cast again, but not yet the largest bell, the drone (c '). A donation from Lübeck entrepreneur Dieter Bruhn made it possible to add this bell in 2019. At the same time, 14 bells were tuned in the Rincker bell and art foundry ; six had to be re-cast.

After the church year, changing choral melodies sound every half and full hour . In the past, the glockenspiel was controlled by a complicated electromechanical roller mechanism; it has been computer-controlled since a renovation in 2008. At Easter and Christmas, the organist plays the carillon by hand at 12 noon.


The bells on the floor of the southern tower that fell during the fire in 1942

The historic ringing of 11 bells in the church originally hung in the south of the two towers in a bell room at a height of 60 m. There were also seven clock bells in the roof turret, cast 1508–1510 by Hinrik van Kampen . During the fire triggered by the bombing on Palm Sunday 1942, the church bells are said to have rang again by the draft before they fell. The remains of two bells, the oldest bell from 1508, the Sunday bell by Hinrik van Kampen (2,000 kg, diameter 1710 mm, strike tone a 0 ) and the pulse bell from Lübeck council founder Albert Benningk from 1668 (7,134 kg, diameter 2170 mm, strike tone f sharp 0 ), were preserved as a memorial in the former Schinkel Chapel under the Süderturm. The council and children's bell , cast by council founder Anton Wiese in 1650 , which was rung for prayer before council meetings and at child baptisms, was handed over to the Strecknitz sanatorium in 1906 and was the only one of the historical bells to survive the Second World War. It still hangs today in the tower of the current university hospital . The other eight bells melted in the tower at around 1000 ° C. The overall ringing was in the disposition: f sharp °, g sharp °, a °, f ', b', h ', dis' ', dis' ', d' '', f '' ''. The main chime included the bells: g sharp ° a °, b ', dis'', f '' ''

The nine-part bell since 2019 has been hanging in the north tower since then. It is one of the largest and deepest of its kind in northern Germany. The three baroque bells Gratia Dei , Dominicalis (from St. Johann) and Osanna (from St. Marien ) come from Gdansk churches ; After the Second World War, these so-called "loan bells" came from the Hamburg bell cemetery as "emergency bells" on the tower. In 1951 the new pulse bell was donated by the Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer for the 700th anniversary of the Marienkirche. It was cast in 1951 by Friedrich Wilhelm Schilling in Heidelberg. The 4 bells were hung on cranked yokes in the steel bell cage. On Saturdays at 8 p.m. and on Sundays at 10 a.m., the main chimes c ', d' and f 'rang out. The pulse bell was rung on special occasions. But the bell of the Marienkirche sounded incomplete and not festive. That is why in 1985 three bells in the disposition as °, b ° and es' were cast by the Bachert brothers in Bad Friedrichshall-Kochendorf. Their inscriptions make a special reference to peace and reconciliation. Unfortunately, the three new bells were also hung on strongly cranked yokes, which reduced the sound. The disposition remained ges °, as °, b °, c ', d', es ', and f' until 2019.

In 2005 the entire bell chamber was renovated. The steel belfry of the reconstruction period was replaced by a wooden belfry. The strongly offset yokes have also been replaced by straight yokes. These enable better sound development.

This loud bell has a high recognition value because it is noticeable due to its unusual disposition ( interval between the individual bells); The stringing together of whole tone intervals between bells 1–5 creates a very idiosyncratic peal sound, which is also livelier thanks to the sound of the historical bells.

In 2018, a generous donation from Hans-Heinrich Otte made it possible to cast two more, higher-pitched bells. These were inaugurated on Palm Sunday 2019. The disposition of the new bells are as 'and b'. They were cast in the Hessian sense in 2019 in the Rincker bells and art foundry.

Foundry, casting location
Casting year
( HT - 1 / 16 )
place of origin
1 Pulse bell Friedrich Wilhelm Schilling , Heidelberg 1951 5,817 2,100 Ges 0 +8
2 Prayer and Sunday bell Bachert brothers , Bad Friedrichshall-Kochendorf 1985 4,668 1,930 As 0 +10
3 Evening bell (peace bell) 2,994 1,710 B 0 +9
4th Gratia Dei Johann Gottfried Anthonÿ, Danzig 1740 ≈3,000 1,650 c 1 +5 Danzig, St. Johann
5 Osanna Benjamin Wittwerck , Danzig 1719 1,740 1,440 d 1 +6 Danzig, St. Marien
6th Reconciliation bell Bachert brothers, Bad Friedrichshall-Kochendorf 1985 1,516 1,320 it 1 +10
7th Dominicalis Johann Gottfried Anthonÿ, Danzig 1735 850 1.110 f 1 +11 Danzig, St. Johann
8th Council bell Bell and art foundry Rincker , Sinn (Hessen) 2018 592 974 as 1 +10
9 Hospitality bell 452 879 b 1 +9

Ringing order

At the different times and occasions of the church year , fixed motifs sound in the chime :

Church year

The main service is rung in the evening before at 8 p.m. with the same bell. The same applies to the morning and noon ringing on these Sundays and public holidays instead of the regular ringing (see below).

  • Devotional chimes : bells 7 + 5 + 4 ( Danzig chimes ; c 1 d 1 f 1 )
  • Sunday evening chimes : bells 6 + 4 + 3 (b 0 c 1 es 1 )
  • Advent and Passion chimes : Bells 7 + 6 + 5 + 3 (b 0 d 1 es 1 f 1 ):
2nd to 4th Sunday in Advent and Sundays during Passion
  • Major chimes : Bells 7 + 5 + 4 + 3 (b 0 c 1 d 1 f 1 ):
Hubertus Fair (November 3rd)
  • Good Friday chimes : bells 3 + 2 (as 0 b 0 ), at the hour of death (3 p.m.): bell 1 (ges 0 )
  • Peal of peace : Bells 6 + 3 + 2 (as 0 b 0 es 1 ):
Day of Prayer and Repentance
  • Sunday bells: Bells 7 + 6 + 4 + 2 (as 0 c 1 es 1 f 1 ):
Sundays after Epiphany, Sundays before Lent and Sundays after Trinity
  • Small festive chimes : Bells 7 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 (as 0 b 0 c 1 es 1 f 1 ):
2nd Christmas Day, Sundays after Christmas, Old Year's Eve, New Year's Day, Easter Monday, Sundays after Easter, Whit Monday
  • Middle festival bell: Bells 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 (as 0 b 0 c 1 d 1 es 1 f 1 ):
1. Advent, Epiphany, last Sunday after Epiphany (Christ's Transfiguration), Maundy Thursday, Confirmation, Ascension Day, Trinity festival, Thanksgiving festival, Reformation festival
  • Big festival chime : Bells 9–1 (full chime):
Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, Midnight Bells New Year, Easter Vigil, Easter Sunday, Pentecost Sunday
  • Morning chime: bell 6 (es 1 )
  • Noon chimes: bell 5 (d 1 )
  • Evening chimes: bell 3 (b 0 )
  • to the Lord's Prayer in the main service: bell 2 (as 0 )
  • Baptism: Bells 7 + 6 + 5 (d 1 –es 1 –f 1 )
  • Wedding ceremony: Bells 7 + 6 + 4 (c 1 –es 1 –f 1 )
  • Funeral service: bell 2 (as 0 ); after the funeral: bells 7 + 6 + 4 + 2 (as 0 –c 1 –es 1 –f 1 )


  • Total length: 103 m
  • Length of the central nave: 70 m
  • Vault height in the main nave: 38.5 m
  • Vault height in the side aisles: 20.7 m
  • Tower height: 125 m
  • Floor area: 3300 m²


in alphabetical order by authors / editors

  • Uwe Albrecht , Ulrike Nürnberger, Jan Friedrich Richter , Jörg Rosenfeld, Christiane Saumweber: Corpus of medieval wood sculpture and panel painting in Schleswig-Holstein. Volume II: Hanseatic City of Lübeck, The Works in the City Area. Ludwig, Kiel 2012, ISBN 978-3-933598-76-9 .
  • Heinz Althöfer (edit.): Forgery and research. Exhibition, Museum Folkwang Essen, October 1976 - January 1977; Sculpture Gallery, State. Museums Preuss. Kulturbesitz Berlin, January - March 1977. Haude and Spener, Berlin 1976, ISBN 3-7759-0201-5 .
  • Heike Barth: The Fredenhagen Altar of Thomas Quellinus in the Marienkirche in Lübeck. Master thesis. Marburg 1996.
  • Sandra Braun: The Antwerp reredos from 1518 in the Marienkirche in Lübeck. Observations on an Antwerp import piece in the western Baltic region . In: Jiří Fajt, Markus Hörsch (ed.): Dutch art exports to North and East Central Europe from the 14th to the 16th century. Research on their beginnings, on the role of courtly clients, artists and their workshops (=  Studia Jagellonica Lipsiensia . Volume 15 ). Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Ostfildern 2014, ISBN 978-3-7995-8415-9 , p. 133-161 .
  • Sandra Braun: Observations on the change in the interior design and picture topography of the Marienkirche in Lübeck at the beginning of the 16th century. A study on foundation activities and representation of long-distance trade merchants in the church . In: Oliver Auge (Ed.): Hanseatic history as regional history. Contributions from an international and interdisciplinary winter school in Greifswald from February 20 to 24, 2012 (=  Kiel Workpieces Series A: Contributions to Schleswig-Holstein and Scandinavian history . Volume 37 ). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main / Bern / Bruxelles u. a. 2014, ISBN 978-3-631-64533-8 , pp. 381-411 .
  • Karl Corino (ed.): Universal history of forgery. 33 cases that moved the world. From antiquity to the present. Eichborn Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1996.
  • Georg Dehio Handbook of German Art Monuments. Band Hamburg / Schleswig-Holstein. 2009, ISBN 978-3-422-03120-3 , pp. 487-502.
  • Konrad Dittrich (Red.): 1948–1998. 50 years of Lübeck Boys Choir at St. Marien. Festschrift. Lübeck 1998.
  • Klaus Rainer Goll (ed.): The bells of St. Marien. An exchange of letters between Peter Guttkuhn and Günter Grass . In: Meeting point 3. Lübeck authors and their city. Lübeck 1993, ISBN 3-7950-3209-1 .
  • Joachim Goll: Art forger. EA Seemann Verlag, Leipzig 1962 (with bibliography).
  • Günter Grass: The She-rat. (= Work edition. Volume 11). Steidl Verlag, Göttingen 1997, ISBN 3-88243-492-9 .
  • Günther Grundmann: Lübeck. In: German art and monument preservation. Born 1955. Deutscher Kunstverlag Munich / Berlin 1955, pp. 81–98.
  • Max Hasse : The Marienkirche in Lübeck . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-422-00747-4 .
  • Johann Aegidus Ludwig Funk ; The oddities of the Marien-Kirche in Lübeck. Lübeck 1823 ( digitized version , Bavarian State Library )
  • The Hanseatic League. Power of trade. The Lübeck long-distance trader, exhibition catalog “Burned Size” as part of the “Paths to Brick Gothic ” initiative . Monuments, publications of the German Foundation for Monument Protection , Bonn 2002, ISBN 3-935208-13-8 .
  • Peter Hirschmann: What should become of the forged murals in St. Marien zu Lübeck? In: German art and monument preservation. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1955, pp. 106–108.
  • Hans Joachim Art: The Marienkirche in Lübeck: The presence of episcopal architectural forms in the citizen church (= Werner's art history. 2). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 1986, ISBN 3-88462-502-0 .
  • Christine Lehmann: MacPherson and the Echo of Ossian. The fear of Han van Meegeren and Malskat and the Gothic turkeys in crooks stories. Rasch and Röhring Verlag, Hamburg 1988.
  • Lothar Malskat died. In: Michel-Rundschau. 7/1988, p. 538.
  • Ulrike Nürnberger, Uwe Albrecht (Hrsg.): Palmarum 1942: new research on destroyed works of medieval wood sculpture and panel painting from the Lübeck St. Mary's Church. Conference proceedings and exhibition documentation. Ludwig, Kiel 2014, ISBN 978-3-86935-229-9 .
  • Ernst Roßmann: Scientific investigation of the wall paintings in the Chorobergaden of the Marienkirche in Lübeck, on the occasion of the Lübeck picture forgery process. In: German art and monument preservation. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1955, pp. 99–105.
  • George Savage: Forgeries, Fakes and Reproductions . Barrie & Rockliff, London 1963.
  • Gustav Schaumann , Friedrich Bruns (editor): The architectural and art monuments of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck . Edited by the building deputation. Volume 2, part 2: The Marienkirche. Nöhring, Lübeck 1906. (digitized version)
  • Hinnerk Scheper: Restoration and professional ethics. In: German art and monument preservation. Deutscher Kunstverlag Munich / Berlin 1955, p. 109 ff.
  • St. Mary's Yearbook. (= Yearbooks of the St.-Marien-Bauverein ). Lübeck. Appears irregularly (magazine).
  • Friedrich Techen : The tombstones of the Lübeck churches. Rahtgens, Lübeck 1898, pp. 60-88. (Digitized version)
  • K. Wehlte: What was going on in Lübeck? In: Painting technique. 61/1955, p. 11.

Web links

Commons : Marienkirche  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: St. Marien zu Lübeck  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Klaus in January Philiipp: The Reclam book of Architecture . Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-15-010543-6 , pp. 121 .
  2. Along the European Route of the Brick Gothic. 4th edition. 2014, pp. 30/31.
  3. Tamara Thiesen: Benedikt Dreyer. Kiel 2007, ISBN 978-3-937719-57-3 , pp. 69-160.
  4. ^ Thiesen: Benedikt Dreyer. P. 291 ff.
  5. Hans Horstmann: The Danish flag from 1427 in the Marienkirche in Lübeck. In: German Shipping Archive. 2, 1978, pp. 191–194 (digitized version )
  6. ^ The design of the interior of the Marienkirche in Lübeck. Annex to the competition announcement, in: Jahrbuch des St.-Marien-Bauverein 4, 1958, p. 10.
  7. funeral and interment Senator Dimpkers . In: Lübeck advertisements. Volume 173, second sheet, no.459, issue of October 17, 1923.
  8. see Hasse: Marienkirche. P. 236.
  9. Wolfgang Prange : The altars of the Lübeck Marienkirche with their vicarages and those to come . In: Journal of the Association for Lübeck History and Antiquity , Vol. 78 (1998), pp. 143–163.
  10. Eichamt Bremen - overview of the bronze baptismal fonts that correspond to certain standard dimensions. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  11. See the entry
  12. ^ Max Hasse: Marienkirche. P. 200.
  13. For a list see: Lutz Wilde : Die Epitaphien in der St.-Marien-Kirche. In: Yearbook of the St. Marien Bauverein. 8 (1974/75), pp. 111-128.
  14. ^ Friedrich Zimmermann: The reconstruction of the Lübeck large churches. In: Der Wagen 1988, pp. 18–38 (p. 26 f.)
  15. ^ Based on a note in the journal Die christliche Kunst 1914, p. 23.
  16. The devil of St. Mary. ( Memento of the original from February 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  17. ^ The Choir Library of St. Mary's in Lübeck, 1546–1674. A database catalog. In: , accessed on July 28, 2015.
  18. Dietrich Wölfel: The wonderful world of the organ. Lübeck as an organ city . 2nd Edition. Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 2004, ISBN 3-7950-1261-9 , pp. 49 .
  19. ^ Walter Kraft: Three organs in St. Marien zu Lübeck. Lübeck n.J. [1968], p. 1.
  20. Dietrich Wölfel: The wonderful world of the organ. Lübeck as an organ city . 2nd Edition. Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 2004, ISBN 3-7950-1261-9 , pp. 65 .
  21. Information on the Great Organ. Website of the Association of Friends of Church Music at St. Marien.
  22. ^ Marien organs are threatened with decay. In: , accessed on December 30, 2016.
  23. ^ Organ symposium - details. ( Memento of the original from December 30, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: , accessed on December 30, 2016. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  24. ^ Manufacture d'Orgues Thomas
  25. Roland Eberlein : For the discussion about the future conception of the organs in the Marienkirche Lübeck. In: , accessed on January 9, 2017 (PDF).
  26. ^ Private website of Andreas Lange, Wolfsburg. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  27. Disposition of the dance of death organ on the organ database
  28. ^ Wilhelm Stahl (organist) : Franz Tunder and Dietrich Buxtehude. Leipzig: Ms. Kistner & CFW Siegel 1926 ( digitized version ), p. 20
  29. It is said that Buxtehude's successor was offered to him, but that he turned it down. As a reason for Bach's decision, Lübeck city guides put forward that the marriage of Buxtehude's daughter was a condition for the takeover.
  30. EPD notification of March 2, 2009. ( Memento of the original of April 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved September 2, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  31. ^ Cross organist Gehring stays in Dresden. In: , accessed on September 2, 2012.
  32. ^ Vita Johannes Unger. In: , accessed on September 2, 2012.
  33. Two euros: The Marienkirche now requires entry. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , accessed on November 4, 2009.
  34. ^ Lübeck: Marien-Glockenspiel can sound , Lübecker Nachrichten of May 27, 2019, accessed on November 29, 2019
  35. Two new bells for St. Mary have arrived , press release of April 14, 2019, accessed on November 29, 2019
  36. ^ New bells for St. Marien , accessed on April 2, 2019
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on September 6, 2005 .

Coordinates: 53 ° 52 ′ 4.8 ″  N , 10 ° 41 ′ 5.6 ″  E