John the Baptist

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John with Gregory the Great , Lawrence of Rome and Benedict of Nursia (from right) in a picture by Andrea Mantegna (1459)
Statue of John the Baptist below the papal altar in the Lateran basilica consecrated to him

John the Baptist , Latin Johannes Baptista (born around 5 BC ; died around 30 or before 36 AD ) ( Hebrew Yokhanan HaMatbil יוחנן המטביל; classic Syrian ܝܘܚܢܢ ܡܥܡܕܢܐ Jochanan Mamdana ; Greek Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής Iōánnēs o Baptistḗs Ancient Greek Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων; Latin Io (h) annes Baptista ; Spanish San Juan Bautista or Santibañez ; Slavic Ivan ) was a Jewish penitential preacher who appeared in Galilee and Judea around 28 AD . He worked in Palestinian Judaism and also had followers in the Jewish diaspora . Its historicity is controversial, but according to the prevailing view today it is guaranteed by the Jewish historian Flavius ​​Josephus .

In the New Testament , which was written in Greek by early Christians, John is represented as a prophet of the end times and a pioneer of Jesus Christ with his own following. Subsequently, many churches venerated him as a saint . The Mandaeans attributed their religion to him and see him as their most important reformer. In the Koran , the holy scripture of Islam , John is the third from last prophet before ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (Jesus) and Mohammed (Sura 3.39).


Mosaic of John the Baptist in Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (12th century). with the inscription Ό άγιος Ιω [άννης] ό Πρόδρομος ("St. John the forerunner")

Sources for possible information about John the Baptist are the four Gospels of the NT, the Acts of the Apostles by Luke and the section Antiquitates Judaicae XVIII 5, 2 by Flavius ​​Josephus. Their representations differ greatly and reflect the intentions of the authors to make statements:

  • According to Mark 1,2–15  EU , John appears as the forerunner and forerunner of Jesus, whom the Gospel of Mark depicts as the Son of God and Son of Man .
  • Texts like Mt 3,7-10  EU par. Lk 3,7–9  EU as well as Mt 3,11f. EU par. Lk 3,16f. EU are eloquent and visually powerful threatening sermons that proclaim God's imminent final judgment . They make John appear as an apocalyptic preacher of penance. They are assigned to the hypothetical source of logic Q , which is derived from corresponding texts by the synoptics and whose written fixation is often dated to 40 to 60.
  • Lk 1.5–2.29 EU , part of the Christmas story , presents the events before the birth of John and Jesus largely in parallel: their births are announced by an angel as God's election and mission for the final liberation of all Israel. The Jesus incidents, however, each surpass the Johannes incidents.
  • In Joh 1,7–18  EU and Joh 1,19–36  EU the Baptist appears mainly as the first and decisive witness for Jesus, the incarnate Logos and conqueror of the aeon hostile to God .
  • In Mt 11 : 2–19  EU , John sends his disciples to Jesus with the question of whether he is the one expected. Jesus praises John and describes him as the messenger who should point out himself.
  • With Flavius ​​Josephus, John appears as an ascetic model who keeps the rules of the Torah for a Nazarite and urges Jews to take repeated cleansing baths. The finality of his baptism as the last chance for conversion , which the early Christian texts emphasize, is missing here.

Birth and childhood

Elisabeth breastfeeds the newborn Johannes, Klosterneuburg Evangelienwerk , approx. 1340

The stories about the birth and childhood of the Baptist in Luke 1-2  EU are likely to be of little historical importance . Some theologians suspect that there are personal legends from the circle of Anabaptist worshipers who want to transfer the later meaning of the Baptist to the events around the birth and childhood of John and to illustrate it with the help of Old Testament motifs. But even these texts are by no means unproductive for a historical reconstruction. According to Lk 1,13-15 EU , John is announced by the angel Gabriel as a man abstinent from wine and intoxicating substances  before his birth . According to Am 2,11f  EU, this Weinaskese can be interpreted as characteristic of prophets.

John probably comes from the priestly family: According to the Gospel of Luke, John was the son of the priest Zacharias from the Abijah priestly class and Elizabeth from the Aaronic family ( Lk 1.5  EU ). Since the Abijah priestly class was one of the less significant of the 24 priestly classes ( 1 Chr 24.19  EU ), it could well be a reliable information.

According to Luke 1.5  EU , John was born “in the time of Herod, king of Judea”; this ruled from 38 BC. Until 4 BC In Lk 1.39  EU the reader learns about Elizabeth's place of residence: “a city in the mountains of Judea”. Even these imprecise statements indicate the low historical interest of the author, who is essentially interested in a statement on the theological level of meaning.

From Lk 1,80  EU outgoing speculation about Qumran -Stay Young John can be historically verified. In the statement “lived in the desert until the day on which he was commissioned to appear in Israel”, the motif of staying and working in the desert, which characterizes the Baptist as a prophet, was brought forward to the time before his calling be.

Time and place of occurrence

Judea , Samaria , Galilee and Perea at the time of Herod , client king from approx. 39 BC. BC - 4 BC Chr.

According to information in Lk, the appearance of John begins “in the fifteenth year of the reign of Emperor Tiberius ” ( Lk 3.1  EU ), which refers to the years 26-29 AD. The 15th year of Tiberius' reign was in 26/27 or 29/30 AD, depending on whether his reign was counted from the time of his co-rule with Augustus (autumn 12) or from the time of his sole rule (August 14). The blurring of the dating also results from the uncertainty as to whether the author started the year according to the Seleucid or the Roman era, which is common in the Orient .

The biblical location information gives a contradicting finding about the place of the appearance of the Baptist: in the desert on the Jordan ( Mk 1,3-5  EU ), in the desert of Judea ( Mt 3,1  EU ), Bethany , beyond the Jordan ( Joh 1.28; 10.40  EU ) or in Aenon at Salim ( Joh 3.23  EU ). Today tour groups are presented with the “authentic” baptismal site on the west bank of the Jordan ( West Bank ) as well as on the east bank ( Jordan ). However, the Jordanian east side is likely to claim the better arguments. Only there, in the Perea of the Bible, did Herod Antipas have the right to imprison the Baptist ( Mk 6,17-29  EU ; Jos Ant XVIII 5,2); Old Testament traditions also seem to have played a role in the choice of location for John ( Jos 3 and 4  EU ; 2 Kings 2.1-18  EU ). Only in later centuries was the baptismal site located on the western bank of the Jordan, mainly for practical reasons; The earliest evidence of this tradition is the famous mosaic of Madaba (6th century), the oldest surviving map of Palestine.

Public ministry and execution

The public work

Depiction of the baptism of Jesus on the high altar of the Church of St. John the Baptist in Mönchberg

Around the years 26/27 or 29/30 AD John the Baptist began his public ministry. Its main area of ​​activity was in what was then Perea on the other side of the Jordan across from Jericho . He led an emphatically ascetic life - according to Mk 1,6  EU he is said to have fed on locusts and wild honey , according to Mt 11,18  EU he didn't eat or drink anything. He preached in the style of the ancient prophets and baptized (baptism was at that time in a water immersion. See word origin ). John called for repentance and announced the coming of the kingdom of God and “a mighty one” at the end-time judgment ( Mt 3 : 1, 11-12  EU ; Lk 3: 4, 15-17  EU ). In Christianity he is regarded as a pioneer of the imminent arrival of the Messiah and is associated with Elijah .

John's following was numerous, including Jesus of Nazareth , who was baptized through him . With their judgment message, John and Jesus belong to the prophetic tradition of Israel and thus stood outside the Jewish groups of their time, which also knew no baptism. Jesus seems to have baptized at the Jordan with John's approval ( Joh 3:22  EU ; Joh 4,1–2  EU ).

When asked by Jewish soldiers in the service of the Herod dynasty: What should we do? John answered: Do not do any violence to anyone, do not blackmail anyone and be content with your pay ( Lk 3:14  EU ). Many of these soldiers became followers of John. Some of John's followers joined Jesus of Nazareth after his death (e.g. Acts 19 : 1-7  EU ). In later history the disciples of John are found again under the name Mandaeans .


Herodes Antipas was married to Phasaelis, the daughter of the Nabataean king Aretas IV. Later he married Herodias , the wife of his half-brother Herodes Boethos, who is called "Philip" in the New Testament (probably an epithet). In order to be able to marry Herodias, Herod Antipas expelled his first wife Phasaelis.

According to the Gospels, John was thrown in prison shortly after he baptized Jesus, i.e. H. at the beginning of Jesus' public activity Mt 4.12  EU Mk 1.14  EU Lk 3.19–20  EU . Research dates the capture to 27/28 or around 30/31. According to the Gospels, the reason for the capture was that John Herod had criticized Antipas for marrying his brother's wife Mt 4,14  EU Lk 3,19  EU . According to Flavius ​​Josephus, the reason for his imprisonment was that Herod feared that "the reputation of the man, whose counsel seemed to be generally followed, might cause the people to revolt" (Ant. Jud. 18,5,2). He held him prisoner at his border fortress Machaerus on the Dead Sea .


According to Mk 6.17–29  EU and Mt 14.3–12  EU , the daughter of Herod's wife Herodias , instigated by her to do so, is said to have demanded and received the head of John the Baptist from Herod as a reward for a dance. The daughter's name Salome is not mentioned in the Gospels, but is mentioned in Flavius ​​Josephus ( Jüd. Alt. XVIII 5,4), who does not mention the specific reason for the execution. The Gospels are again silent about their location; According to Josephus it happened on the fortress Machaerus on the Dead Sea, which secured the border between the territory of Antipas and that of Aretas (Jüd. Alt. XVIII 5,2).

The execution probably took place in the year 28/29 or 31/32 and according to the Gospels on the birthday of Herod Antipas, the exact date of which is still unknown. A church day of remembrance “Beheading of St. John the Baptist” is celebrated on August 29th. It is unclear, however, whether this should correspond to the historical day of death or the consecration of the Byzantine-Franconian St. John's Cathedral in Samaria, which is said to be home to the Baptist's grave.

War between Herod Antipas and Aretas

Phasaelis, the rejected wife of Herod Antipas , had moved her residence to Machaerus. From there she fled to her father Aretas (approx. 34/35 AD), like the historian Josephus in Jüd. Old. XVIII, 5,1-2 reported. The relationship between Herod Antipas and Aretas was already strained because of land disputes, the marriage to Herodias further offended Aretas. A fight seemed inevitable.

In the winter of 34/35 or 35/36 AD the war broke out. The previous execution of John the Baptist had the consequence that some of the Jewish soldiers - namely the followers of John - Antipas refused to support in the war against Aretas. Herod Antipas lost the war. With the help of the Romans , he was able to maintain his power, but as compensation he had to surrender the city and region of Damascus to Aretas (from 37 to 39). When Paul fled Damascus, the city belonged to the territory of Aretas ( 2 Cor 11:32  EU ).

The Jewish people interpreted the defeat of Herod Antipas against Aretas as God's punishment for having previously executed John the Baptist.

To date death

Statue of John the Baptist on the plague column in Jablonné v Podještědí , Czech Republic

After a lengthy imprisonment, John was executed while Jesus was still alive (cf. Mt 14.6–12  EU ; Mk 6.21–29  EU ). Both are therefore to be dated before the death of Jesus, which most modern chronologists date to the year 30, some also to the year 33. According to this, the capture of Johannes is set at around 27/28 or 30/31 and the death of Johannes at 28/29 or 31/32.

A certain difficulty for this chronology, which is derived from the Gospels, can be seen in the account of the historian Josephus in the Antiquitates Judaicae . Like the Gospels, Josephus reports that Herod Antipas cast off his wife in order to be able to marry his brother's wife. (If the Gospels are correct in that John's criticism of this was the reason for his imprisonment, he must have gone to prison soon afterwards.) But Josephus further reports that the rejected woman fled to her father Aretas and that he was because of the shame his daughter, but also because of border disputes started a war with Herod - after the death of the tetrarch Philip, who can be dated to 33/34. Herod's army was defeated in this war, and the Jews saw this as God's punishment for the execution of John the Baptist.

This account of the events can give the impression that the capture and execution of John should be scheduled immediately before the war between Aretas and Herod and consequently only after 33/34. Usually this conclusion is not drawn because it would call into question either the established chronology of Jesus (according to which he died 30 or 33) or the simultaneity of the public ministry of John and Jesus. Josephus' account dates back to 94, long after the events and over 20 years after the earliest Gospel, the Gospel of Mark. Here, as he often does, Josephus seems to summarize in retrospect some incidents that were several years apart as if they followed one another.


Shrine of John the Baptist in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus

The Koran also mentions John (as يحيى / Yaḥyā ) and describes that Zacharias received news of the birth of a son from angels. He asked Allah for a sign, after Zacharias not three days (unlike in the NT version) to people ( Sura 3 : 38-41, 19 spoke 10). The Koran does not give details about John's life, but says that he had “wisdom” “when he was a child” (19:13).

It is reported that John ate with wild animals because he feared contact with other people. Moreover, John wept very often. He justified this with the fact that the bridge between hell and paradise could only be crossed with tears.

The followers of John the Baptist are thought to be called Sabaeans in the Koran . Since they are followers of a book religion, they enjoy special protection in the Islamic State when they pay the jizya (a tax for Christians, Jews and Sabeans). Muslims call John like the Mandaeans Yahya .

Worship in church

John the Baptist (desert angel) with the Christ child lying in the chalice (Russian icon from 1620)
Corner sculpture by Johannes on Brotstrasse in Trier from 1758, depicted with a shell and lamb ( Agnus Dei ), sculptor: Joseph Amlinger

John the Baptist is one of the most important saints of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. He is considered the last and greatest of the prophets , as the advent pioneer of Jesus and as a model of the ascetic .

Reception in the old church

The Church Fathers took up John the Baptist as one of the authoritative figures of the Gospels and struggled for a theological understanding of St. John, which could be reconciled with the Christology that had developed since the New Testament scriptures were written. In particular, the baptism of Jesus by John forced commentators of the Gospels throughout church history to combine high Christology (Jesus as pre-existing Son of God ) with the request of Jesus to be baptized by John. In the apocryphal literature there are many examples of legendary embellishments and edifying piety literature which deal with the childhood of John the Baptist.


The celebration of the birth of John the Baptist is the June 24 , of St. John , which is celebrated in almost all the churches. The date of St. John's Day is derived from the fact that, according to the Gospel of Luke, John was six months older than Jesus; so the feast of the birth of the Baptist was set for the day six months before Christmas Eve . In addition to Mary , the Mother of God , John the Baptist is the only saint whose birth feast is celebrated with a solemn festival in the Roman Catholic liturgy . Until 1955, the day before this festival was considered Vigil Day , the evening mass can now be celebrated with your own Proprium texts.

The early church commemoration day of the beheading of John the Baptist can also be found in the festive calendars of various denominations, but gained less importance than the birth festival:

The Orthodox churches also know the days of remembrance

  • January 7th (oldest commemoration of John on the day after the festival of apparitions , on which the baptism of Jesus is also celebrated);
  • February 24th (first and second discovery of the head of John the Baptist);
  • May 25th (third finding of the head of John the Baptist);
  • September 23rd (conception of John the Baptist).

John the Baptist is the patron saint of Florence and Perth in Scotland, which is why it has long been known as “St. John's Toun “.


Leonardo da Vinci : Depiction of John the Baptist with pointing finger, fur robe and cross staff
Detail from the fresco The Last Judgment by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel - John the Baptist with a fur robe

His attributes in iconography are the fur garment, the cross staff or a lamb as well as the pointing gesture to Jesus, often connected with the slogan “Ecce Agnus Dei ” (“See the Lamb of God”). The lamb of God is carried on his arm by barefoot Johannes in the Staßfurt coat of arms . Mostly the saint is depicted as thin, with long hair and sometimes with wings to emphasize his ascetic and angelic way of life. As the boy John he often appears together with the boy Jesus of about the same age and Mary .

John the Baptist appears on the iconostasis in Orthodox churches generally at a central location as part of the Deesis , or just to the right of the central Christ - icon , Our Lady left of Christ. Some Orthodox churches show Saint Nicholas at this point instead of John .

Baptisteries are often dedicated to John the Baptist.

Since the Middle Ages, popular representations with the head of St. John the Baptist on a bowl have been referred to as the Johannis bowl. They were revered by the people and passed around in hospitals for pain relief, especially for head ailments.

In Ireland he was also venerated under the name Searbhain ("the bitter-tongued") - a name that actually belonged to the troublemaker Bricriu from pre-Christian mythology. Cill Searbhain is a church in the Kilsharvan cemetery.

Johannes is the patron saint of the Order of St. John or Knights of Malta . See also Johanniter .


Head relic in Amiens

There are several places that claim to have the saint's head as a relic . On the one hand the church of San Silvestro in Capite in Rome, next to it the cathedral of Amiens . According to local tradition, the canon of Picquigny Wallon de Sarton brought the head relic with him as spoils of war from the Fourth Crusade from Constantinople in 1204 and gave it to his uncle, Bishop Richard de Gerberoy in Amiens . But also the Omayadden Mosque (in pre-Islamic times the St. John's Cathedral ) in Damascus and the St. John in Madaba , Jordan, claim to keep the Baptist's head.

In 2010, during excavations on the Black Sea island of Sweti Iwan, a reliquary with the inscription John the Baptist was found in the church altar of the former imperial John the Baptist monastery . Tooth, hand, foot and jaw bones as well as animal bones were discovered in the urn. Bulgarian archaeologists want to assign the relics that came from Constantinople to Sozopol in the 4th century AD to John the Baptist. In June 2012, Thomas Higham from the University of Oxford and Hannes Schroeder from the University of Copenhagen published the results of their DNA analysis, according to which all remains came from the same man from the Middle East, and dated them to the first century AD. The relics are kept in the church of St. Cyril and Methodius in nearby Sozopol .

In the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul , a golden arm reliquary is exhibited in the pavilion Emanat-ı mukaddese , which is said to contain the bones of the right forearm of John the Baptist. The relic was captured by Mehmet II during the conquest of Istanbul in 1453. A piece of John's skull is also shown.


Literature and music

John the Baptist and the figures associated with him, namely Herod , Herodias and Salome , were popular subjects not only in medieval prose legends, but also later in literature , drama and music , e.g. E.g. for Oscar Wilde's drama Salome and the opera Salome by Richard Strauss based on it, as well as the story Herodias by Gustave Flaubert , on which the libretto for Jules Massenet's Herodiad is based. Around 1626 Daniel Bollius composed the "Rapraesentatio harmonica conceptionis et nativitatis S. Joannis Baptistae" ("Musical representation of the conception and birth of St. John the Baptist"), which is considered the first oratorio by a German composer.

Visual arts

On pictures of the Madonna, John is shown as a child with Mary and the baby Jesus. The decapitation of John the Baptist and the motif Salome with the head of John the Baptist are popular depictions in all eras. Caravaggio, for example, painted the beheading himself and, in two paintings, Salome with the severed head of the saint.


John the Baptist is considered the patron saint of construction huts , especially stonemasons . The St. John's is the Federal festival of world Johannis lodges of Freemasonry .

Commemoration and naming

See also


  • Hans Bernd Altinger: John the Baptist. His true life and work - His return . Drei Ulmen, Munich 1996, ISBN 978-3-926087-20-1 .
  • Knut Backhaus : The "disciples' circles" of John the Baptist. A study on the religious historical origins of Christianity . Paderborn theological studies 19. Schöningh, Paderborn a. a. 1991, ISBN 3-506-76269-9 .
  • Martin Ebner : Jesus of Nazareth, what we can know about him. Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-460-33178-5 , pp. 73–85
  • Josef Ernst: John the Baptist - the teacher of Jesus? Biblical books 2. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau / Basel 1994, ISBN 3-451-23479-3 .
  • Michael Hartmann: The death of John the Baptist. An exegetical and historical reception study on the background of narrative, intertextual and cultural anthropological approaches . Stuttgart Biblical Contributions 45th Catholic Bible Work, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-460-00451-7 .
  • Flavius ​​Josephus . The New Complete Works of Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. 1999. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan, ISBN 0-8254-2948-X .
  • James A. Kelhoffer: The Diet of John the Baptist: "Locusts and Wild Honey" in Synoptic and Patristic Interpretation . WUNT 176. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-16-148460-6 .
  • Friedrich-August von Metzsch: John the Baptist. Its message and its representation in art . Hänssler illustrated book. Hänssler, Holzgerlingen 2001, ISBN 3-7751-3719-X .
  • Ulrich B. Müller: John the Baptist. Jewish prophet and forerunner of Jesus . Biblical figures 6. Evangelical Publishing House, Leipzig 2002, ISBN 3-374-01993-5 .
  • Torsten Reiprich: John the Baptist. Caller and Prophet . In: Practice of community education . 4/2008, pp. 51-53
  • Hartmut Stegemann: The Essenes, Qumran, John the Baptist and Jesus. A non-fiction book . Herder Spectrum 4128. 8th edition, Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau / Basel 1999, ISBN 3-451-04128-6 .
  • Joan E. Taylor: John the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism . SPCK, London 1997, ISBN 0-281-05126-7 .
  • Gerd Theißen : Delay in court and proclamation of salvation with John the Baptist and Jesus . In: Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz (ed.): Jesus as a historical figure. Contributions to Jesus research . FRLANT 202. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-525-53886-3 , pp. 229-253

Regarding the figure of the Baptist in the Gospels:

  • Gerd Häfner : The promised forerunner. Editorial critical investigation into the representation of John the Baptist in the Gospel of Matthew . Biblical contributions from Stuttgart 27th ed. Kath. Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-460-00271-9 .
  • Christoph Gregor Müller: More than a prophet. The character drawing of John the Baptist in the Lukan narrative . Herder's Biblical Studies 31. Herder, Freiburg i. Br. U. a. 2001, ISBN 3-451-27622-4 .
  • Angelika Ottillinger: Forerunner, Role Model or Witness? On the change in the image of the Baptist in the Gospel of John . Inaugural dissertations, Theological Series 45. EOS-Verl., St. Ottilien 1991, ISBN 3-88096-845-4 .
  • Michael Tilly : John the Baptist and the biography of the prophets. The Synoptic Anabaptist tradition and the Jewish image of the prophet at the time of the Baptist . BWANT 137. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart a. a. 1994, ISBN 3-17-013180-X .
  • Gary Yamasaki: John the Baptist in Life and Death. Audience-Oriented Criticism of Matthew's Narrative . JSNTSup 167. Academic Press, Sheffield 1998, ISBN 1-85075-916-2 .
  • Brian C. Dennert: John the Baptist and the Jewish Setting of Matthew . WUNT II 403. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-16-154005-9 .

Web links

Commons : John the Baptist  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. Matthew 3: 1; Lukas 7 , 20
  2. a b c d e Josephus. Jewish antiquities XVIII, 5.2: ed. Karl Ernst Richter , p. 141 ; ed. Benedikt Niese , p. 161 , lines 20-21 (; English by William Whiston ( )
  3. Heinz Schürmann: Das Lukasevangelium , Herder's theological commentary on the New Testament III 1, Herder, Freiburg 1969, p. 25
  4. Overview of the various Anabaptist images in Josef Ernst: Johannes der Täufer. The teacher of Jesus?
  5. See Müller 2002, Johannes 13.
  6. ^ Yvonne Pörzgen: Inebriated Time: Drugs in Russian and Polish Contemporary Literature . Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar, 2008, ISBN 978-3-412-20234-7 ( [accessed on June 18, 2020]).
  7. On the rich content of the theological meaning level cf. Willibald Bösen: Born in Bethlehem. The childhood stories of the Gospels .
  8. See Josef Ernst: Johannes the Baptist. Interpretation, Geschichte, Effectsgeschichte (1989), p. 276 ff. (Google Books).
  9. For more details on the dating in ( Lk 3,1 f.  EU ) cf. Josef Ernst: The Gospel according to Luke , p. 106 f .; Ludwig Neidhart: When the time was fulfilled , in Brücke zum Menschen 133, 1/1998, pp. 18-20.
  10. For the localization of the baptismal site see: Hartmut Stegemann: Die Essener , Qumran, Johannes der Täufer und Jesus . 294 ff.
  11. The Aramaic word said by the philologist for Aramaistik Günther Schwarz not grasshoppers but wild carrots (Gunther Schwarz, The Jesus Gospel , Munich 1993, p 351).
  12. Walter Kasper : Jesus der Christ , Mainz 1974, ISBN 3-7867-0464-3 , p. 77 with reference to Rudolf Bultmann: History of the synoptic tradition , Göttingen 1921, p. 261 ff .; Martin Dibelius: Die Formgeschichte des Evangeliums , Tübingen 1919, p. 270 ff .; Fritzleo Lentzen-Deis, The Baptism of Jesus after the Synoptics , Frankfurt a. M. 1970.
  13. a b c Jürgen Becker: Jesus of Nazareth. Berlin 1995, pp. 60-62.
  14. Obligatory Day of Remembrance in the General Roman Calendar ; see. Commemoration of the beheading in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints .
  15. Josef Ernst: John the Baptist. The teacher of Jesus? Freiburg im Breisgau 1994, p. 127f.
  16. Josef Ernst: John the Baptist. The teacher of Jesus? Freiburg im Breisgau 1994, p. 131.
  17. The late antique hymn repertoire of the Jerusalem liturgy has been preserved in an old Georgian translation: Charles Renoux: L'Hymnaire de Saint-Sabas (Ve – VIIIe siècle) , Vol. 2 (Patrologia Orientalis 53, 1). Turnhout 2015, 567-577.
  18. John the Baptist: Commemoration of the beheading in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
  19. Management Pericopenrevision (EKD - UEK - VELKD): Reorganization of divine readings and sermon texts (draft for testing), p. 498 (pdf)
  20. Xavier Bailly: The Cathedral of Amiens . ISBN 978-2-7373-4639-2
  21. Cf.: Parts of John the Baptist are said to have appeared ; Lost and Found, No. 875Body Parts of John the Baptist ; Bulgaria Looks to John the Baptist to Resurrect Flagging Economy , The Wall Street Journal
  22. ^ Scientists find new evidence supporting John the Baptist bones theory , The Telegraph, reported June 15, 2012, accessed July 12, 2012.
  23. Hilmi Aydin: The Sacred Trusts . Clifton 2012. pp. 150f.
  24. Werner Williams-Krapp: Johannes Baptista. In: Author's Lexicon . Volume IV, Col. 539 f. (ui German prose legends)
  25. Description at JPC , accessed on January 16, 2018