|History of Istanbul|
The city of Constantinople (now Istanbul ) was founded by Doric settlers from the Greek motherland around 660 BC. Founded under the name Byzantion ( Byzantium ). On May 11, 330 AD, the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great made it his main residence , expanded it generously and officially renamed it Nova Roma ( Νέα Ῥώμη Nea Rhômē , "New Rome"). In late antiquity (after the division of the Roman Empire) the city also claimed the rank of "Second Rome". After the death of Emperor Constantine in 337, the city was officially renamed Constantinopolis . It was the capital of the Byzantine Empire ("Ostrom") named after it and remained this - apart from the conquest in the Fourth Crusade - uninterrupted until the conquest by the Ottomans in 1453. Under the name Kostantiniyye /قسطنطينيه and استانبول/ Istānbūl was the capital of the Ottoman Empire until 1923 .
By 1930 at the latest, the name Istanbul , which was already in use in the Seljuk and Ottoman empires, also caught on internationally. As a prototype of an imperial city, it has been a cosmopolitan city since the 4th century .
Constantinople was founded as Byzantion ( Greek Βυζάντιον ). As early as the 10th century, the Greeks called the city Bulin and Stanbulin , derived from Polis for "The City" (see also Polis ). The Turks already called them in the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks and in the early Ottoman Empire Istanbûl /استنبول. After 1453 the city was officially called under the Ottomansقسطنطينيه Ḳusṭanṭīniyye , so z. B. on coins or Fermans . Istanbul was an alternative name.
The Greeks still call it "The City" ( η Πόλη i Póli ) or Constantinople ( Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstandinoúpoli ). In Scandinavian sources, however, it was always referred to as Miklagarð , in Russian , Bulgarian , Serbian , Croatian and Slovenian mostly as the “imperial city” (Russian Царьград Zargrad , in Bulgaria and in former Yugoslavia Цариград or Carigrad ). In lore, Constantinople is often referred to as the city of the seven hills , as is Rome .
Spellings and translations
- ancient Greek and Katharevousa : Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis
- Modern Greek ( vernacular ): Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstandinoúpoli ; each "City of Constantine"
- Levant-Italian : Cospoli ( Romanian : Constantinopol )
- Ottoman Turkish :درسعادت Der-i saadet 'The gate to happiness',إسطنبول Istanbul ,قسطنطينيه Qusṭanṭīnīya ; Stambul u. m.
- Today's Turkish : İstanbul
- In historical context: Constantinopolis , Constantinople , Dersaadet
- In German (rare, only historical context): "The City of the Rich"
- The West Scandinavians (and Vikings) named the city Miklagard
Late Antiquity and Eastern Roman Empire
Because of the growing importance of the eastern half of the Roman Empire and to celebrate the victory over his last rival Licinius , who ruled the eastern part of the empire until 324, Byzantium was expanded into a residence by the Roman emperor Constantine I in 326 and four years later, on May 11, 330 , solemnly inaugurated. It was given the new name Constantinopolis (Greek Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoupolis "City of Constantine"), which took up the tradition of Hellenistic kings and former Roman emperors to give new cities their own name. At the same time, the name Byzantium ( Βυζάντιον ) remained common.
Several cities had previously been considered by Constantine, including ancient Troy on the coast of Asia Minor and allegedly also Jerusalem, but, as the emperor himself later claimed, on her advice, because of a nocturnal apparition of the Virgin Mary, he had chosen for the on Byzantium lying on the Bosporus decided. The place was strategically located, within reach of both the Danube and the Euphrates border. The city was enlarged to five times the original area and, like the example of Rome, was built on (allegedly) seven hills. The political and secular institutions of the old capital were also widely imitated. Constantinople received a capitol , a circus for 100,000 spectators, a forum ( Forum Constantini ) and a main traffic axis in an east-west direction. Works of art were brought into the city from all over the empire to give it shine. Despite Constantine's promotion of Christianity, the new city was not a purely Christian foundation, like the (alleged) transfer of the Palladion from Rome, which was once stolen from Troy , but above all the renovation of the temples and the pagan rituals that were performed when the city was founded, as is usual show: The city was not planned as “Christian Rome”, even if later sources claim this in part. Furthermore, Constantine granted the city council almost the same privileges as the Roman Senate enjoyed, with the difference that the senators of Constantinople were initially only allowed to wear the honorary title clarus ("the radiant one"), whereas the Roman senators were allowed to use the superlative clarissimus decorated. Only Constantine's son Constantius II eliminated this difference.
Whether Constantine really planned Byzantion to compete with Rome is disputed among researchers and is now considered unlikely, because other emperors before and after him had generously expanded cities such as Trier or Nicomedia as residences, some of which were named after themselves. Constantine's city only had a city prefect like Rome from 359 onwards and until then it was administered by a proconsul with an independent administrative area; there was initially no cursus honorum for the senators there , and legal equality with Rome was achieved in 421 at the earliest, i.e. after almost a century. All of this speaks against the assumption that Constantinople should have become a new Rome from the start. Be that as it may, there is no question that the importance of the city grew rapidly in the years after 330. From then on, the Egyptian grain fleets no longer headed for Rome, but the city on the Bosporus. In late antiquity, Constantinople became the center of administration, economy and culture of the Eastern Roman Empire and fulfilled this task (with interruptions) from the late 4th century to modern times . After the actual division of the empire in 395 , the city was the center of the eastern Mediterranean world. As long as Byzantium / Constantinople existed, the Byzantine Empire (so-called by modern historiography) also existed . With the fall of the city, the empire fell too. As a result of the position of power, Constantinople also became the ecclesiastical center. The city's bishop, who traced his office back to the apostle Andrew , was a patriarch from 381 onwards and claimed a prominent position (from then on, by imperial decision, he was only subordinate to the bishop of Rome ). The city also revived culturally in late antiquity : the university was the youngest, but soon also the largest in the Eastern Empire and reached its first heyday under Theodosius I , with the libraries also being expanded. The actual founder of the so-called University of Constantinople is considered to be Emperor Theodosius II.
Constantinople could only be extended to the west due to its location on a cape. Theodosius I, under whom Constantinople finally prevailed against Antioch as the main residence of the East from 379, expanded the city and moved the seat of the emperors here with the construction of the Great Palace . To 412 was his grandson Theodosius II. About 1500 meters west of the built by Constantine Stadtmauer another, some still preserved walls built and so the area of the city from six to twelve square kilometers doubled. The huge fortification was then repeatedly restored and expanded. The population of Constantinople grew rapidly and eventually against the will of the rulers, but even restrictions did not prevent the influx. The supply of well over 400,000 inhabitants (in Justinian's time before the outbreak of the plague in the 540s it was between 500,000 and 600,000) posed problems for the rulers at times, especially in the later 7th century after the loss of the "granary" after Egypt the Islamic expansion to the Arabs , whereby the population decreased again. Until around 600 there were still numerous residents in the city with Latin as their mother tongue, as is attested, among other things, by grave inscriptions, only then was Constantinople completely Graecised .
In order to supply the city with goods, ports on the coast to the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea were expanded or rebuilt. To supply the huge capital with drinking water, several aqueducts were built from the hill country to the northwest, the water of which was stored in several underground cisterns with a total capacity of 130,000 m³ (e.g. the so-called Yerebatan Sarnıçı built in 532 under Justinian I ). In general, the Eastern Roman emperors in the 4th to 6th century saw a noticeable desire to build, from which chalcedony - although it was constantly in the shadow of Constantinople - profited. The port was expanded and palaces and churches were built. After the destruction during the Nika uprising in 532, Justinian I had numerous buildings rebuilt, including the Hagia Sophia , the most important late antique building in the city. Due to the Theodosian walls, Constantinople was long considered impregnable and the strongest fortress in the known world; numerous attacks and sieges failed because of the multiple staggered fortifications of the city. The access to the port could be blocked with a huge chain ( port chain ). The fortress of Constantinople thus dominated the transition from Europe to Asia and made a decisive contribution to the fact that the rich Roman provinces of the Orient remained inaccessible to the Huns and Teutons during the migration of the peoples . Conversely, the city was equally important in defending against attacks from the east. The first real test came with the great siege of Constantinople (626) by the Persian Sassanids and the Avars allied with them . With the Islamic expansion , during which the Arabs repeatedly failed because of the city's triple wall, the late antique phase of the city's history ended a few years later .
Constantinople in the Middle Byzantine period
The two repulsed sieges by the Arabs in the years 674–678 and 717–718 stopped the advance of the Muslims into Europe and, like the Battle of Tours and Poitiers by the Franks, are of world historical importance. However, the final loss of the rich Roman Eastern provinces after 636 also affected the capital; so now the grain deliveries from Egypt ceased. While the Arabs were partially pushed back in the course of the 8th to 10th centuries, the Bulgarians became a new threat to the city. The first (also unsuccessful) siege took place in 813. The series of attacks continued in the 9th and 10th centuries when the Bulgarians and Rus , and in 1090 the Pechenegs , tried several times to conquer Constantinople. As a rule, these sieges led to the devastation of the Thracian region around the city, and the more lightly fortified Chalcedony was captured, plundered and destroyed several times by Persians and Arabs. As a result, there are hardly any traces of Byzantine architecture to be found there today.
Despite recurring city fires, epidemics and earthquakes, Constantinople remained one of the few “cosmopolitan cities” in the western world (next to Baghdad , Cairo and Córdoba ) and by far the largest and most important Christian metropolis. Under Justinian, as already described, it had its first and probably greatest heyday in the 6th century, according to sources from late antiquity, the number of inhabitants is said to have exceeded the 500,000 mark at that time. In contrast, critical historians and archaeologists assume that the city probably never reached half a million, let alone exceeded half a million. By the middle of the 8th century, the population fell significantly, not least due to the Arab sieges (according to researchers such as Chris Wickham, even to well below 100,000), but then rose again to allegedly around 700,000 inhabitants by the 12th century. In contrast, more cautious estimates put 400,000 inhabitants at the end of the 12th century.
Loss of territory as a result of military defeats (including the battle of Manzikert in 1071) forced the Byzantines to seek help in the Christian West at the end of the eleventh century. The advance of the Normans via southern Italy to the Greek mainland could only be stopped thanks to the Venetians , in return they were granted trade privileges, tariff discounts and a trading post in Constantinople. Further requests for help in the west led to the declaration of the First Crusade by Pope Urban II , as a result of which an army from all parts of Western Europe moved towards Constantinople, where the last departments arrived in April 1097. In the metropolis on the Bosphorus, the crusaders saw an advanced infrastructure that they did not even come close to from any of their cities. There were aqueducts, baths and sewers, clinics with departments for a wide variety of diseases, a large university, even the police and fire brigade. Traders from all over the world met in the city's markets, whose great wealth was based on overseas trade. Emperor Alexios I , worried about his capital in the face of the seemingly barbaric hordes, hurried to move the crusader army to the Asian side of the Bosporus. The 50,000-strong army conquered the nearby sultanate capital Nicaea in the same year and then moved on to Jerusalem . The oppressed Constantinople had been given some air again; but at the same time the relationship to the West, which was already burdened by the schism of 1054, had deteriorated considerably in the course of the crusade.
The traditionally friendly relationship between the Byzantines and Venice also turned into mistrust, contempt and hatred in the 12th century under Manuel I Komnenos , not least because of the power struggles between the Doge republic , Pisa and Genoa, which were repeatedly fought on Byzantine soil . The locals found the presumptuous demeanor of the so-called "Latins" to be a provocation and they viewed each other as heretics. The explosive atmosphere erupted in the Latin pogromen in 1171 , when the Byzantine government first confiscated the property of thousands of Venetians and then imprisoned them. Allegedly, Enrico Dandolo , who then came to negotiations, was blinded , but this is questionable. Despite a peace signed in 1177, the event of these Latin pogroms had a lasting impact on the relationship between Constantinople and Venice. In 1203 an army of crusaders, equipped by Venice and led by Doge Dandolo, attacked the conquest of Constantinople under the pretext of settling the dispute over the throne there (although modern research has denied that Venice really planned an attack on Byzantium from the beginning have). Emperor Alexios III fled from the advancing army, and Isaac II , installed by the Crusaders, (again) took his place on the throne. The crusaders stayed in the city for the time being, despite their “work done”, waiting for the promised rich reward. When they discovered a mosque - there was a Muslim community in Constantinople from 718 as a result of the settlement of Arab traders - and set it on fire, the resulting conflagration destroyed an entire city district.
When Isaac II and his son Alexios IV died (under unexplained circumstances) and Alexios V succeeded them to the throne, the crusaders were expelled from the city. They felt cheated and insulted about the promised reward, so they prepared another attack on Constantinople . Under the leadership of the 96-year-old 41st Venetian Doge Enrico Dandolo, a bitter opponent of Orthodox Byzantium, they succeeded on April 13, 1204 together with the Venetians in storming the city from the sea wall on the Golden Horn. The city was then ransacked for three days. Many residents of the cosmopolitan metropolis were killed in the process. Numerous monuments were destroyed, great works of art were destroyed or stolen, several libraries were burned down and a large number of the relics of saints kept in Constantinople were stolen and scattered all over Europe. Constantinople did not recover from this destruction and looting by the Venetians and Crusaders during the remainder of the Middle Ages.
The late Byzantine period and the advance of the Turks
The crusaders dismembered the Byzantine dominion and established the so-called Latin Empire . This only lasted for a short time, as early as 1261 a mercenary army from the Nikaia empire, which had been carried by fled Byzantine families, conquered the city back in a stroke of a hand (→ Recapture of Constantinople 1261 ). The Byzantine Empire was restored on a comparatively modest scale, but subsequently lost more and more areas of its territory. Around 1300 Constantinople still had around 100,000 inhabitants. It had lost its role as the most important trading center of the Mediterranean to the Italian port cities, particularly Venice. The Italians had trading establishments in the Pera district (today Beyoğlu) on the northern, European side of the Golden Horn.
In 1326, with the conquest of Bursa by Osman I , a military leader of a small Turkish tribe, the triumphal march of the Ottomans began . In quick succession they conquered all of Anatolia and parts of mainland Europe. Byzantium soon resembled an island in the Ottoman Empire. In the 15th century it only consisted of the actual urban area and the surrounding villages, the population sank to around 40,000.
The Eastern Roman Empire ended with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453. Smaller parts of the country, especially Mystras in the Peloponnese , were able to hold out for a few years, but were then also conquered.
Ottoman modern times
After the Battle of Nicopolis , which took place in 1396, Sultan Bayezid began to besiege the city. In 1399 the French Marshal Jean II Le Maingre came to the rescue with his troops. In 1401 the siege was called off. As early as 1422 Constantinople was attacked again by Sultan Murad II and his master. The outer defenses were taken. Due to a failure, the onslaught could be repulsed in August and the siege works destroyed.
In 1452 Fatih Sultan Mehmet had a coastal castle built near the city, thereby blocking off the Bosporus. In the spring of 1453 the siege began with siege engines and heavy artillery as well as an army of 200,000 men and a fleet of 250 ships. Only a few troops were available to the defenders and a further complicating factor was that there were religious disputes between the Orthodox and the Unionists (Henotics) within the city walls. Hoping for help, they managed to defend the city for 40 days. Since Emperor Constantine refused to voluntarily surrender despite the concession of a free retreat, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottomans on May 29, 1453 with great losses. The number of dead is given as 50,000.
The victorious troops initially burned everything that fell into their hands and enslaved the population, with the exception of the Jews and Genoese , who, thanks to their prudent behavior during the siege, were able to save their private property. The city was looted and many of the art treasures were stolen or destroyed. Around noon Sultan Mehmet moved into the city and offered a prayer of thanks in the Sophienkirche ( Hagia Sophia ). From then on, this building was supplemented by minarets and used as the main mosque of the city. He had the city rebuilt and the fortifications and the castle with the seven towers restored. The cityscape was completely redesigned and Constantinople became the new capital and residence of the Ottoman Empire.
Some residents and intellectuals were able to flee to Western Europe, especially northern Italy, and took many preserved copies of ancient documents with them. These spread quickly in northern Italy thanks to book printing, which was invented around the same time, and triggered a wave of “rediscovery” of ancient thought models and ideas. This rediscovery accelerated the complex process now known as the renaissance .
After the conquest, the Ottomans first called the city in Turkish Islambol 'Islamic Empire' , later in everyday usage İstanbul . In the Greek language area, Konstandinúpoli is still used today . The name İstanbul (in the German-speaking area earlier also “Stambul”) is derived from the traditional view of ancient Greek εἰς τὴν πόλι (ν) , in the Koine blended into is tin poli (n) , which means “into the city”. However, there are a number of other hypotheses about naming.
On September 14, 1509, a severe earthquake shook the city. An entire district also became uninhabitable due to the subsequent fires. Around 13,000 people fell victim to the effects of the quake.
From the 17th century there was a massive influx of Armenians from all areas of the Ottoman Empire. At least 250,000 Armenians lived in Constantinople at the end of the 19th century. A cultural Armenian infrastructure was formed, which ultimately led to a cultural and political awakening in the western Armenian community and helped shape the face of the city. An important chronicler of this time is the German journalist and writer Friedrich Schrader , who lived and worked in Constantinople from 1891 to 1918.
Constantinople suffered severe devastation from several earthquakes and conflagrations in 1714, 1755, 1808 and 1826. There were also uprisings of the Softas which in May 1876 resulted in the overthrow of Grand Vizier Mahmud Nedim Pasha .
In addition to its political importance, the city retained great economic and cultural importance and an international character. The patriarchate remained as an overarching institution for the Christians of the empire with significant rights and duties, until 1821 Greeks played an important role (among other things in diplomacy and in the administration of the Danube principalities).
An atrocity was committed by the Turks in 1821 after the beginning of the Greek uprising on the Greeks living in the city. On April 22nd, the Greek patriarch Gregory V , among others, was hanged at the door of a church. After the uprising of the Janissaries in 1826, the Janissary Corps was disbanded.
The Greek influence in economic life and diplomacy was significant until 1922. Under Suleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566) Constantinople was the capital of a huge empire that stretched from Hungary via Belgrade to Baghdad and far into North Africa. The Ottoman Empire was at the height of its power, which is reflected in a multitude of palaces and mosques designed by the architect Sinan , the greatest Ottoman master builder of his time. But the decline began even then. A lack of reforms, corrupt viziers, the power of the sultan's wives as well as the isolation from modern tendencies meant that despite a beautiful facade in the 19th century , when one meant the Ottoman Empire, one finally spoke of the " sick man on the Bosporus ".
When Emperor Constantine founded a new center for the Roman Empire in ancient Byzantium between 324 and 330, this was to gradually replace Rome as the capital. In order to emphasize the idea of a Nova Roma , it had to be expanded architecturally. Since Constantinople was also influenced by Christianity from the beginning and Christianity became the state religion, without the imperial cult being renounced, Constantinople was given an appearance characterized by votive and memorial columns, forums, palaces, the hippodrome and of course numerous Christian churches.
The oldest preserved architectural monument in Constantinople is the Constantine Column . The former 52 meter high porphyry column was originally crowned by a statue of Helios . The head of the sun god was surrounded by seven rays, into which, according to legend, passion nails had been worked. According to a tradition from the 9th century, the foundation of the column is said to have recovered a splinter from the cross of Christ, the palladion and other partly Christian, partly pagan cult objects. In 1105 the statue was destroyed in a storm and replaced with a cross. The height of the column is only 35 meters. It became the symbol of the city, and the last Byzantine chroniclers report that on the day of the conquest by Sultan Mehmed II, the townspeople gathered around it early in the morning to wait for the saving angel of the Lord.
In addition to the Column of Constantine, the hippodrome in particular formed the center of the city and was the focal point of public life. This is where emperor and people met, this is where the emperor demonstrated his power and therefore there are also some representative objects. Along the Spina, the dividing wall between the two directional tracks around which the chariots drove, Constantine and his successors set up statues and monuments. Among them the obelisk of Theodosius , an Egyptian obelisk from the temple in Karnak and the bronze serpent column from the 5th century BC. This column was originally used by 31 Greek cities to commemorate the Battle of Plataiai in 479 BC. BC was erected directly opposite the Temple of Apollo at Delphi . Constantine I had the monument brought to Constantinople in 330. The golden bowl originally supported by this column was stolen during the 4th Crusade. The heads of the snakes were destroyed by Muslims in the 17th or 18th centuries, the rest of one of the three heads can still be seen in the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul.
Under Emperor Theodosius, three forums were set up along the route of the imperial triumphal procession. On the Forum Tauri stood the honorary column of the emperor Theodosius, created after the model of the Trajan column in Rome. Other columns are the Arcadius column, the Markian column and the Justinian column . Like the Column of Constantine, this youngest of the columns is closely connected to the history of Constantinople. The 35 m high column, consecrated in 543, carried an equestrian statue of Justinian I three to four times life size. When Mehmed II conquered Constantinople, one of his first acts was to destroy this statue.
As one of the central late antique monuments of the city, the Hagia Sophia from the 6th century, now used as a mosque, stands out. It was the largest church in the world until the Seville Cathedral was built . Immediately after the conquest of Constantinople, the new Turkish masters set about collecting the building for the Islamic religion they had brought with them and redesigning it. Not only were all the valuable Christian symbols removed and the precious mosaics destroyed or plastered over, but, in addition to various alterations, four large minarets on the flanks of the church were also raised by three sultans.
Muslim sites of the Middle Ages
Contrary to popular belief, there were Muslims and mosques within the city as early as pre-Ottoman times . The first mosque in Constantinople (and thus the first mosque on the Balkan Peninsula or in all of Southeast Europe at all) is said to have been built as early as 718.
After the unsuccessful Second Siege of Constantinople (717-718) , the Arab military leader Maslama and the Byzantine Emperor Leo III. agreed on the construction of a mosque for the Arab prisoners of war and for the Muslim traders active in the city. It was mentioned by Konstantin Porphyrogennetos in De Administrando Imperio as well as in the correspondence between the Arab caliph ar-Rādī bi-'llāh and the Byzantine emperor Romanos I and in the chronicles of Niketas Choniates , Ibn al-Athīr , al-Muqaddasī , Yāqūt ar-Rūmī , Al-Dimashqi and others. According to various statements, this Saracen mosque is said to be located near the imperial palace, within or near the Praitorion (east of the Constantine Forum , today between Atik Ali Paşa Camii Çemberlitaş and Sultan Iı. Mahmut Türbesi) or in a "Saracen" quarter behind the Hagia Irene ( near the Imperial Palace) (probably in Regio IV or Regio V).
As part of an agreement with Tughrul Beg , Constantine IX. commissioned renovation work on the mosque around 1050 (hence sometimes also referred to as the Seljuk mosque ). Set on fire by the Latin crusaders in August 1203 (according to other information by the "Saracens" themselves or during unrest in 1200), the mosque is said to have been built after the Byzantine reconquest of Constantinople by Michael VIII in 1263 in the interests of good relations with the Egyptian Mamluks. Have been richly restored. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI. apparently ordered the closure of all mosques in Constantinople and urged Muslims to embrace Christianity. It remains unclear whether the Maslama mosque was used or still existed until the time of the Ottoman conquest in 1453. There are hardly any archaeological finds or they cannot be clearly assigned.
As early as the 12th century, the number of Arab traders and Muslim immigrants had increased so much that a second mosque was built. It is said to have been outside the sea wall on the Golden Horn , northwest of the Galata Bridge, possibly near today's Egyptian Bazaar (Mısır Çarşısı) or the New Mosque (Yeni Cami).
Funerary monuments and pilgrimage sites
According to some sources, the tombs of a descendant of ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib and of Abu Ubaidah, one of the ten companions of the Prophet Mohammed , are said to have been in Constantinople. However, this Arabic tradition is obviously a confusion with the grave of Abū Ayyūb al-Ansārī , the standard-bearer of the Prophet, who fell in the First Siege of Constantinople (674-678) in the district of Eyup , which was formerly outside the city walls . His grave is said to have been respected by the Byzantines at first, but destroyed by the Latins in 1203 and only found again by the Ottomans. The Eyup Sultan Mosque was built over the grave after the Ottoman conquest in 1458 .
- List of Byzantine emperors
- List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
- Council of Constantinople
- Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
- Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
- List of the Patriarchs of Constantinople
- Maps of Constantinople in the Middle Ages: at TU-Berlin (S / W) and at TU-Berlin (color) ( Memento from March 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Historical map from 1807 as a digitized version of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- Historical map from 1829 as a digitized version of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- Historical map from 1842, 1: 25,000 by Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bernhard from the Woldan collection of the OeAW Vienna
- Search for Constantinople In: Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek
- Constantinopolis . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IV, 1, Stuttgart 1900, Col. 963-1018.
- Friedrich Schrader : Constantinople in the past and present. Mohr, Tübingen 1917.
- Fritz Krischen : The land wall of Constantinople. Part 1. Drawing restoration with accompanying text, De Gruyter, 1938.
- John Freely , Hilary Sumner-Boyd: Istanbul. A guide. 5th revised edition. Prestel, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7913-0098-9 .
- Wolfgang Müller-Wiener : Image dictionary on the topography of Istanbul. Byzantium - Constantinupolis - Istanbul until the beginning of the 17th century. Wasmuth, Tübingen 1977, ISBN 3-8030-1022-5 , (standard work on urban development and buildings).
- Wolfgang Müller-Wiener: The ports of Byzantion - Constantinople - Istanbul. Wasmuth, Tübingen 1994, ISBN 3-8030-1042-X .
- Rudolf Grulich : Constantinople. A travel guide for Christians. With a foreword by Otto von Habsburg. Gerhard Hess Verlag, Ulm 1998, ISBN 3-87336-271-6 , (= texts on the East-West dialogue. 14).
- Stéphane Yerasimos: Constantinople. De Byzance à Istanbul. Place des Victoires, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-84459-015-2 , (Also in German: Konstantinopel, Istanbul's historical heritage. Special edition. Ullmann, Königswinter 2009, ISBN 978-3-8331-5585-7 ).
- Klaus Kreiser : Istanbul. A historical and literary city guide. 2nd revised edition. Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-59063-4 . contents
- Peter Schreiner: Constantinople. History and archeology. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-50864-6 . (Beck'sche series 2364. CH Beck Wissen).
- Roger Crowley : Constantinople. The last great siege, 1453. Faber, London, 2006, ISBN 0-571-22186-6 , (Also in German: Konstantinopel 1453. The last battle. 2nd corrected edition. Theiss, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-8062- 2191-6 ).
- Klaus Kreiser: History of Istanbul. From antiquity to the present. Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-58781-8 .
- J. H. Mordtmann: Kustantiniyya. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam .
- Halil İnalcık : Istanbul. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam .
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 5th, completely revised edition. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1896, Volume 10, p. 491, keyword “Konstantinopel”, or Der Große Brockhaus . Fifteenth, completely revised edition. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1929, Volume 4, p. 247, keyword “Cospoli”.
- Map views
- Theodor Preger: The founding date of Constantinople. In: Hermes 36, Issue 3, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1901, JSTOR 4472789 , pp. 336–342.
- KL Noethlichs: Structures and functions of the late antique imperial court. In: Aloys Winterling (Ed.): Comitatus. Berlin 1998, p. 26 (with further literature).
- Peter Schreier: Constantinople - History and Archeology. Munich 2007, pp. 70 f. And 75 f.
- Constantinople - History. In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 11, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, pp. 421–426 . - Here pp. 424-426
- Andreas Fiswick, Claudia Renner-Blanchard, Kunigunde Wannow: The 500 most important events in world history. Chronik Verlag, Gütersloh 2007, ISBN 978-3-577-14376-9 , p. 139 ( books.google.de ).
- Petrus Gyllius : De topographia Constantinopoleos, et de illius antiquitatibus libri IV. Giulielmus Rovillius, Lyon 1562 (a contemporary description of the city).
- Nagendra K. Singh: International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties. P. 840.
- Peter Schreiner: Constantinople - History and Archeology. Munich 2007, p. 85 ( books.google.de ).
- Angeliki E. Laiou, Roy P. Mottahedeh: The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Washington 2001, p. 66 f. ( Books.google.de ).
- Peter Schreiner: Constantinople - History and Archeology. Munich 2007, p. 85.
- According to At-Tabarī , the Arab commander (and later caliph) Yazid I threatened the Byzantines to destroy Christian churches in Syria if the grave was to be desecrated (At-Tabarī, Târih III 2324 ibnü'l-Esir, Üsdü ' l-Ğabe, V, 143; Hâfız Huseyn b.Haccı, Hadîkatül Cevâmî, I, 2434).
- Angeliki E. Laiou, Roy P. Mottahedeh: The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Washington 2001, p. 67 ( books.google.de ).