Genoa


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Genoa
coat of arms
Genoa (Italy)
Genoa
Country Italy
region Liguria
Metropolitan city Genoa  (GE)
Coordinates 44 ° 25 '  N , 8 ° 56'  E Coordinates: 44 ° 25 '0 "  N , 8 ° 56' 0"  E
height 20  m slm
surface 243 km²
Residents 574,090 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density 2,363 inhabitants / km²
Post Code 16100
prefix 010
ISTAT number 010025
Popular name Genovesi (dialect: Zeneixi )
Patron saint John the Baptist
Website www.comune.genova.it
Above: Lanterna di Genova and Piazza De Ferrari.  Below: Porto Antico, Via Brigata Liguria and Galleria Mazzini.
Above: Lanterna di Genova and Piazza De Ferrari .
Below: Porto Antico , Via Brigata Liguria and Galleria Mazzini.

Genoa ( Italian Genova [ˈdʒɛːnova] , in Ligurian Zena [ ˈzeːna ]) is an Italian city and the capital of the Liguria region . Located in the northwest of the country on the Ligurian Sea , the former center of the Republic of Genoa , which was important in the Middle Ages, is now the administrative seat of a metropolitan city of the same name .

With around 575,000 inhabitants, the city is the sixth largest in Italy . Genoa has around 800,000 inhabitants in the agglomeration and 1.5 million in the metropolitan region .

The boulevards Le Strade Nuove with the Renaissance and Baroque buildings of the Palazzi dei Rolli in the center of the old town were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2006 .

geography

location

In the Bay of Genoa, the mountains of the Apennines rise steeply inland and thus define the entire characteristics of the city. Due to its location, Genoa is almost exclusively a city facing the sea. This becomes clear, for example, on a train ride from Milan to Genoa: after driving for minutes through pitch-dark tunnels, the Mediterranean Sea and the city suddenly appear.

In Genoa, the separation between the extremely densely populated, often haphazardly built-up coastal strip and the village-like, structurally poor hinterland that characterizes the whole of Liguria is particularly clear. Even today, due to these contrasts, the points of contact of the Genoese with distant port cities in the entire Mediterranean area can be greater than with a mountain village in the Apennines that is geographically only a few kilometers away, but according to tradition and mentality very distant.

Geographically speaking, Genoa forms exactly the center of the Italian region of Liguria . The city, which stretches for about 35 km along the Mediterranean coast, merges in a south-easterly direction into the so-called Riviera di Levante (to La Spezia ) and in a south-westerly direction into the Riviera di Ponente (to Ventimiglia ).

In Genoa, it is customary to give regional location information mainly with the directions Levante (i.e. southeast of Genoa) or with Ponente (west of Genoa).

Genoa often got the addition la superba or la dominante in the Italian language .

climate

The climate of Genoa is maritime temperate, with transitions to the Mediterranean climate , and is often influenced by the Atlantic winds of the west wind zone. The foothills of the mistral wind favor the formation of low pressure eddies in the Genoas region .

The daytime temperature differences are relatively small throughout the year and constant at around 6 ° C. The annual average temperature is +15.6 ° C; with January as the coldest month with +8.0 ° C and July as the warmest with +23.9 ° C on average. The humidity is relatively high throughout the year, especially in summer and the temperate seasons. The annual precipitation is mm in 1072, with rainfall throughout the year, however, the reach from September to November and peaked in July to their lowest level. The (always present) wind blows mostly from the north in winter and from the south in spring and in the first half of autumn.

Due to the peculiarities of the urban territory, however, each individual district has its own microclimate within this macroscopic climate picture , which differs from that of the other districts in terms of temperature, humidity, precipitation and sun exposure.

Genoa, Liguria
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
106
 
11
5
 
 
95
 
12
6th
 
 
106
 
14th
8th
 
 
85
 
17th
11
 
 
76
 
21st
14th
 
 
53
 
24
18th
 
 
27
 
27
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81
 
27
21st
 
 
99
 
24
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153
 
20th
14th
 
 
111
 
15th
9
 
 
81
 
12
6th
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source :; Water temperature, humidity:
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Genoa, Liguria
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 10.9 11.8 14.2 16.8 20.5 23.9 27.2 27.2 24.3 20.3 15.1 12.0 O 18.7
Min. Temperature (° C) 5.0 5.7 7.9 10.6 14.1 17.5 20.6 20.5 17.7 14.0 9.3 6.1 O 12.5
Precipitation ( mm ) 106.4 95.1 105.8 85.3 75.6 53.2 26.8 80.8 98.6 153.0 110.5 81.1 Σ 1,072.2
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 3.8 4.5 5.1 6.4 7.1 8.2 9.5 8.6 6.7 5.6 3.7 3.6 O 6.1
Rainy days ( d ) 7.3 6.9 8.1 7.5 7.0 4.9 2.8 5.6 5.9 7.6 8.0 6.1 Σ 77.7
Water temperature (° C) 13 12 13 14th 16 20th 23 23 21st 19th 16 14th O 17th
Humidity ( % ) 61 63 61 70 71 71 67 66 66 66 64 64 O 65.8
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
10.9
5.0
11.8
5.7
14.2
7.9
16.8
10.6
20.5
14.1
23.9
17.5
27.2
20.6
27.2
20.5
24.3
17.7
20.3
14.0
15.1
9.3
12.0
6.1
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
106.4
95.1
105.8
85.3
75.6
53.2
26.8
80.8
98.6
153.0
110.5
81.1
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source :; Water temperature, humidity:

City structure

Municipalities of Genoa

The urban area following the coastline is crossed by two rivers at its two foothills. In the Levante (eastern branch) of the Bisagno , with its mouth in the Foce district , and in the Ponente (western branch) of the Polcevera river , which separates the districts of Sampierdarena and Cornigliano . In this way, five major zones can be defined: the center, Valpolcevera, Valbisagno, Ponente and Levante. Politically, Genoa has been divided into nine municipalities since March 24, 1997 :

I - Centro Est
II - Centro Ovest
III - Bassa Val Bisagno
IV - Media Val Bisagno
V - Valpolcevera
VI - Medio Ponente
VII - Ponente
VIII - Medio Levante
IX - Levant

The municipalities are made up of a total of 31 districts.

During fascism , the territory of the city of Genoa was increased many times over. To this end, numerous parishes were incorporated into the city in 1926. In the west the city limits reached Voltri , in the east Nervi and in the north Pontedecimo and Molassana . This expansion of the city created the so-called Groß-Genoa . The formerly independent districts of Genoa have, however, generally retained their structure as a small town, with their own centers, peripheries , their own culture and traditions.

During the economic boom in the 1960s, new districts such as Ca 'Nuova and Biscione were founded.

Demographics

Population development of Genoa

After moderate growth in the second half of the 19th century, which was determined by a high rate of emigration to America, there was a real population explosion in the 20th century, favored by the positive development of the port and heavy industry. In the first phase, mainly residents of the Ligurian hinterland and Piedmont moved to Genoa. After the First World War, this influx of Venetians and Friulians was kept constant.

In the period from the 1960s to the 1970s, mainly southern Italians ( Sicilians and Sardinians ) moved to Genoa. The continued influx of immigrants also created logistical and urban problems. In order to provide enough settlement area, two hills had to be removed and a river bed filled in.

In the 1980s, population growth finally stalled, only to turn into a "population implosion" in the following years. From 816,000 inhabitants in 1971 the population sank to 610,000 in 2001 (that means a population reduction of 25% within 30 years). This development was favored by the very high average age, which resulted in a higher death rate compared to the birth rate (2006: 4680 births out of 8158 deaths). The average age of the Genoese is 47.0 years, with a maximum of 48.5 years in the urban area of ​​the Medio Levante . The old-age quotient (the ratio of those over 65 to those under 15 ) is 242.0. In March 2007, 288,616 (47%) men and 325,525 (53%) women lived in Genoa.

299,165 families ("nucleo familiare"), consisting of an average of 2.04 people, are registered with the city administration of Genoa (as of December 2006). Of the registered families, 41.4% consist of just one person, 28.2% of two, 18.4% of three, 9.9% of four and 2.1% of five or more people.

The largest non-Italian population group in 2006 were Ecuadorians with 12,734 registered residents, followed by Albanians , Moroccans , Peruvians , Nigerians , Chinese and Romanians . The immigration rate has been higher than the emigration rate since 2003.

history

The name of the city is derived from the Latin genu ("knee").

Early and ancient times

The oldest document in Genoese history, the Tavola di Polcevera, (117 BC), is a Roman arbitration award engraved in bronze that settled a dispute between the Genuates and Langenses .

Since Genoa has a first-rate natural harbor, it must have been used as a seaport as soon as shipping began in the Tyrrhenian Sea . Nothing is known from ancient written sources about a stay or settlement by Greeks, the discovery of a Greek cemetery from the 4th century BC. But indicates it. During the construction of Via XX. On September 8 , 85 graves were found, most of which date from the end of the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Dated. In all cases the bodies were cremated and buried in small shaft graves , the grave itself being covered by a slab of limestone. The urns correspond to the latest red-figure style and were mainly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia , while the bronze objects came from Etruria and the brooches from Gaul . This illustrates the early importance of Genoa as a trading port and the penetration of Greek customs, as the common practice of the Ligurians was burial . It is believed that the name Genoa derives from the shape of its coastline, which is reminiscent of a knee ( genu ).

The first time the Romans appeared in 216 BC. Chr. Reports of the destruction by the Carthaginians and the immediate reconstruction by the Romans in 209 BC. The Romans made Genoa and Placentia their headquarters against the Ligurians . From Rome you got there via the Via Aurelia along the northwest coast and its extension, which later got the name Via Aemilia (Scauri). The latter only became known in 109 BC. Built in BC; But there must have been a coastal road long before that, at least from 148 BC. When the Via Postumia was built from Genoa through Libarna (today Serravalle Scrivia , where remains of an amphitheater and inscriptions have been found), Dertona, Iria, Placentia, Cremona and from there eastwards. There is an inscription from 117 BC. BC (preserved in the Palazzo Municipale in Genoa) with the decision of the patroni Q. and M. Minucius from Genoa, in accordance with a decree of the Roman Senate in a controversy between the people of Genoa and the Langenses (also called Viturii), the inhabitants a neighboring hill town incorporated into the Genoese territory. But none of the other inscriptions found in Genoa, practically all of which are funerary inscriptions, can definitely be assigned to the ancient city; one can equally assume that they were brought there from other places by sea. We only know from inscriptions in other places that Genoa had city rights, but it is unknown from what point in time. Classical authors report little about the city.

middle Ages

Colonies and bases of the Republic of Genoa

The history of Genoa during the Lombard and Carolingian periods is only the repetition of the general history of the Italian communes, which managed to obtain the first certificates of their freedom from competing princes and barons. The patriotic spirit and proficiency of the Genoese at sea, which they developed in their wars of defense against the Saracens , resulted in the establishment of a civil constitution and the rapid growth of an effective navy. Due to the necessity of an alliance against the common Saracen enemy, Genoa joined forces with Pisa at the beginning of the 11th century in order to drive the Muslims from the island of Sardinia and to become a colonial power in the Middle Ages .

As early as 1162, Genoese established a base in Salé , between Tangier and Casablanca , on the African Atlantic coast, to which Safi , southwest of Casablanca, came in 1253 . In 1277 they opened the first sea connections from Spain to Flanders and England. From 1251 they enjoyed tax privileges in Seville . Even before the end of the Reconquista, Genoese merchants made the trade in olive oil, wine, tuna, leather, soap and mercury on the Iberian Peninsula in Cádiz , Granada , Lisbon , Málaga and Sanlucar their domain. The conquests of Gran Canaria , Las Palmas and Tenerife were financed by Genoese commercial and credit capital with the active participation of Spanish and Portuguese entrepreneurs, such as B. the cloth manufacturer. In Valencia , Toledo and Cuenca , too , Genoese had a large share in Castilian trade. Among the alberghi ligures , the Genoese families who have been permanently resident in Andalusia, include Boccanegra , Cataño , Centurión , Espinola , Grimaldo , Pinelo , Rey , Riberol , Sopranis , Zaccaria u. a. Unlike the Venetians, the Genoese did not have a large navy. Genoese-Pisan technology transfer helped the Iberian monarchies of Portugal, Castile-León and Aragón-Catalonia gradually to develop their own powerful fleets, which over time broke through the Moorish sea barrier from the conquered ports along the Strait of Gibraltar.

Rivalry with other city-states

The Sardinian territory thus acquired soon provided the opportunity for jealousy between the allies Genoa and Pisa. Long sea wars began between the two republics, which ultimately ended in disastrous results for Pisa . With no less dexterity than Venice , Genoa took up all the opportunities of the extensive freight forwarding between Western Europe and the Middle East that resulted from the Crusades. The sea ​​ports along the Spanish coast, wrested from the Saracens in the same period, and the Aegean island of Chios off Smyrna (Izmir) became Genoese colonies, while strong Genoese fortresses were built in the Levant , on the coasts of the Black Sea and along the banks of the Euphrates . It is not surprising that these conquests aroused renewed envy among Venetians and Pisans and provoked new wars. But the battle between Genoa and Pisa came to a devastating end for Pisa in the naval battle of Meloria in 1284.

The success of Genoa in trade and seafaring during the Middle Ages is all the more remarkable as, unlike the rival Venetians, it was constantly plagued by internal disagreements. The common people and the nobility fought against each other, rival parties among the nobility strove to gain supremacy in the state. Nobles and people alike turned to foreign capitani del popolo for arbitration and rule , as the only means of achieving a temporary truce. From these battles between rival nobles, in which the names Spinola and Doria stand out, Genoa was soon drawn into the vortex of the Guelf and Ghibelline parties; but his recognition of foreign authorities - successively Germans, Neapolitans, and Milanese - paved the way for a more independent state in 1339. The government now took on a more permanent form with the appointment of the first Doge (tenure for life) Simone Boccanegra . Alternating victories and defeats of the Venetians and Genoese - among the defeats the worst was the defeat against Venice at Chioggia in 1380 - ended in the determination of the significant inferiority of the Genoese rulers, who fell under the power of France and the Visconti from Milan.

View of Genoa around 1490, from Schedel's world chronicle

From the beginning of the modern era to the 21st century

Andrea Doria , painting by Sebastiano del Piombo (ca.1526)
Portrait of Christopher Columbus by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio (1483–1561)

The Banco di San Giorgio, with its large estates mainly in Corsica , was the most stable element in the state during this phase, until the national spirit regained its old strength in 1528, when Andrea Doria was able to shake off French domination and restore the old form of government. During this period - the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century - the Genoese navigator Christopher Columbus discovered the New World on behalf of Spain. The government as reinstated by Andrea Doria, with certain changes that gave it a more conservative character, remained unchanged until the outbreak of the French Revolution and the formation of the Ligurian Republic. During this long period of almost three centuries, of which the most dramatic incident was the “Fieschi conspiracy”, the Genoese found the compensation for the lost trade with the East in the enormous profits they made as bankers of the Spanish crown and armaments of the Spanish armies and fleets made in both the Old and New Worlds. Unlike many other Italian cities, Genoa was comparatively immune to foreign domination.

Towards the end of the 17th century the city was bombarded by the French and in 1746, after the defeat of Piacenza , handed over to the Austrians, who were quickly driven out. A revolt in Corsica that began in 1729 was suppressed with the help of the French, who took possession of the island themselves in 1768 (see Corsica ).

The short-lived Ligurian Republic , founded in 1797 and completely dependent on France, was incorporated into the French Empire in 1805. In 1804 Genoa rose against the French on the assurance of Lord William Bentinck that the Allies would give the republic its independence back. However, a secret clause in the Treaty of Paris stipulated that Genoa should be united with the territory of the king of Sardinia ; this precaution was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna . Undoubtedly, the dissatisfaction caused by this clause contributed to keeping the republican spirit alive in Genoa and, through the influence of the young Genoese Giuseppe Mazzini , remained a constant threat not only to the Sardinian monarchy but to all the governments of the peninsula. Even the material benefits of union with Sardinia and the constitutional freedom that King Charles Albert granted to all of his subjects failed to prevent the republican unrest of 1848. After a short and fierce battle, the city, temporarily occupied by the Republicans, was regained by General Alfonso La Marmora . In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Genoa was able to expand its role as a major seaport and an important steel and shipbuilding center.

bilingual surrender agreement of April 25, 1945

In the Second World War , after Italy entered the war on the Allied side, the city came under German occupation in 1944 and was declared a fortress. The execution of the order to blow up the port and the old town (today a World Heritage Site) after the front approached in March / April 1945 was refused by the German city commandant, Major General Günther Meinhold . As the only one of the cities occupied by the Germans, Genoa was not taken over by the Allies, but after an on April 25, 1945 in the Villa Migone, the seat of Cardinal Boetto , between Meinhold and the CLN representatives Remo Scappini u. a. The agreed surrender was handed over to the partisans the following day without a fight. The day of the liberation of Genoa is commemorated annually on April 25th on the memorial plaque for the victims of the liberation under the Monumentale in Via XX Settembre and also in the Villa Migone, where the bilingual surrender document is issued and can be viewed.

Memorial plaque to the victims of the liberation under the monumental bridge in Via XX Settembre

In the post-war years, Genoa played a decisive role in the Italian economic miracle ( miracolo economico ). It formed the so-called "industrial triangle" in northern Italy, which also included Milan and Turin. Since 1962, the Genoa International Boat Show has grown to be one of the largest annual events in Genoa. With the economic structural change and de-industrialization in the 1980s, Genoa faced major problems, jobs were lost and the number of inhabitants fell. Crime rose sharply and the old town of Genoa was in decline. The explosion of the oil carrier Haven in 1991 polluted the coast around Genoa and in southern France.

For the Columbus celebrations in 1992 for the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America, the "Old Port" was expanded into a tourist attraction. In July 2001 the 27th G8 summit took place in Genoa . The conference was overshadowed by violent clashes between several hundred thousand critics of globalization and the Italian police . In addition to hundreds of injuries, the 23-year-old Carlo Giuliani was shot dead by a police officer.

In 2004 the European Union named Genoa - together with the French city of Lille  - as the European Capital of Culture . When parts of the old town were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2006 , the situation for Genoa changed for the better in many respects.

In the partial collapse of the Polcevera Viaduct , an inner-city motorway bridge, on August 14, 2018, at least 43 people were killed.

coat of arms

Description: in silver a common red cross , above the shield a golden, seven-tower wall crown and at the base of the shield a banner with the motto “LIBERTAS” in silver capital letters . Two golden black- tongued griffins stand on an arabesque and hold the shield.

Culture

In the 16th to 18th centuries, the Genoese school made a name for itself in painting.

Genoa owes its cultural revival in large part to its environmental projects in the hinterland (e.g. the creation of various natural parks, such as the Beigua Natural Park and the Aveto Natural Park ), but above all to the structural measures in the city center itself. Here, in connection with the celebration The largest aquarium in Europe was built for the anniversary of Columbus in 1992 and Expo 92 . The complex of the aquarium ( Acquario di Genova ) is located on the site of the tourist harbor ( Porto Antico ), which was completely restructured in 1992 and offers berths for hundreds of boats and yachts.

architecture

Palazzi in Via Garibaldi

In the 1980s and 1990s, many previously neglected buildings, mainly churches and palazzi, were restored and reconstructed. Including, for example, the Renaissance basilica of Santa Maria Assunta , which, due to its location on the city hill of Carignano , is visible from almost every point in the city.

The complete restoration of the splendid Palazzo Ducale , once the center of power for the Doges and Senators and now the venue for numerous cultural events and the Carlo Felice Opera House , which was destroyed except for the neoclassical vestibule during World War II , brought the city a cultural boost. Both buildings are located in Piazza De Ferrari , which is the center of the city.

Another important monument in Genoa is the Staglieno cemetery . The remains of a number of famous people rest here, including Giuseppe Mazzini , Fabrizio De André and Oscar Wilde's wife .

The old town

The old town from the City Park Villetta Di Negro seen from

Well-fortified fortifications testify to the eventful history of the former Maritime Republic. Genoa was once surrounded by a kilometer-long, continuous wall on the ridge above the city. Whole sections and most of the forts can still be seen today.

Genoa's old town is one of the largest in Europe. In the years after the Second World War it was increasingly abandoned to decay. Due to more serious economic problems such as the decline of the port and shipyards, unemployment and emigration, there was a lack of money to maintain it. On the other hand, fewer and fewer Genoese wanted to live in the historic district.

Only in the run-up to the cultural city year 2004 did a lot happen. The old port west of the old town was fundamentally redesigned in the 1990s by Renzo Piano , the city's star architect. This created a transition from the old town to the old port. The main axis of the old town, Via di San Lorenzo , was widened. Countless palazzi have been restored. The presumed birthplace of Christopher Columbus is located near the Porta Soprana , the former city gate and thus the border marking the old town .

The patrician houses and magnificent palaces in the two Strade Nuove from the 16th century form a contrasting contrast to the medieval old town . In Via Garibaldi and Via Balbi, with their palaces, courtyards and gardens, the wealth of bygone times as a maritime and financial power of Europe becomes clear. First and foremost, the Palazzo Ducale from the 13th century should be mentioned, which is located at the eastern end of Via di San Lorenzo . In Via Garibaldi are also the most important art museums, the Palazzo Rosso and Palazzo Bianco , in the Via Balbi , the main building of the University of Genoa .

Around the port of Genoa, the tradition of the trallalero , a polyphonic song without instruments, is maintained to this day.

The lighthouse

Genoa lighthouse

Next to the Fontana di Piazza de Ferrari is the lighthouse , or La Lanterna , the symbol of the city of Genoa. It is located on a hilltop near the Sampierdarena district in the western district of the city. The structure reaches a height of 77 m (117 m in total with the foundation) and consists of two towers with square ground plans, one on top of the other.

The lighthouse, built in 1128, was badly damaged by cannon fire during the siege of the French fort Briglia , which had been built around the tower, and was not rebuilt until 1543. Today the lighthouse can be reached via a path that starts at the ferry terminal, west of the Porto Antico . If visibility is good, its beacon can still be seen from a distance of up to 36 nautical miles (approx. 55 km).

Castles

Museums

Churches

University, academies and high schools

Main building of the University of Genoa

The Università degli Studi di Genova is located in Genoa . It has almost all faculties and branches in Imperia , Savona , Chiavari and La Spezia . In the engineering field, the focus is on shipbuilding .

Important academies in Genoa are the Conservatorio «Niccolò Paganini» , the art academy Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti and the merchant marine academy Accademia Italiana della Marina Mercantile .

The Liceo Colombo is the oldest grammar school in Genoa.

Culinary specialties

Economy and Infrastructure

In the last few decades the economy of Genoa has experienced a shift in emphasis from heavy industry (mainly connected to the port) to the service sector (mainly tourism, trade, etc.). In this context, many run-down parts of the city ( Val Bisagno , Valpolcevera and Centro storico ) were redeveloped. The largest fair in Europe for yachts and sailing ships, the Salone nautico , also takes place in Genoa . The port of Genoa is still the most important in Italy and, in terms of its handling capacity, the second most important in the Mediterranean after Marseille . Its expansion is hindered solely by its inadequate connection to further transport structures (rail network), which, however, should be improved by the planned rail link Genoa-Rotterdam.

Another new economic sector has seen a boom in Genoa with the establishment of the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), with a focus on nanobiotechnology , robotics and neuroscience . In addition to existing research facilities ( Giannina Gaslini Pediatric Hospital ), the creation of a high-tech district is planned.

The harbor

Cruise ships in the port of Genoa

The port of Genoa is one of the largest in the Mediterranean in terms of container handling . Its importance is mainly due to its large hinterland, which includes the industrial areas of Milan and Turin and extends as far as Switzerland, for which Genoa is the closest seaport. The oil port is the starting point for the Central European Line , which was shut down at the beginning of 1997 and leads across the Alps to Ingolstadt (Bavaria). The old floating crane "Langer Heinrich" from the former Kriegsmarine shipyard in Wilhelmshaven is located in the harbor .

traffic

View of the Sopraelevata and the Palazzo del Principe

Road network

The city, which is exclusively facing the sea, extends over a relatively steep coastal strip and is completely separated from the hinterland of the Apennines - apart from two deeply cut valleys running northwards. Due to this topography, the street network of the city is structured by various main street axes following the contour lines almost horizontally. In addition, the slopes in the deeper parts of the city are cut through by inner-city tunnels. Approx. The A12 motorway runs 5 km behind the coastline at around 200 m above sea level , which cuts through the terrain (e.g. near Staglieno ) with tunnels , which is divided into deep valleys, and joins the A7 motorway to Milan in Val Polcevera . Finally, another motorway, the A10 , led from Sampierdarena in a westerly direction via Savona, Imperia, San Remo and Monaco to Nice in France. After the partial collapse of the bridge over the Polcevera on August 14, 2018, the last section is impassable, so that the A10 now de facto begins in Cornigliano. The city ​​motorway , the so-called Sopraelevata Aldo Moro , runs along the port on a continuous viaduct, which is rather detrimental to the cityscape, but noticeably relieves the old town and the area of Porto Antico from a large part of the east-west traffic.

Genova Piazza Principe train station

Train stations

In the urban area of ​​Genoa there are two larger train stations, both of which are passed by the main Ventimiglia - La Spezia line. The latter is divided into the Pisa – La Spezia – Genoa railway to the south and the Ventimiglia – Genoa railway to the west. In particular, the Genova Piazza Principe train station is impressive due to its spatial design, as it is inserted between two tunnel exits and has an impressive Wilhelminian-style entrance into the city. All national trains run from here, especially in the north (Milan, Turin). From the second major train station, the Genova Brignole , the many regional trains run along the Ligurian coast and into the hinterland. Isolated in the eastern part of the old town, in the immediate vicinity of the eclectic Castello Mackenzie at approx. 80 meters above sea level, the terminus of the meter-gauge local railway to Casella is located ( see : Genoa-Casella railway line ). The small town is located about 20 kilometers north of Genoa and is a popular starting point for hikes into the almost deserted hinterland of the port city, especially for weekenders.

Airport

Genoa has been connected to European air traffic since July 17, 1985 through Cristoforo Colombo Airport , which was built on an artificially raised peninsula in the Mediterranean due to lack of space. The airport is located in the Sestri Ponente district , 6 km from the center of Genoa. It has a 2915 m long asphalt runway .

The airport gains importance through its connection to the port of Genoa. The passenger volume in 2010 amounted to 1,272,048 people.

Local public transport

Urban public transport is operated by the municipal transport company AMT . In addition to an extensive bus network, an O-bus line and a subway, there are several mountain railways in the city. The largest of these is the funicular to the Righi , which has been running underground for more than 100 years and has opened up the upper part of the city. There is also a smaller funicular and a rack railway to the villa village of Granarolo . The subway only has a single line with seven stations. Most of it runs under the narrow, winding old town center. Genoa had its own tram network until 1966 . The tram tunnel to Brin is used again today.

A special feature are the numerous lifts ( Ascensori ), some of which end in private houses or on the way open up private buildings with a key switch, but are operated by the city's transport company. Near the Piazza Principe train station is one of the largest, which can be reached through an approximately 200-meter-long pedestrian tunnel into the interior of the mountain and which one leaves a few floors higher in one of the parallel streets. The promenade Belvedere Luigi Montaldo / Castelletto offers the most beautiful panorama over the old town and the harbor. From the Piazza Portello the architecturally very successful elevator Ascensore della Spianata Castelletto goes up. Like all elevators and lifts in Genoa, you can use it with simple bus tickets from the kiosk. There are also curiosities, such as B. a pedestrian tunnel that crosses a road tunnel with traffic lights.

media

The Libreria Bozzi has existed as the oldest bookshop in Italy since 1810 . Genoa is the seat of the local daily Il Secolo XIX .

Sports

Soccer

The Luigi Ferraris stadium in the Marassi district

Genoa is home to two football clubs, Genoa CFC and UC Sampdoria , which both play in Serie A , the top division of Italian professional football, in the 2018/19 season . The home games are played by both clubs in the Stadio Luigi Ferraris , also known as Marassi - this is also the name of the area in which the stadium is located. The “Derby della Lanterna” is one of the four most important football derbies in Italy and is best known for the colorful choreographies of the fans.

The Genoa Cricket and Football Club (also simply Genoa or Genoa CFC ) was founded by the English in 1893 as a cricket and athletics club and got its own football department under James Richardson Spensley in 1897. This makes Genoa the oldest, still active football club in Italy. With its nine championship titles, the club is one of the most successful teams in Italian football. In 2005, the club was downgraded to the third division ( Serie C1 ) after it was found that at least one game had been manipulated. As a result, riots broke out in which twelve police officers were injured in clashes with around 3,000 angry fans. Since June 2007 Genoa has been back in Serie A.

The UC Sampdoria is the second most important football club Genoa. It was created in 1946 through a merger of SG Sampierdarenese and SG Andrea Doria , from whose name the club name "Sampdoria" is derived, and played mainly in Serie A throughout its existence. The club's greatest success was winning the Italian championship in the season 1990/91 , and winning the European Cup winners' Cup in 1989/90 . In 2010 Sampdoria still played the Champions League qualification. In 2011 Sampdoria Genoa rose as 18th of 20 teams in the second-highest division Serie B , but succeeded in the following year the immediate promotion.

Personalities

Monument in honor of Christopher Columbus

Famous personalities of the city are included in the list of personalities of the city of Genoa .

Town twinning

Genoa lists a municipal partnership for the following eight cities :

city country since
Baltimore United StatesUnited States Maryland, United States 1985
Beyoğlu TurkeyTurkey Istanbul, Turkey 2013
Chios GreeceGreece North Aegean Sea, Greece 1990
Columbus United StatesUnited States Ohio, United States 1987
Marseille FranceFrance Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France 1958
Odessa UkraineUkraine Ukraine 1979
Rijeka CroatiaCroatia Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Croatia 2004
Ryazan RussiaRussia Central Russia, Russia 2016

Others

The city of Genoa was the godfather of its name in some detours, including the name jeans . Their origins were cotton fabrics that came to the USA from the Genoa area . The American colloquial language made the term “jeans” from the French form of the city name “Gênes”. The supporters of the Argentine soccer club CA Boca Juniors , known as Xeneizes , owe their name to Genoa, as the club was founded by Genoese emigrated. The Genoese language , called zenéize, is still spoken in Genoa and its hinterland . The language is threatened with extinction because the younger generations hardly speak it.

See also

literature

  • Pietro Barozzi: Genova. Lo sviluppo topografico . Istituto di Scienze Geografiche, Università di Genova, Facoltà di Magistero. Pubblicazioni dell Istituto […], no. 47, 1993.
  • Luca Borzani [et al.]: Storia illustrata di Genova . 6 vols. Collana Il tempo e la città. Milano: Sellino, 1993-1995.
  • Steven A. Epstein: Genoa and the Genoese, 958-1528 . The University of North Carolina Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-8078-4992-7
  • Thomas Allison Kirk: Genoa and the Sea: Policy and Power in an Early Modern Maritime Republic, 1559-1684 . The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. 2005. ISBN 978-0-8018-8083-4
  • Marco Milanese: Genova romana. Mercato e città dalla tarda età repubblicana a Diocleziano dagli scavi del colle di Castello (Genova S. Silvestro 2) , Rome: L'erma di Bretschneider 1993.
  • Manfred Pittioni: Genoa. The hidden world power . Vienna 2011. ISBN 978-3-85476-349-9

Web links

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Individual evidence

  1. Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
  2. Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. , As of June 30, 2016
  3. Urbanismi Italia 2011 ( Memento from November 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  4. Data from the weather station of the Aeronautica Militare of Genoa, Sestri (period: December 1958 to October 2007)
  5. ↑ Determination of the annual mean value of precipitation in the period 1961–1990 by the Aeronautica Militare weather station near Genoa, Sestri
  6. Hong Kong Observatory
  7. wetterkontor.de
  8. a b Statistics ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the Comune di Genova  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.comune.genova.it
  9. Valeska von Roques: Italy: Between too many fronts . In: Der Spiegel . No. 39 , 1993 ( online ).
  10. Capital of Culture 2004 - Genoa - Belief in the sea. In: sueddeutsche.de . May 19, 2010, accessed January 5, 2017 .
  11. At least 43 fatalities at tz.de, accessed on August 19, 2018.
  12. ^ Acquario di Genova
  13. ^ Homepage of the lighthouse of Genoa. Retrieved April 18, 2019 (it + en).
  14. At least eleven dead in the collapse of the motorway bridge in Genoa . In: sueddeutsche.de . August 14, 2018, ISSN  0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed on August 14, 2018]).
  15. Genoa Airport
  16. ^ Italian Civil Aviation Authority
  17. Genoa e Samp, storia infinita dell'emozione di un derby . La Repubblica Article. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  18. Comune di Genova. Relazioni internazionali. Retrieved April 21, 2017 .