View of Toledo with the Alcázar and the cathedral
|coat of arms||Map of Spain|
|Autonomous Community :||Castile-La Mancha|
|Area :||232.1 km²|
|Residents :||84,873 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Population density :||365.67 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||45001-45009|
|Municipality number ( INE ):||45168|
|Mayor :||Milagros Tolón Jaime (PSOE)|
Toledo ( Spanish [ toˈleðo ]) is the capital of the Spanish province of Toledo and the autonomous region of Castile-La Mancha and is located 65 km south-southwest of Madrid on the Tagus River . The city had 84,873 inhabitants on January 1, 2019 and is the seat of the Archdiocese of Toledo . Together with Segovia and Ávila , it is one of the three historical metropolises in the vicinity of the Spanish capital Madrid.
Toledo lies about 100 meters above the banks of the Tagus River, which meanders deeply into the rocks of the plateau of the South Meseta , and dominates the river crossing, which is now represented by a medieval bridge.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Toledo
The city of Toledo is divided into 16 districts (barrios) : Antequeruela, Azucaica, Benquerencia, Buenavista, Casco histórico, Cigarrales, Monte Sión - San Bernardo, Olivilla, Palomarejos, Pinedo, Salto del Caballo, San Antón, Santa Bárbara, Santa Teresa, Valparaiso and Vistahermosa. The districts of Antequeruela and Casco histórico form the historic city center within the city walls.
Districts such as Santa Clara and Santa Isabel are located within the historic city center.
The old town with the Cathedral of Santa María from the 13th to 15th centuries and the Alcázar from the 16th century as well as numerous other churches, a monastery and museums were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in December 1986 . The former Hospital de Santa Cruz from the 15th / 16th centuries. Century near the Alcázar has been converted into a museum.
The Puente de Alcántara over the Tagus has served as the main entrance to the city since Roman times and was supplemented in the late Middle Ages by the Puente de San Martín , whose five pointed arches span up to 40 meters.
Also worth seeing are two of the few remaining medieval synagogues , El Tránsito and Santa María la Blanca , which were used as churches after the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. At the church of San Juan de los Reyes you can still admire the chains of those who were released from the slavery into which the Berberesques fell. Also worth mentioning is the small church of El Cristo de la Luz , which was built as a mosque in the late 10th century . An imposing city gate is the Puerta Nueva de Bisagra, built around 1550 with a large imperial coat of arms on the outside; the Puerta Vieja de Bisagra from the 9th century, spanned by a horseshoe arch , is in the immediate vicinity.
Museums and collections
The city where El Greco settled in 1577 has a significant repertoire of paintings by the Cretan artist, which are distributed in various museums and churches. Among these is the Santa Cruz Museum which houses a valuable repertoire of paintings by El Greco. They represent practically the entire development of the artist in Toledo, from his first years in the city ( La Verónica con la Santa Faz , 1580) to shortly before his death in 1614. There are also paintings by artists from the 15th to 17th centuries Century, such as Nicolás Francés, Maestro de Sijena, Pieter Coecke , Francisco de Comontes, Juan Correa de Vivar , Luis Tristán , Gaspar de Crayer , Vicente Carducho and Juan Bautista Morgen. The El Greco Museum displays relevant paintings by El Greco. The Council and Culture Museum in the Church of San Román houses Romanesque paintings from the 13th century and an important collection of originals and replicas of Visigoth goldsmiths and other archaeological finds from the 6th to 18th centuries.
The Sephardic Museum Museo Sefardí is located in the El Tránsito synagogue, which was built in 1357 by order of the founder Don Samuel ha-Levi Abulafia , a finance minister under Peter I of Castile , in what was then the Jewish quarter .
The Roberto Polo Collection Museum is a center for modern and contemporary art in Castile-La Mancha and opened on March 27, 2019, it is managed by the Roberto Polo Collection Fundation, an institution of public interest that also has residencies for artists and Art historians and studios should set up. This museum is one of the few in the world that was explicitly created by a government to house a private collection. The San Clemente Cultural Center hosts temporary exhibitions of contemporary art.
Toletum - the Toledo of the Romans and Visigoths
The first permanent settlement in the urban area was a series of castles from the time of the Celtiberians . At Cerro del Bú , well-known archaeological finds of the city walled Toledo were made, which are presented in the Museo de Santa Cruz in Toledo. In 192 BC The Roman general M. Fulvius Nobilior subjugated the settlement against fierce resistance from the shepherd tribe of the Carpetani who settled here and founded the outpost of Toletum . Due to its iron ore deposits, Toledo developed into an important settlement that minted its own coins. Numerous villas, the remains of which have been excavated, testify to a radical Romanization of the settlement, which was crowned by an aqueduct , which has now been completely destroyed.
Since the first barbarian invasions, the ancient walls have been reinforced for defensive purposes. In 411 the Alans briefly conquered the city. In the later 5th century it was conquered by the Visigoths . From around 531 to 711 Toledo was the capital of the Visigoth Empire , who made the city the seat of an Arian archbishopric. In 589 their king converted to Catholicism . During this period of late late antiquity , the city experienced a re-bloom. Its civil and religious significance is underlined by the fact that a total of 18 councils met here between 400 and 702 , including the fourth of 633 under the direction of the famous encyclopedist Isidore of Seville .
Ṭulayṭula - Toledo as part of al-Andalus'
The Moors conquered the capital of the Visigoth Empire in 712. Toledo experienced its heyday at the time of the Moors' rule as Ṭulayṭula (طليطلة) during the Caliphate of Cordoba and as the capital of the Taifa of the Ḏū n-Nūnids until the conquest by Alfonso VI. on May 25, 1085 (see also Reconquista ).
The primacy of the Iberian Church
In 1088, only a few years after the Christian conquest of Toledo in 1085, the Archbishop Bernard of Toledo obtained confirmation from Pope Urban II that Toledo should have the "primatus in totis Hispaniarum regnis" (primacy in all kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula). But it was only more than a century later that one of his successors, the historian Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada , Archbishop of Toledo from 1209 until his death in 1247, succeeded in tying this title to Toledo. The Archbishop of Toledo is now the primate of the Catholic Church in Spain and for a long time was one of the most powerful prince-bishops in Spain, who had his own troops in the Middle Ages and participated in the Reconquista , but also in other military campaigns of the Spanish kings (e.g. in North Africa) own soldiers involved.
Toledo was considered a stronghold of the armory (Toledo steel). The Roman troops were supplied with swords from Toledo and Emperor Charles V (1500–1558) also had his swords made there. During Muslim rule the forge developed a special technique of blades ornament by swaged in place on previously roughened steel surfaces fine gold wires and cut ornament parts made of thin steel plate and were subsequently chased with fine punches.
Toledo became an important center for the translation of Arabic scripts in the 12th and 13th centuries, thanks to the coexistence of different high-level languages (Standard Arabic, Hebrew, Latin) and vernacular languages (Arabic-Andalusian, Romansh-Castilian) and the multilingualism of the Mozarabic and Jewish population in particular into Latin and Romansh and thereby played a decisive role in the dissemination of Arabic philosophy and science and its ancient Greek sources in Europe.
After the conquest by the Christian troops under Alfonso VI. Toledo became the residence of the Kingdom of Castile in 1087 and remained the capital of Spain until 1561. Philip II moved his residence to Madrid , 71 km away , which is geographically almost exactly in the center of the Iberian Peninsula and approximately at the same distance from all the more distant port cities.
|Residents||59,000||66 006||68 382||73 485||83 334|
- Garcilaso de la Vega (* 1503 in Toledo; † October 14, 1536 in Nice, France), was a Spanish general and poet under Charles V.
- El Greco lived in Toledo from 1577 until his death in 1614, where he created numerous works, including “The Burial of Count Orgaz” in the Church of Santo Tomé.
- Gherardo da Cremona worked in Toledo in the 12th century as a scholar and important translator of Arabic scripts into Latin. He was drawn there early in his life “out of love for the Almagest ”.
- Pedro Machuca (* around 1490 in Toledo), painter and architect of the Renaissance
- Diego de Covarrubias y Leyva (* 1512 in Toledo, † 1577 in Segovia), church lawyer and humanist
- Antonio Covarrubias y Leyva (* 1514 in Toledo; † 1602), lawyer and humanist
- Luis de la Palma (* 1559 in Toledo, † 1641 in Madrid), Jesuit and theologian
- Rudolph Reichmann (1821–1908), German-American newspaper publisher
- Carlos Seco Serrano (1923-2020), historian
- Federico Martín Bahamontes (* 1928), former Spanish professional cyclist and first Spaniard to win the Tour de France
- Julio Rey (* 1972), long-distance runner
- Luis García Conde (* 1979), football player
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- Hannah Lynch: Toledo . London: Dent, 1898.
- Albert Frederick Calvert: Toledo. An historical and descriptive account of the City of Generations . London: Lane, 1907.
- Rufino Miranda: Toledo. About art and history. Toledo: Cruz, 2000. ISBN 84-87318-05-3 .
- Isabel del Rio de la Hoz: The Cathedral and City of Toledo . National Monuments of Spain. Scala Publishers, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85759-212-2 .
- Tobias Rütenik: Transformations from mosques to churches in Toledo. In: Contributions to Islamic Art and Archeology , Vol. 2, Ed. Markus Ritter and Lorenz Korn, Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2010, pp. 37–59. ISBN 978-3-89500-766-8 .
- Toledo information and photos
- Toledo on the website of the Official Tourism in Spain (German)
- Illustration of the city in 1566 in Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg
- Illustration by Daniel Meisner from 1623: Toledo; Tota Vita Sapientis Es Meditatio Mortis ( digitized version )
- Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
- Barrios de Toledo ( Memento of the original from August 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on April 28, 2010)
- City map ( Memento of the original from September 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Area25 IT- www.area25.es: Museum Santa Cruz - Toledo: information, prices, tickets, directions, telephone, opening times, map, photos, books and guides, guided tours and tours. Retrieved November 20, 2019 .
- Carmen Betegon, et al .: Musei ebraici in Europe - orientamenti e prospettive . Ed .: Franco Bonilauri, Vicenza Maugeri. Electa, Milano 1998, ISBN 88-435-6625-3 , p. 32-35 .
- Home. Retrieved November 20, 2019 (American English).