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Reconstruction of a high medieval sword

The sword is a cutting and thrusting weapon with a straight or curved, single or double-edged blade , vessel and scabbard . Swords were found in most ancient to medieval cultures, both in the occidental and in the oriental and east Asian cultures. The sword has no meaning as a weapon today, but it still has a very high symbolic meaning.


The word sword can already be found in some of the oldest Old High German texts (ahd. Swert ) and similarly in Old English ( sword , sweord , swyrd ), Old Saxon ( swerd ), Old Dutch ( swert ), Old Frisian ( swerd ) and in Old Norse ( sverð ), so that it is mostly counted as part of the common Germanic hereditary vocabulary ( * swerða ), but the word is not documented in Gothic , which in this case is apparently not due to tradition, but may indicate that the word in East Germanic, or at least in Gothic, actually missing. The further derivation is controversial. According to one hypothesis, sword is a cognate from the Greek ἄορ “sword” and ἀείρω “hang” and with these to the Indo-European root * u̯er- “bind, line up, hang up”; The basic meaning “ (weir) hangers ” would therefore be assumed . Willy Krogmann (1932) presented * swerða contrast to the root * su̯er- that otherwise their "fester" in its reconstruction NHG reflection not only "fester" but as ahd.. Sweran "painful sting" also should have meant; * swer-ða explains itself as a verbal noun (with a dental suffix ) and therefore means something like "the cutting, stabbing." Other authors use the word as an obvious one, but sometimes in very intricate ways to the root * (s) ker- "cut" back, which is also the basis of the scissors , for example . Alexander Nikolaev (2009) explains germ. * Swerða as a substantiated adjective based on the related root * seh 2/3 / u "pointed, sharp", which means something like "sharp / sharpened object", and also means in cuneiform Luwischen with ši (ḫ) u̯al "dagger" to have discovered an ancestral cousin of the sword with almost the same education and meaning .

In the oldest Germanic language testimonies, i.e. in the Gothic Wulfilabibel on the one hand and the Umordic rune carvings in Scandinavia on the other, there is still no correspondence to the presumably common Germanic * swerða . Here in the word field “sword” there are two perhaps more original terms, which later also appear in Old English, Old Saxon and Old Norse sources (but not in Old High German), which leads to the conclusion that it was spread throughout the Germanic area and the reconstruction of an original word form * - and * mēkija- allowed. It is not possible to say with certainty what kind of weapons were designated or differentiated by this. The more common term was probably * heru- : with Got. Hairus , Wulfila often translates to gr. Ῥομφαία rhomphaía (including Lk 2,35  LUT ). It corresponds to aengl. heoru , asax. here and there. hjǫrr ; only in Icelandic has the word survived to this day, although hjör “sword” is only encountered here as a poetic archaism. * mēkeis (reconstructed nominative of the inflected form meki , Acc . Sg.) appears in Wulfila only once in Eph 6,17  LUT as a translation of the Greek μάχαιρα mákhaira . Since the originally Thracian Romphaia was a particularly long sickle sword, while the Makhaira , at least originally, apparently a kind of dagger , it stands to reason that Gothic hairus may have referred to a long sword, whereas * mēkeis may have referred to a short sword. Got. * mēkeis apparently corresponds to the urnordian mākija , which is documented in one of the oldest runic inscriptions at all, the Vilmose Ortband dated to the middle of the 3rd century, as well as aengl. mǣce and asächs . māki . This word does not live on in any of the Germanic languages ​​spoken today, but in Finnish , which apparently borrowed the word from Germanic very early ( miekka "sword"), as does Old Slavonic ( mečь ). Occasionally, however, the reverse case was assumed, i.e. a borrowing from Finnish or Slavic into Germanic, but recently it has been more likely that here and there it is ultimately a borrowing from an Iranian or a Caucasian language; in any case, germ. * mēkija- does not seem to be an hereditary word , but a wandering word . Another Germanic sword is the sax (ahd. And as. Sahs , an. Sax <germ. * Sahs ), which was the preferred cutting weapon of the Saxon tribe and also gave it its name; its shape and construction is well known thanks to numerous archaeological finds that can clearly be assigned to the Saxons.


In addition to its function as a weapon, the sword has always been a symbol of power and status . This is due, on the one hand, to the fact that the sword is the first weapon that was specially developed for close combat “man against man” and, on the other hand, to the technical challenge posed by the manufacture of such a weapon. Bronze swords were difficult to cast and required a lot of material. In addition, a correspondingly large, complex to manufacture casting mold was required . Swords made of iron, on the other hand, were the result of an elaborate blacksmith work that required special knowledge. The focus was always on usability: a sword should not break or bend, if possible, it had to be light so as not to tire the owner during use, and it had to stay sharp for a long time. In many earlier cultures swords represent the peak of craftsmanship. In times of war, swords could also be mass-produced products of reduced quality. When it was necessary to equip many fighters with it, swords were made quickly and cheaply for current needs.

In some societies, the sword achieved a real cult status . In Japan during the Edo period, for example, the carrying of swords was only permitted to certain people and was strictly regulated. A kind of sword cult can also be found among the Celts . The men were buried with swords, swords were ritually destroyed or sunk as offerings in lakes and rivers. Therefore, many originals are preserved in museums and collections.

In its history, the sword has undergone a change in shape and form. It was always subject to the fashion of the time and was adapted to the respective fighting styles and armament techniques of the opponents. Even swords from the Bronze Age are optimized for cut or stabbing , the long swords of the Celts can be used well from a horse or chariot and the short Gladii of the Romans are designed for close combat. Later, long swords that were optimized at cut and stabbing followed, which at the end of the Middle Ages became tools, so-called “ armor piercers”, in order to penetrate the steel armor of knights .

There are also long periods without much change in the shape of the sword. The sword of the Latène period remained unchanged in its basic form for several centuries. The shape of the medieval sword also remained almost the same for centuries. The Japanese sword is particularly static. Here, differences in the shape of the blade (sugata) can only be assigned to a specific time by specialists.

Special forms of European swords

Anthropomorphic Celtic sword of the Latène period

The Knoll Knauf sword of the Celts moved the research in amazement, because it was assumed, such thin " Rapierklingen " there would be, due to the technical feasibility, until the Renaissance . In fact, there were forerunners in the Bronze Age. The pommel sword is the first such iron weapon.

Another Celtic sword is the anthropomorphic sword. The special handle shape, which is reminiscent of a person with outstretched arms and legs, probably originated from bronze age handle shapes. The swords usually have short blades. A few long swords are known.

The Dacian falx is a sickle sword in which, unlike the saber , the inside of the bend is sharpened.

The ring pommel sword is a Roman variant that probably has Southeast European models.

The ring sword is a type dating from the Migration Period to the Early Middle Ages , in which two interlinked rings are attached to the pommel. One is not sure about the meaning.

The boar sword is a weapon used in the Renaissance to hunt wild boar from the horse. The long sword only has a double-edged blade in the upper third or quarter, the rest of the blade is a square or an over-long ricasso . This minimizes the risk of injury to horse and rider.

The guiding sword is a special form for the judiciary from the Renaissance to the 19th century. It is only intended to be cut, so it does not have a sharp point.

The Claymore is an up to 2 meters long, two handed sword run. At the end of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, it was used by mercenaries as a "breach cutter" in the front row.

Development and distribution history

Bronze age

Full handle sword (octagonal sword) of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age handle-tongue sword from Denmark
Bronze sword (approx. 900–700 BC, England), above corresponding replica

The finds from Arslantepe in what is now Turkey are considered the oldest swords . They date to the middle of the 4th millennium BC. Here, through the early processing of copper and the addition of arsenic, so-called arsenic bronze was produced, which enabled the production of swords. The swords were probably mainly used for representative purposes. Bronze swords reappear in Asia Minor around 2500 BC, at a great distance from the finds from Arslantepe. The first bronze swords can be found in the Aegean cultural area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. These often very long and thin, rapier-like blades clearly show the relationship to their Near Eastern ancestors. Only a little later, bronze daggers were also found in Central and Northern Europe; around 1,600 BC, long swords develop from it. The swords of the Bronze Age are divided into the older full-grip swords, grip-tongue swords, grip fishing swords and grip plate swords . The full-grip swords are, in principle, grip-fishing or grip-tongue swords with a riveted or cast-on handle.

  • Tongue swords have a grip plate that does not extend to the end of the handle. The mostly wooden handle is riveted to the handle tongue and forms a knob at the end.
  • Tang swords have a walking through the handle tang that is riveted to the handle end.
  • In the case of handle plate swords, the handle is completely made from the blade and is only flanked by two handle plates. This form occurs mainly in the Middle East. Furthermore, bronze swords with a widened end (handle-tongue swords without a "tongue"), to which the handle was riveted, are referred to as handle plate swords.

Iron age

Iron hilted sword from the Hallstatt period

Iron processing began in Central Europe in the Hallstatt period . The first swords made of iron are hilted swords and their shape corresponds exactly to their predecessors made of bronze. This is particularly noteworthy as the manufacturing methods are completely different. While bronze swords were cast and only lightly forged, swords made of iron have to be forged from an ingot in a long process. The previous process of smelting and refining the iron is also several times more complex than the extraction of copper and tin for the production of bronze. It is also noteworthy that early iron swords were not significantly superior to bronze pieces, assuming that the hardening of iron was not yet known. The much better availability of the raw material as well as the interest in the new material led to a rapid spread and the appearance of the first iron swords.

From the Hallstatt swords, the typical form of developed Latèneschwertes with the typical curved cross guard . However, it is not actually a quillons, but rather a piece of iron that prevents the blade from pressing into the wooden handle. Swords from the La Tène period develop from tapered cutting and thrusting swords to longer, almost pure cutting swords with parallel cutting edges and a round location, but regionally different. The shape corresponds to the Spathae , as they were called by the Greeks . They are thus seen as the forerunners of the later spathe. The first swords made of Damascus steel are also known from the Latène period . Here there are usually three strips of damascene steel, alternating with refined steel, in the middle of the blade, flanked by attached cutting edges. The first swords with stamps also appear. It has not been conclusively clarified whether these are forged brands in the sense of a manufacturer's mark .

The Roman sword, the gladius , was a broad, short weapon designed specifically for close-quarters combat and dense fray. The handle, often made of bone, was enclosed by a protruding, round guard and pommel. Later on, a longer type of sword prevailed, probably also due to other cultural contacts and auxiliary troops. The spathe of the Great Migration Period developed from this longer sword.

Migration period

Spatha, 6th to 7th century a. Z.

The guiding sword of the Great Migration Period is the spathe. There are richly decorated pieces and there are so-called "worm-colored" blades, that is, blades made with twisted damask rods. The term goes back to a letter from the Ostrogoth king Theoderich , in which he thanked the Thuringians or Vandals for sending them a gift . These and other traditions from this time suggest that the damask structures were a quality feature of the blades of that time. This assumes that the damask structures of the blade were visible, which requires a polish, similar to the polish of Japanese weapons. Etching of the blades cannot be ruled out, however, as the structures in the steel are also visible.

In addition to the typical Spathae, other long swords are known from the migration period. Pontic type swords, such as those found mainly on the Black Sea, for example on the Taman Peninsula , but also in Western Europe, for example in Altlußheim near Mannheim, differ somewhat from the typical Germanic-Roman spathe construction. The width of the lenticular blade on these swords is about 5.5 cm, the crossguard is very large and the face side is conspicuously decorated with almandin inlays. These swords are associated with the Alans . Long swords of the Hunn type are at the same time, but clearly different from the Spathae. Well-known specimens come from the Pannonhalma site in Hungary during the migration period . In the course of the great migration this type spread far to the west; Similar weapons were found in Beja , Portugal . Hunnish swords were typically narrower than spathe, tapered and had a solid iron quillons. Some of these swords are decorated with almandine inlays and gold fittings.

The importance of the sword in the societies of the Great Migration Period is particularly clear in the position that swords occupy in most of the mythological stories of the early and high Middle Ages: For example, the sword Excalibur is found in the Arthurian legend , Siegfried's sword Balmung in the Nibelungenlied and in the Amelungenlied Wieland's sword , Mimung.

During the Great Migration, the sax partially replaced the sword as a weapon or supplemented it. The sax was a short, single-edged cutting weapon and appeared among Germanic warriors since the late 5th century. It developed into single-edged cutting swords in the early Middle Ages. These are also known as “sword sax”.

Early middle ages

From the 8th century, the beginning of the Viking Age , blades with letters inlaid in iron can be found. Well-known series of letters are + ULFBERTH + . or + INGELRI + . Presumably these are well-known manufacturer names. There are also contemporary copies of these swords in the finds. From the 8th century sax , which was used alongside the sword, developed into single-edged cut swords. These mostly very massive blades disappeared from the finds in the 9th century. Jan Peterson classified the swords of the Viking type in his book "The Norsk Vikingesverd" (1919). This classification is still widely used today.

High and late Middle Ages

High medieval sword

The Viking swords are getting bigger and bigger. The medieval knight's sword developed from them . Markings are no longer forged in iron, but inlaid with copper or precious metals. The markings are protective symbols, names and symbols attached to the wearer. However, they only occur in a small number of swords.

The quillons of high medieval swords are straight and often very long. The overall impression of a Christian cross is created. From the high Middle Ages onwards, swords, which were previously wielded one-handed, developed first and a half, then two-handed, long swords. The blades became stronger and more pointed in the late Middle Ages . Due to the developments in armaments technology, so-called piercing and drilling swords, also known as armored stabbers, are developing. The way of fencing with these long swords is beautifully handed down in Talhoffer's fencing book.

Swords played an essential role in many feudal ceremonies of the Middle Ages ( coronation , sword line ). Practically every European coronation regalia contains a sword, for example the imperial sword of the Holy Roman Empire , the imperial swords in England and Scotland, etc.

The Frisian Museum in Ljouwert shows a 2.13 meter long and 6 kilogram two-handed sword that is said to have belonged to the warrior Pier Gerlofs Donia .

The width of the blade of the high medieval sword decreases linearly to about two thirds of the blade length, the remaining third runs increasingly convex to a (mostly) rounded point, so that in the end a slightly crooked edge results. This in turn creates a significantly stronger "pulling cut" effect than a completely straight edge, which has a positive effect on the cutting properties of the sword and nevertheless does not reduce the possibilities of the weapon in the field of stabbing and ring armor combat, as is the case with a pure saber Case. The fillet controls the mass distribution, which allows you to adjust the moment of inertia and the center of gravity of the sword. The crossguard was only partially used as hand protection - it had an important function in fencing as a lever and handle support.

Ewart Oakeshott classified the swords of the European Middle Ages (approx. From the 11th to the 15th century) into 13 main types based on the blade shape. He introduced this classification in 1964 in his book The Sword in The Age of Chivalry and continued Jan Petersen's classification of the Viking sword. He also made a classification of the knob shapes. This so-called Oakeshott classification , along with other classifications, is the most commonly used to this day.

Modern times

Early modern swords, fig. 5: German sword, fig. 6: two-handed sword, fig. 7: donkey's hoof, fig. 8: Dt. Sword with basket, fig. 9: "Blade of the Cid "

With the advent of heavier armor , the weapons had to be adapted so that the enemy could be injured despite the armor. With the increasing use of plate armor , the shield became superfluous, and the left hand was largely free, at least in the case of unrestrained fighters. The originally relatively short swords (about 0.8–1 m) therefore developed into longer and longer swords (now called one-and-a-half swords or bastard swords ). The so-called armor - breakers , a special form of the sword, did not fully establish themselves and were only used for a short time.

The two-handed sword , which can be seen more often in illustrations from the Landsknechts period , was mainly used for duels when the formations ( violence ) had already broken up. It is completely unsuitable for knocking off the peaks, as it is repeatedly claimed in rumors. Pikemen and musketeers carried the short Katzbalger as a secondary weapon, which did not hinder the fight with the main weapon. In civilian life the rapier was worn . The side sword , which in terms of appearance can be classified between the Katzbalger and the rapier , was equally widespread in the military as in the civilian .

Due to the fact that, last but not least, ostentatious weapons have often survived because they have not been exposed to wear and tear, there are often misconceptions about the weight and center of gravity of historical swords. Parade weapons, which were shown mainly carried shouldered during parades, reached weights that were absolutely impractical for combat (four kilograms and more). However, an actual utility weapon - especially if it was intended for military use - had to be able to be carried over a longer period of time. A steel sword that should be suitable for combat weighs between one and one and a half kilograms, depending on its length. Depending on the type of sword, the aim is to focus more or less close to the crossguard. Light-weight swords can have a center of gravity 20 centimeters in front of the cross-guard without becoming unwieldy. It should be noted, however, that the dynamic properties of a sword are not only defined by its mass and center of gravity, but also by the respective moment of inertia.

With the end of the Middle Ages, the sword lost its importance. The long knife and the dussaw already point the way to the development of the saber. The long, thinning Swords develop into rapiers and swords . The emergence of firearms is the main reason for a completely different battle management, in which long edged weapons play an increasingly subordinate role.

Material and technology

Construction and components

Individual parts of the medieval sword

The basic construction from the Migration Period:

  1. The pommel serves as the end of the sword and is intended to prevent the sword from slipping out of the hand. In addition, the pommel forms a counterweight to the blade, which changes the center of gravity and thus improves the guidance of the sword. Bronze Age swords often have an end plate or a pommel formed from the handle. On most iron swords, the pommel is pushed onto the tang of the blade and riveted. If the rivet head protrudes significantly, it is sometimes referred to as a "knob".
  2. The booklet forms the handle of the sword, and usually consists of organic materials. It often consists of a hardwood that is wrapped around the fishing rod and a winding or mesh made of leather, fabric or metal.
  3. The cross- guard is designed to absorb blows from the opponent and prevent the hand from slipping on the blade.
  4. the blade
  5. The scabbard is intended to protect the blade and the wearer; it is made of wood, leather, fur or metal. The sword scabbard usually has various handles or loops to attach it. Usually a so-called chape closes the sword scabbard at the bottom and thus protects the scabbard from abrasion. The scabbard mouth plate is intended to protect the leather from the edge of the sword and to facilitate the introduction of the blade. The scabbard of medieval swords was probably also lined with fur. The blade is not scratched, it is held more securely and care oils stay in the fur. The lining was brought to the place with the line.
  6. The tang forms the part of the blade that passes through the quillons, handle and pommel and forms the rivet for the pommel.
  7. The central ridge on a blade is used to stiffen a blade. It is found mainly on Bronze Age and Iron Age swords.
  8. The ricasso is the area that has not been sanded. It is located at the beginning of the blade just before the quillons. With the exception of some Bronze Age swords, a ricasso was only found on swords from the late Middle Ages. In the case of large, two-handed swords, the ricasso can take up a large area of ​​the blade and is then sometimes grasped with the second hand in different striking versions. In some historical two-handed swords of the late Renaissance , this area is therefore protected by a second cross-guard, the so-called cross- guard . In contrast to the quillons, this is always a forged part of the blade.
  9. The groove , also incorrectly called a blood channel, serves to reduce the weight of the blade, depending on the manufacturing method, but is not a drainage groove for the opponent's blood. The fillet is often forged or machined on both sides and usually does not break through the blade. Only in the case of ornamental or ceremonial weapons could it happen that the blacksmith made artistic openings. There are also blades in which the hollow paths are not opposite one another. Often brands, blessings or names were worked into the hollow.
  10. The cutting edge is the sharply ground part of the blade and often consisted of "cutting strips" made of particularly hard and edge-holding steel that are worked into the blade.
  11. The place is the tip of the blade.

The cross-section of the blade varied considerably in European swords, depending on the intended use of the blade. Lenticular and rhombic, but also hexagonal and cross-shaped cross-sections were widespread.

Archaeometallurgical background

Even with full-grip swords from the Bronze Age, the blade and handle are usually made of bronzes of different compositions. Cold forging made it possible to further strengthen the blade, but the material also becomes more brittle. The casting of these swords had to be done very carefully. Air inclusions in the material could quickly lead to a break, as shown by many traditional finds. Unlike swords made of iron, the quality of a blade was probably not externally visible.

Up until the High Middle Ages, iron was only possible in so-called racing furnaces . The product of the reduction of the iron ore in the racing furnaces is the rag , a sponge iron that is produced by melting out the accompanying substances in the ore. The iron is not completely melted here. The further processing into an ingot takes place by repeatedly forging and folding the hollow. The aim of the process is to homogenize the material and drive out the remaining slag . This process is called refining or fermentation, and the product is called refining or fermentation steel.

While the earliest iron blades are made entirely of refined steel, from the La Tène period onwards, blades deliberately made of different, forged and folded types of tan. Due to the conspicuous pattern in the steel, which has similarities with a modern, oriental crucible steel, the term “Damascus steel” has recently also established itself for this material.

The cutting edges of the blades are almost exclusively made of high quality steel, the damascene is used to stiffen the middle of the blade, making the blades thinner and lighter. However, this requires complicated blade structures made of several steel strands. From the 1st century onwards, twisting strands made of various fermentation steels can also be found. Blades with this structure are also referred to as "worm-colored". In the further course of the Middle Ages there are many different patterns and blade structures. In the High Middle Ages the conspicuous, outwardly visible patterns disappear again, even if the blades are still intricately damascus. Metallographic examinations on original swords such as the ceremonial sword from the cathedral treasury provide exact data. Medieval steel has a very low content of sulfur and phosphorus (0.002 to 0.003%). The carbon content of examined blades is in the range between 0.1% and 1.1% and the measured hardness reaches up to 58 HRC . The hardness in the steel could be influenced by aging and external influences. The increased hardness values ​​require a targeted hardening process of the blades. Selective hardening was also practiced, as evidenced by the sword blades from the Nydam ship .


The story that the Crusaders weighed “Damascus sabers” with gold because they cut their armor “like butter” cannot be historically proven. At the time of the Crusades, sabers were also available (mainly imported from Central Asia by the Seljuks ), but many oriental swords with straight blades sharpened on both sides can also be identified. To combat the chain armor used by the Crusaders, straight, rather than curved, blades were most likely used.

Differentiation from other edged weapons

Like swords, daggers are usually double-edged, sometimes with a square or triangular blade cross-section and mostly not suitable for striking. Usually double-edged weapons with a blade length of up to 40 cm are seen as daggers, longer ones as short swords.

Sabers are single-edged and curved. A cut from a saber that hits vertically has a more powerful cutting effect than a cut from a sword, because the cutting edge hits with a smaller surface. The Japanese katana are single-edged and curved, so in principle they are sabers, but they cannot be clearly designated as such, as they have some features that deviate from the classic definition of a saber. The katana is a class of its own; it is mostly multilayered ( tanning ), but not in the sense of Damascus steel .

Epee, foil and the longer rapiers were created from the swords of the late Middle Ages that were optimized for engraving. They are weapons optimized for single combat . The long, pointed, one-handed blade is used for parrying, the hilt is optimized to protect the hand and is often richly decorated. These head-heavy, light weapons enable longer, fatigue-free use in fencing .

The Pallasch has a straight blade. Due to the use and shape of the handle, however, it is more likely to be assigned to sabers.

See also


  • Marcin Biborski, Christopher FE Pare, Anne Pedersen, Peter Schauer , Susanne Sievers , Heiko SteuerSchwert. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 27, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-018116-9 , pp. 523-597.
  • Konrad Kessler: The fight with the long sword. Weinmann, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-87892-091-5 .
  • Hans-Peter Hils: Master Liechtenauer's art of the long sword. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-8204-8129-X .
  • André Schulze: Medieval ways of fighting. Volume 1: The Long Sword. von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2006, ISBN 3-8053-3652-7 .
  • Iaroslav Lebedynsky: Armes et guerriers barbaren au temps des grandes invasions. Paris 2001
  • Thomas Laible: The Sword - Myth and Reality. Wieland, Bad Aibling 2006, ISBN 978-3-938711-05-7 .
  • Herbert Schmidt: Sword fight - the fight with the long sword according to the German school. Wieland, Bad Aibling 2007, ISBN 978-3-938711-19-4 .
  • Stefan Mäder: Steels, stones, snakes: A new look at old swords (= carbuncle Combat. No. 1), carbuncle, Wald-Michelbach 2005.
  • Veronica Fiorato, Anthea Boylston, Christopher Knüsel: Blood red roses: the archeology of a mass grave from the Battle of Towton AD 1461. 2000, ISBN 1-84217-025-2 .
  • Hanns-Ulrich Haedeke: Edged weapons . Guide to the exhibition. Ed .: German Blade Museum Solingen. Pulheim 1982.

Web links

Portal: Weapons  - Overview of Wikipedia content on weapons
Commons : Swords  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Sword  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: On the symbolism of the sword  - sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Gerhard Seifert: Technical terms of edged weapons: German ABC of the European bare weapons. About cut, thrust, blow and hand weapons. Seifert publishing house, 1981
  2. For an overview of the derivation attempts, see Viktor Levizkij: Germanic terms for "sword" and semantic typology . In: RASK - International journal of Language and Communication 34, 2011, pp. 3−22.
  3. Willy Krogmann: Germ. * swerða- "sword" . In: Journal for Comparative Linguistics 59, 1932.
  4. Alexander Nikolaev: The Germanic Word for 'sword' and Delocatival Derivation in Proto-Indo-European . In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies 37: 3, 2009, pp. 461–488.
  5. Herwig Wolfram : Die Goten: From the beginnings to the middle of the sixth century: Draft of a historical ethnography . Beck, Munich 1990, pp. 108-109.
  6. See the entry for the word mākija in the database of the rune project of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, viewed on June 4, 2020.
  7. ↑ See the entry on Ortband 1 by Vimose (Fyn, DK) in the database of the rune project of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, viewed on June 4, 2020.
  8. Viktor Levizkij: Germanic terms for "sword" and semantic typology . In: RASK - International journal of Language and Communication 34, 2011, p. 4f.
  9. Markus Sesko: Guide to the Japanese Sword. 2013, ISBN 1-291-41105-4 .
  10. Celtic weapons
  11. A new sword of the Arslantepe type.
  12. Christian Eberhard Schulz: To the rise of the sword. In: Anodos. Studies of the Ancient World. Volume 4-5 / 2004-2005, pp. 215-229.
  13. Full-grip daggers ( Memento from September 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Full- hilt swords of the older Bronze Age
  15. ^ Ernst Sprockhoff: Die Germanischen Griffzungenschwerter , Texttafel 1, Verlag von Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin and Leipzig, 1931, ISBN 978-3-11-137495-6
  16. ^ Swords from the Latène period with stamp marks
  17. Wilfried Menghin: Arming the Teutons in late antiquity and in the early Middle Ages - images, texts, realities. (Pp. 91-112). In Reiner Hofman (ed.): Craftsmen, warriors, tribal princes. The Germanic fortification of the Migration Period on the Reisberg: Essays. Accompanying volume for the special exhibition in the Franconian Switzerland Museum Tüchersfeld. Tüchersfeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-942439-02-2 .
  18. Heiko Steuer: Historical phases of armament according to statements of the archaeological sources of Central and Northern Europe in the first millennium AD. In: Early Medieval Studies. 4, pp. 348-383 (1970).
  19. Overview of the types (PDF).
  20. Greate Pier fan Wûnseradiel. (No longer available online.) Gemeente Wûnseradiel, archived from the original on September 14, 2012 ; accessed on January 4, 2008 (West Frisian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wunseradiel.nl
  21. a b On the dynamics of swords . Site of Tremonia Fencing. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  22. ^ Oakeshott Type XII Swords
  23. Oakeshott Blade Forms
  24. Oakeshott Pommel Types
  25. Blacksmithing in the Middle Ages and Modern Times (PDF; 10.4 MB).
  26. archaeologie-online.de
  27. ^ Sword Blade Hardness: A look at the current research
  28. a b Unsal Yucel: Islamic swords and swordsmiths. OIC Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture, IRCICA, 2001.