|coat of arms||map|
|Commune number :||4601|
|Province (county) :||Vestland|
|Residents:||283,929 (Feb 27, 2020)|
|Population density :||611 inhabitants per km²|
|Language form :||neutral|
|Postal code :||5003-5099|
|Mayor :||Marte Mjøs Persen ( Arbeiderpartiet ) (2015)|
|Location in the province of Vestland|
Bergen [ ˈbærgən ] is with 283,929 inhabitants (as of February 27, 2020) the second largest city in Norway , a municipality in the province ( Fylke ) Vestland and its administrative center. The greater Bergen area has around 440,000 inhabitants.
The port of Bergen ( UN / LOCODE NO BGO) is one of the busiest seaports in Europe, from which Hurtigruten ships depart. The city is the starting point of the Bergensbane . In terms of culture, there is the well-known theater Den Nationale Scene and the Grieghalle .
Bergen is a port city and is located on the Inner Byfjord on the west coast of Norway. The city is also known as the “gateway to the fjords”. The highest point in the municipality is Gullfjellet (987 m). With around 2548 mm of precipitation on 248 rainy days a year (as of 2005), the city is the “rainiest city in Europe”.
"De Syv Fjell"
Bergen is also known as Syvfjellsbyen (City of Seven Hills) in Norway . This nickname is said to go back to the poet Ludvig Holberg , probably based on the Seven Hills of Rome . The actual number of hills surrounding the city is controversial, partly because five of them (Ulriken, Fløyfjellet, Rundemanen, Blåmanen and Sandviksfløyen) are all part of the same massif. Even the Storavarden on the neighboring island of Askøy is counted occasionally on the seven hills.
On the annual 7-fjellsturen (7-hill tour), which is organized by the local branch of the Norwegian Trekking Association , the following 7 hills have been climbed, counterclockwise, since 1981:
The city is characterized by Bryggen, which runs along the natural harbor Vågen , or formerly Tyske Bryggen (Norwegian for Landungsbrücke / Kai or German quay), which are old trading facilities of the Hanseatic League . The Marienkirche and other buildings also date from this time .
After several devastating city fires (1702, 1855, 1916), which were favored by the typical Norwegian timber construction, the city issued ordinances that no longer allowed the construction of wooden houses in the city area. The Bryggen harbor district , which was not spared several times during the city fires, was rebuilt according to original plans after each destruction. The profile is therefore still the same today as it was in the 12th century. For this reason, Bryggen was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979 as an example of Hanseatic architecture in Norway .
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According to information in the King's Sagas , Bergen was founded in 1070 as Björgvin ("mountain meadow") by King Olav Kyrre . From the 12th century it was the Norwegian coronation city; later it was replaced in this function by Trondheim .
In 1360 a Hansekontor ( Tyske Bryggen ) opened in Bergen . Although Bergen is often referred to as a “Hanseatic City”, it was not a member city with equal rights, as cities in which Hanseatic offices were located were forbidden to become Hanseatic cities. In 1665, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War , English warships raided a Dutch merchant fleet in the port of Bergen. The battle in the Bay of Bergen ended with the defeat of the English, also thanks to the support of the Dutch by the Danish fortress garrisons.
Up until 1880, Bergen was Norway's most important port and largest city. On January 16, 1916, a large part of the town, which still consists of many wooden houses, was destroyed by a major fire.
In the 19th century leprosy was widespread in Norway and Bergen was one of the epidemic centers. Between 1850 and 1900 there were three leprosy hospitals in the city and the highest density of infected people in all of Europe. In 1873 the Norwegian doctor Gerhard Armauer Hansen discovered the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae in Bergen . The oldest leprosy hospital, St. Jørgens Hospital, which opened in the 15th century, treated leprosy patients until the 1940s and is now home to the Bergen Leprosy Museum and the Leprosy Archive, which is part of the UNESCO Memory of the World program .
During the Second World War , Bergen was occupied by German troops on the first day of the German invasion , on April 9, 1940 . The city was later damaged by Allied bombing. The German Air Force built to defend the city and the submarine -Hafens the nearby island of Herdla and the fortress Fjell festning out. On April 20, 1944, the explosion on the German ammunition transporter "Voorbode", which was lying on the quay in front of the Bergenhus Fortress, claimed numerous lives and caused severe damage to hundreds of buildings.
The Bergen City Assembly (bystyre) consists of 67 elected city councilors. Nine of them are paid full-time politicians : the mayor (ordfører) , his deputy (varaordfører) and seven chairmen of the municipal committees (komité) . In 2000 the proportional representation system was replaced by the parliamentary majority principle: The political majority in the city assembly elects the mayor and the city government ( byråd ) , consisting of the chairman of the city government (byrådsleder) and up to six other members (byråd) .
From 1971 to 2015, the local elections always resulted in majorities for the center-right parties, with the exception of 1991. Since 2015, a center-left city council made up of the Labor Party , KrF and Venstre , which since 2019 also includes the MDG, has governed .
Bergen has two town halls. The city assembly still meets in the old town hall from the 16th century.
The last local election took place on September 9, 2019:
|Folkeaksjonen nei til mer bompenger||0||0||11|
|Miljøpartiet De Grønne||1||4th||7th|
|1989-1995||Bengt Martin Olsen (A), journalist||1989-1991
Arne Mikael Landro (KrF), lecturer
Ingmar Ljones (KrF), teacher
|1995-1999||Ingmar Ljones (KrF), teacher||1995-1998
Ole-Jørgen Johannessen (A), university professor
Anne-Grete Strøm-Erichsen (A), IT engineer
|1999-2000||Anne-Grete Strøm-Erichsen (A), IT engineer||1999-2000||Ingmar Ljones (KrF), teacher|
|2000-2001||Ingmar Ljones (KrF), teacher||2000-2001||Terje Ohnstad (A), metal worker|
|2001-2003||Kristian Helland (KrF), editor||2001-2003||Terje Ohnstad (A)|
|2003-2007||Herman Friele (H), director||2003-2007||Kristian Helland (KrF), editor|
|2007-2011||Gunnar Bakke ( Frp ), baker||2007-2011||Trude Drevland (H), nurse|
|2011-2015||Trude Drevland (H), nurse||2011-2015||Tor A. Woldseth (Frp)|
|2015–||Marte Mjøs Persen (A)||2015–2019
Marita Moltu (KrF)
Rune Bakervik (A)
coat of arms
Blazon : “In red within a circular golden border , in it the inscription“ SIGILLVM: COMMVNITATIS: DE: CIVITATE BERGENSI ”(“ Seal of the City of Bergens ”) in silver majuscules, a silver gate castle growing out of golden Siebenberg with a black-grooved battlement wall on an ungrooved base central, pointed arch portal rising up between the battlements, inside the black banded silver, closed gate, with sideways rising stepped friezes, each surrounded by a black arched window, behind the battlements a central battlement tower with two smaller tinned side towers, each with a black round arched window. "
Bergen maintains town twinning and urban cooperation.
Culture and sights
Theaters and museums
- Den Nationale Scene (German: The National Stage ), the oldest Norwegian theater
- Bryggens Museum
- Edvard Grieg Museum Troldhaugen , residence of Edvard Grieg
- Gamle Bergen (Eng. "Old Bergen" - open air museum)
- Hanseatic Museum and Schötstuben
- KODE - art museums in Bergen
- Leprosy Museum
- Bergen Maritime Museum
- Vestlandske Art Industry Museum, Crafts and Design
- Technical museum in Møhlenpris with museum tram operation
- Bergen University Museum
- Center for contemporary handicrafts KRAFT in the former bank building of the Norges Bank
- The Fantoft stave church was built in Sogn in 1150 and moved to its current location in 1883. In 1992 the church burned down completely by arson. A little later, however, it was rebuilt true to the original according to the old plans.
- St. Olav Cathedral
- Cruciform church with the building stone for those who died in the sea battle off Alvøen
- Bergenhus Fortress
- Hanseviertel Bryggen (formerly Tyske Bryggen , German: German Bridge), World Heritage of UNESCO
- 19th century mansions - Damsgård manor (rococo wooden architecture), Alvøen country house (center of the old industrial settlement Alvøen )
- Gamlehaugen , mansion built around 1900, today the residence of the royal family during stays in Bergen
- the place Torgallmenningen with the department store Sundt and the Monument Sjømannsmonumentet
- Murhvelvingen , historical building from 1561
In Bergen, monuments have been set up for several well-known personalities, including the Ibsen memorial and the Holberg memorial . Several sculptures such as the Reclining Poet , the Homeless and Salome are set up in Bergen's public space .
Parks and natural monuments
- Aquarium in mountains
- Fløyen viewpoint (320 m), accessible by the Fløibanen funicular (valley station near the fish market)
- Peaks of Ulriken (643 m), accessible by the Ulriksbanen
- Arboretum and Botanical Garden
- The bue corps (literally "arch corps" or archers' brigades) are classic youth organizations in mountains and organized by district. The somewhat military-style tradition is unique in Bergen and goes back at least to the 19th century.
- Pepperkakebyen: a regular exhibition since 1991 in December of the world's largest gingerbread city
- fish market
Wooden house in Bryggen
From an economic point of view, Bergen is strongly influenced by Norwegian oil production. Due to the favorable geographical location at the level of the Norwegian oil fields ( Troll A and others), there are several supply facilities in the city area. a. Training centers for helicopter pilots.
Another economic factor is the extensive seaport and the associated shipyard and fish industry (aquaculture). Other branches of industry are mechanical engineering, steel production, textile and electrotechnical industries.
Bergen has a number of educational institutions, the most important of which are:
- University of Bergen : an important university in the field of marine biology and geology is located in Bergen
- Norwegian Business School : (NHH)
- Bergen School of Art and Design
- Bergen University of Applied Sciences
- Grieg Academy: College of Music
In Bergen, the Christi Krybbe skoler, founded in 1737, is the oldest still existing primary school in Norway.
Bergen is connected to the Norwegian capital Oslo by rail via the Bergensbanen , which is one of the most beautiful railway lines in Europe and ends at Bergen train station . On the road there is the E 16 , which has no ferries but some very long tunnels, and the Reichsstraße 7, which crosses the Hardangervidda . The large suspension bridges Sotra Bridge to the west and the Askøy Bridge to the north lead to larger islands in the vicinity .
Bergen is the starting point for the Hurtigruten mail ships to Kirkenes (via Ålesund , Trondheim , Tromsø , Hammerfest ). In the port of Bergen, the number of cruise ship calls increased dramatically from 1990 (100 calls with around 46,300 passengers) through 2000 (172 calls with almost 100,000 passengers) to 2017 (307 calls with 534,221 passengers). There is also the Bergen-Flesland international airport with numerous national and international connections.
Local public transport in Bergen was implemented after the tram operation was discontinued in 1965 with trolleybuses ( Trolleybus Bergen ), city buses and suburban trains from Vy . The Bergen light rail has been in operation since June 22, 2010 , initially connecting the city center with the residential areas in the south. The Bergen light rail system now runs to Bergen-Flesland International Airport. There is also a funicular to Mount Fløyen , the Fløibane , and an aerial cableway to Mount Ulriken , the Ulriksbanen .
Well-known personalities born in Bergen include the violinist and composer Ole Bull , the poet Ludvig Holberg , the landscape painter Johan Christian Clausen Dahl , the writer and women's rights activist Amalie Skram , the leprosy researchers Daniel Cornelius Danielssen and Gerhard Armauer Hansen , the aviation pioneer and polar explorer Tryggve Gran , the biathlete Liv Grete Poirée , the musicians Kurt Nilsen and Sondre Lerche , the handball goalkeeper Kari Aalvik Grimsbø , the composer Edvard Hagerup Grieg , the music producer Alan Walker , the soprano Sissel Kyrkjebø and the new acoustic movement band Kings of Convenience . Moreover originate Varg Vikernes , founder of the music project Burzum, and the band Kakkmaddafakka of mountains. Furthermore, the brothers Bård and Vegard Ylvisåker, known by the stage name Ylvis , come from Bergen.
- Bergen's tide end
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for mountains
- Mike Burkhardt: The Hanseatic mountain trade in the late Middle Ages. Trade - merchants - networks . (= Sources and representations on Hanseatic history; NF, vol. 60) Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2009, ISBN 978-3-412-20352-8 .
- Turan Gizbili: The last days of the German merchants in Bergen. Transformation processes of the bourgeoisie from 1720 to 1780 . Kovač, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8300-6608-8 . (Dissertation, University of Essen 2012)
- Asbjørn Herteig, Arnved Nedkvitne: Bergen . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , Sp. 1952–1955.
- Paal Kvamme: Bergen . (National geographic explorer). Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-86690-019-6 . (Travel Guide)
- Thomas Kohlwein: Bergen . Series: Europe exquisite. Wieser Verlag, Klagenfurt / Celovec 2019, ISBN 978-3-99029-365-2 .
- Official website of Bergen
- Bergen on snl.no in the store norske leksikon (Norwegian)
- History of Bergen on snl.no in the store norske leksikon (Norwegian)
- Culture and public life in Bergen on snl.no in the store norske leksikon (Norwegian)
- Illustration of the city 1588 in Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun
- Tourist Office Norway
- Video: Reconstruction of mountains in the 1350s, produced for the Riksantikvaren and Bergen byarkivet
- Statistisk sentralbyrå - Befolkning
- As of March 2020, population figures for the municipalities of Bergen, Bjørnafjorden, Askøy, Øygarden, Alver, Austreim, Vaksdal and Osterøy
- Jan I. Eliassen: Bergen havn holder koken . In: Bergens Tidende of June 24, 2006, accessed October 17, 2012 (Norwegian)
- Historisk styrkeprøve Bergen og Hordaland Turlag, accessed on February 16, 2020
- Leprosy Museum in Bergen
- Det gamle rådhuset. In: Bergen Byarkiv. Retrieved March 18, 2020 (Norwegian).
- Bergen commune. In: valgresultat.no. Retrieved September 10, 2019 (Norwegian).
- Rostock - home page. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .
- Museum page (Norwegian / English) , accessed on August 27, 2019
- Pepperkakebyen. Bergen sentrum, accessed December 3, 2014 (Norwegian).
- Eckhard-Herbert Arndt: The port city of Bergen caps cruise calls · Popular western Norwegian city sets daily upper limit of 9,000 passengers and four ships. In: Daily port report from November 20, 2018, pp. 1 + 4