Newcastle upon Tyne
|Newcastle upon Tyne|
|OS National Grid||NZ249645|
|Residents||300,196 (as of 2018)|
|surface||113.44 km² (43.8 mi² )|
|Population density:||2646 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||NE|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||North East England|
|Ceremonial county||Tyne and Wear|
|Metropolitan Borough||Newcastle upon Tyne|
Newcastle upon Tyne [ ˈnjuːkɑːsəl‿əpɒnˈtaɪn ], local: [njəˈkæsəl‿əpənˈtaɪn ], mainly known as Newcastle , is a city in north-east England on the River Tyne in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . The city is a Metropolitan Borough with the status of a City in the Metropolitan County of Tyne and Wear . Newcastle is on the north bank of the Tyne, the neighboring city on the south bank is Gateshead . The dialect spoken in Newcastle is Geordie , which is how the residents of the city and its surroundings are called.
The Pons Aelius fort , one of the Roman fortresses along Hadrian's Wall , used to stand on the site of today's city . In the Middle Ages , a Norman fort was built on this site around 1080, which was expanded after the 12th century, whereupon the community developed into an important cultural and economic center. Coal and woolen fabrics were exported from Newcastle as early as the 13th century, after the 16th century coal became the main export item. This gave rise to the phrase "Carry Coals to Newcastle" ("bring coal to Newcastle", do something completely unnecessary). Shipbuilding was also an important branch of industry up to the beginning of the 20th century . The very first factory for the construction of steam locomotives , founded by Robert Stephenson , was also located in Newcastle.
Before 1974, Newcastle upon Tyne was the administrative seat of the county of Northumberland .
Culture and sights
Remains of the city wall from the 13th century remain, the Cathedral of St Nicholas largely dates from the 14th century. The Roman Catholic St. Mary's Cathedral from 1844 is the work of AWN Pugin . Of the seven bridges, the High Level Bridge was designed by Robert Stephenson in the mid-19th century , the Gateshead Millennium Bridge was designed in the early 21st century. The city has numerous art galleries and museums, including the Laing Art Gallery (with works by Gauguin , Turner and Holman Hunt ). In 1927 Newcastle City Hall , a concert hall for classical and rock music, opened. The city is also home to Newcastle University (from 1851) and Northumbria University, which emerged from the polytechnic . There is also the Royal Grammar School, which dates back to 1525. The city's parks include Jesmond Dene in the northeast and Leazes Park. The North Sea can be reached from the city center in 20 to 30 minutes by metro (or S-Bahn).
Economy, education and infrastructure
Newcastle upon Tyne is a major industrial and transportation center. The industrial goods manufactured in the city include machines and pharmaceuticals . The malty-dark beer Newcastle Brown Ale, which is also exported abroad, was brewed here until 2008 .
Since the end of the 20th century, the city has been promoting structural change from a formerly flourishing industrial region (especially steel and armaments industry) to a cosmopolitan metropolis. Museums and theaters were built in some old factories.
Newcastle upon Tyne is the seat of Newcastle University (former “King's College”), founded in 1963, with over 19,000 students.
Newcastle Airport (NCL) is located on the north-western outskirts near Ponteland .
The Newcastle Central Station ( Hauptbahnhof ) is located on the railway line East Coast Main Line and is the starting point of the Tyne Valley Line . It was opened in 1850 in the presence of Queen Victoria and is said to have been the first large railway station to have a complete platform hall . In order to be able to build the station, the eponymous medieval castle of Newcastle was demolished.
The main road through Newcastle is the motorway-like A1 .
Newcastle has a number of well-known sports clubs, most notably Newcastle United , which uses St. James' Park as its home stadium. Since it was founded in 1892, the club has won four English championships and has been a cup winner six times. In 1969 (Inter-Cities Fairs Cup) and 2006 (UEFA Intertoto Cup) the club achieved international success.
The leading rugby club are the Newcastle Falcons , which are based in Kingston Park . The Newcastle Vipers (ice hockey), Newcastle Eagles (basketball) and Newcastle Diamonds (speedway) compete in Brough Park , which also hosts greyhound races. The Newcastle Racecourse is a famous racecourse. The Great North Run , the largest half marathon in the world, runs from Newcastle to South Shields . The Sports Direct Arena , which operated as St. James' Park during the 2012 Olympic Games , hosted seven preliminary round matches and two quarter-finals of the women's and men's soccer tournaments.
- Atlanta (USA)
- Bergen (Norway)
- Gelsenkirchen (Germany)
- Groningen (Netherlands)
- Haifa (Israel)
- Nancy (France)
- Newcastle (Australia)
→ Main article: List of personalities from the city of Newcastle upon Tyne
The musician Mark Knopfler (known among other things as the singer and guitarist of the band Dire Straits ) grew up in Newcastle. Furthermore, Gordon Matthew Sumner, better known as Sting , was born here on October 2nd, 1951 and started his music career here in various jazz formations. The musicians Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch (born in Bognor Regis), who became known with the band The Shadows , Eric Burdon , singer of Animals , and Brian Johnson , the former singer of the Australian hard rock band AC / DC .
- Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
- Richard Deiss: Impeller cathedral and sugar beet station. A short story about 200 European train stations. Bonn 2010, p. 66.