2012 Summer Olympics
|Inspire a Generation
(Inspire a generation)
|Venue:||London ( Great Britain )|
|Stadion:||Olympic Stadium London|
|Opening ceremony:||July 27, 2012|
|Closing ceremony:||August 12, 2012|
|Opened by:||Queen Elizabeth II.|
|Olympic oath :||
Sarah Stevenson (athlete)
Mik Basi (referee)
Eric Farrell (trainer)
|Disciplines:||40 (26 sports)|
(5864 men, 4656 women)
|← Beijing 2008|
|Rio de Janeiro 2016 →|
|Complete medal table|
The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially the XXX Olympiad Games ) took place in London from July 25 to August 12, 2012 (with the opening ceremony on July 27). The International Olympic Committee selected the venue on July 6, 2005 during its 117th session in Singapore . The candidacy of London, led by Sebastian Coe , prevailed against Paris , Madrid , New York and Moscow . After 1908 and 1948 , the capital of the United Kingdom hosted the Summer Olympics for the third time . 10,520 athletes took part, representing 204 National Olympic Committees . There were a total of 302 decisions in 26 sports. Women's boxing was on the program for the first time, so that women were represented in all sports for the first time. The main venue was the newly built Olympic Park in the London borough of Stratford .
Nine cities submitted their applications to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to host the 2012 Olympic Games : Havana (Cuba), Istanbul (Turkey), Leipzig (Germany), London (United Kingdom), Madrid (Spain), Moscow (Russia) , New York (USA), Paris (France) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Based on a report by the Evaluation Commission, the IOC reduced the field of candidates to five cities: London, Madrid, Moscow, New York and Paris.
All five cities submitted their official candidacy and were visited by the IOC's evaluation committee for four days in February and March 2005. The IOC published the evaluation reports on June 6, 2005. Although they did not contain grades or rankings, Paris made the strongest impression, closely followed by London, which had made numerous improvements since the first evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid also received positive ratings, while Moscow was considered the weakest candidate.
Paris was the favorite throughout the application process, especially as this application was the third in the recent past. London followed well behind, but that began to change after Sebastian Coe was chosen as the leading figure for the candidacy. In August 2004, various media forecast a head-to-head race between London and Paris.
During the 117th IOC session in Singapore on July 6, 2005, the choice of the venue took place. Moscow were eliminated in the first round, followed by New York and Madrid. In the fourth and decisive round, London prevailed just under 54 to 50 votes against Paris, which also made it clear that the 2012 Summer Paralympics would take place in London. The victory celebrations in London were short-lived as the city was shaken by the terrorist attacks on several underground trains the following day .
Results of the ballots:
|place||country||Round 1||round 2||Round 3||Round 4|
|new York||United States||19th||16||-||-|
The number of votes cast increased from ballot to ballot, as the IOC members from the countries of the candidate cities were only allowed to vote after they had left.
On October 3, 2005, the London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) was established. LOCOG, chaired by Sebastian Coe , was responsible for the organization and implementation of the Olympic Games and the subsequent Paralympics. It worked closely with the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) set up in March 2006 , whose task was the planning and construction of the sports and infrastructure facilities. The Government Olympic Executive (GOE), a division of the UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport, was the lead government agency responsible for coordinating the Olympic Games and Paralympics. It acted as a supervisory authority, planned the subsequent use of the facilities and took over the control of public spending, which amounted to 9.3 billion pounds . During the preparatory phase, the IOC Coordinating Commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics made several official visits to assess progress. The tenth and final visit was in March 2012, whereupon the Commission concluded: "London is ready to receive the world this summer."
The expansion of local public transport had been an important element of the London candidacy. Transport for London (TfL) had made numerous improvements with the 2012 Olympic Games in mind. These included the extension of the East London Line from London Overground , the expansion of the Docklands Light Railway and the North London Line, and the introduction of shuttle trains called the Olympic Javelin on the High Speed 1 high-speed line . According to Network Rail , 4000 additional train connections were offered and longer trains were used during the Games.
The train stations Stratford International and Stratford provide a transport capacity of 240,000 people per hour to the Olympic Park , 100,000 more than at normal times. The other competition venues in London could also be reached by rail. There was also the newly opened Emirates Air Line gondola . A total of 30,000 parking spaces were offered in temporary park-and-ride facilities, from where visitors could take buses to the competition venues.
80% of all athletes should need less than 20 minutes to get to their competition sites and 93% of all athletes should take less than 30 minutes to get to their training sites. In order to enable athletes, supervisors, officials and VIPs to travel as smoothly as possible, lanes have been reserved for them on some streets. The approximately 170 km long Olympic Route Network linked competition venues and accommodations.
Concerns have been raised on several occasions that the transport infrastructure near the competition venues outside London may not be able to cope with the crowds. This was particularly true of the sailing competitions at Weymouth . For this reason, a seven-kilometer-long relief road was built between Dorchester and Weymouth, which was opened in March 2011 after a three-year construction period, but had been planned in the 1940s.
The Games were protected by 10,000 Metropolitan Police Service officers and 13,500 members of the British Armed Forces ; there were also private security services. The military was responsible in particular for aviation security and used interceptors ( Eurofighter Typhoon ) and helicopters ( Puma , Westland Lynx ) for these purposes . Anti- aircraft missiles ( Rapier missile system , Starstreak HVM ) were also stationed at six locations . The amphibious assault ship HMS Ocean anchored on the Thames and served as a helipad, logistical base and accommodation for 800 soldiers. The use of the Air Force and Navy had been trained during the Exercise Olympic Guardian maneuver from May 2 to 10, 2012. There was also a partial closure of the airspace over London.
In July 2012, the security company G4S , which had been commissioned to secure the Olympic Park in London for £ 300 million, had to admit just two weeks before the start of the Games that it would not be able to fulfill the contractually agreed tasks due to a lack of staff and management errors. The British Army then provided an additional 3,500 men and the helicopter carrier HMS Ocean to fill the gaps that had arisen with G4S.
The competition venues were a combination of newly built, existing and temporary facilities. The organizers' intention was to reuse the facilities whenever possible after the games and to keep the follow-up costs low. For example, the size of some plants was reduced after 2012 while most of the temporary plants were dismantled and rebuilt elsewhere in the UK. Most of the facilities were assigned to three different zones within Greater London , the Olympic Zone, the River Zone and the Central Zone. There were also some plants outside of London. Parts of the specially built venue were dismantled and reinstalled in other places.
In the Stratford district , around ten kilometers east of the city center, the Olympic Park was built on the lower reaches of the Lea River . On the 250 hectare site, there were previously some industrial companies and a disused railway depot.
The Olympic Park comprised the following facilities:
- Olympic Stadium for athletics , opening and closing ceremonies (80,000 seats)
- Aquatics Center for swimming , synchronized swimming , diving and modern pentathlon swimming (17,500 seats)
- London Velopark with
- Riverbank Arena for field hockey (15,000 seats)
- Basketball arena for the basketball preliminary round and the handball finals (10,000 seats)
- Copper Box for the preliminary round and the quarter-finals in handball as well as for the fencing competitions of the modern pentathlon (7,000 places)
- Water Polo Arena for water polo (5,000 seats)
- Eton Manor as a training center for swimmers and water polo players
The river zone comprised four facilities in east London on both sides of the Thames , a few kilometers south of the Olympic Park:
- ExCeL Exhibition Center for boxing , fencing , judo , taekwondo , table tennis , weightlifting and wrestling (5,000 to 10,000 places)
- North Greenwich Arena (The O2) for apparatus gymnastics , trampoline gymnastics and the basketball finals (20,000 seats)
- Greenwich Park for equestrian sports as well as the show jumping and combined (running and shooting) disciplines of modern pentathlon (23,000 seats)
- Royal Artillery Barracks for target shooting (7,500 seats)
The central zone includes all other facilities in Greater London. These were distributed over the city center and the west of the city:
- All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club for tennis tournaments (30,000 seats)
- Earls Court Exhibition Center for indoor volleyball (15,000 seats)
- Horse Guards Parade for beach volleyball (15,000 seats)
- Hyde Park for triathlon and open water swimming (3,000 seats)
- Lord's Cricket Ground for archery (6,500 seats)
- Wembley Arena for badminton and rhythmic gymnastics (6,000 seats)
- Wembley Stadium for football finals (90,000 seats)
- The Mall , the start and finish of road bike races , walking races and marathons
- Hampton Court Palace , start and finish of the individual time trial
The following competition facilities were located outside of London:
- Dorney Lake near Windsor ( Berkshire ) for rowing and canoe racing (30,000 places)
- Hadleigh Farm near Southend-on-Sea ( Essex ) for the mountain bike races (20,000 places)
- Lee Valley White Water Center at Waltham Cross ( Hertfordshire ) for the canoe slalom (12,000 seats)
- Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy near Weymouth ( Dorset ) for sailing competitions (4,600 seats)
The preliminary round matches of the Olympic football tournament were played in existing stadiums in various British cities:
- City of Coventry Stadium in Coventry (32,500 seats)
- Hampden Park in Glasgow (52,000 seats)
- Millennium Stadium in Cardiff (74,600 seats)
- Old Trafford in Manchester (76,000 seats)
- St. James' Park in Newcastle upon Tyne (52,400 seats)
The Olympic Village with accommodation for athletes and accredited officials was located in the northeastern part of the Olympic Park and had 17,320 beds. The newly built housing estate Osprey Quay at the northern end of the Isle of Portland was available for the sailors and their supervisors (around 400 people) .
The sports facility concept had been changed several times compared to the original plan with which one had applied. The economic crisis forced the government to cut costs in order to relieve the public budget. Two temporary sports halls for fencing and volleyball in the Olympic Park were not implemented and the competitions were moved to existing facilities: volleyball in the Earls Court Exhibition Center and fencing in the ExCeL Exhibition Center . The construction of the North Greenwich Arena 2 (next to the North Greenwich Arena ) for badminton and rhythmic gymnastics was also not realized . These competitions were held at Wembley Arena .
Sports shooting should initially take place at the National Shooting Center in Bisley . The IOC urged not to have too many competitions outside of London, so the Royal Artillery Barracks was chosen . The Weald Country Park , originally planned as the venue for the mountain bike races , was replaced by Hadleigh Farm at the urging of the UCI , as the terrain there is more technically demanding and selective.
The Regent's Park originally played an important role in planning the competition facilities. Two temporary stadiums for baseball and softball were to be built here, but two days after London was awarded the contract, the IOC removed these sports from the program. The start and finish area of the road bike races was originally planned in Regent's Park, but the UCI implemented a complete change in the route. The start and finish were in The Mall (road race) and at Hampton Court Palace (individual time trial).
The logo of the Olympic Games was designed by the consulting firm Wolff Olins and presented on June 4, 2007. It is an abstract representation of the number 2012. The Olympic rings are embedded in the zero, the word London in the upper two. With slight modifications, it was also used for the 2012 Paralympics. The standard colors are green, magenta, orange, and blue. On these color backgrounds (preferably magenta) on wall coverings, floor stripes etc. the text “London 2012” was usually printed several times in white or (more rarely) black, followed by monochrome white or black Olympic rings. Any other color combinations could be used, so that sponsors could flexibly adapt the logo to their needs.
Immediately after its presentation, the logo, which cost £ 400,000 to develop, generated strong negative reactions from the public. Just a few hours later, tens of thousands of people had signed a petition calling for a new logo. Various newspapers held their own design competitions with the participation of their readers, and The Sun presented the design of a female macaque . The Guardian described the logo as " Lisa Simpson giving a blowjob to London " while others felt like a "distorted swastika ".
An animated version, which was presented on the same day as the logo, triggered epileptic seizures in several people , according to the aid organization Epilepsy Action . The animation in question was then removed from the organizing committee's website after a short time. The Mayor of London at the time, Ken Livingstone , said that no fee should be paid to the company that made this "catastrophic mistake". In February 2011, Iran complained that the logo was similar to the word “ Zion ” and therefore racist. The General Secretary of the Iranian Olympic Committee threatened an Olympic boycott and called on other Muslim states to also protest against the logo.
Wenlock and Mandeville , the official mascots , were introduced on May 19, 2010. They represent two human - like one-eyed steel drops in the steel industry in Bolton . They are named after Much Wenlock in Shropshire , where a forerunner of the modern Olympic Games was hosted , and Stoke Mandeville in Buckinghamshire , where a forerunner of the Paralympics took place in 1948. The writer Michael Morpurgo wrote two stories for children with the mascot in the lead role, based on which four cartoons were added. While the mascots were well received by the relevant target group of children, one critic described them as "the result of a drunken one-night stand between a Dalek and a Teletubby ."
At the Olympic Games and Paralympics 2012, a total of around 4,700 medals will be presented to the successful athletes, which were produced by the Royal Mint . The medals designed by David Watkins weigh 400 grams, have a diameter of 85 millimeters and are 7 millimeters thick. The sport and the discipline are engraved on the edge. The gold medals consist of 92.5% silver, 6% copper and 1.5% gold. For the first time ever, the silver value of gold medals is greater than the gold value. The front shows the design, first introduced for the 2004 Summer Olympics, with Nike, the goddess of victory, in the Athens Panathinaic Stadium and the Parthenon in the background. The reverse shows the 2012 Summer Olympics logo as the intersection of lines symbolizing the athletes' energy and a representation of the Thames .
The Olympic torch relay took place in Great Britain from May 18 to July 27, 2012. After the flame had traditionally been lit in Olympia on May 10th, it was carried through Greece in a 3,000-kilometer torch relay until May 17th. She arrived in Land's End the following day . From there it was carried across the whole country by a total of 8,000 runners in 70 stages, the route length was 12,800 km. The Channel Islands , Isle of Man , Orkney Islands , Shetland Islands and the Hebrides were also visited ; there was also a short detour to the Irish capital Dublin . The program of the torch relay also included numerous cultural events.
For the torch relay, 8000 torches were made of an aluminum alloy and a gold coating . They were 80 cm long and weighed 800 g. Each torch was perforated with 8000 holes, which symbolized the torch-bearers. Immediately after the presentation on June 8, 2011, the torch received the derisive name of the Golden Cheesegrater (“Golden Cheese Grater ”).
The opening ceremony, which lasted almost four hours, took place on July 27, 2012 at 9 p.m. local time in the Olympic Stadium. It was entitled The Isles of Wonder ( "The Island of Miracles"), inspired by the play The Tempest ( The storm ) by William Shakespeare . Film director and Oscar winner Danny Boyle was the producer and artistic director, and Rick Smith and Karl Hyde of the electronic band Underworld were musical directors .
The first part of the opening ceremony showed the economic and social development of Great Britain from traditional country life to the industrial revolution to the 1960s. An idyllic landscape modeled after Glastonbury Tor has been gradually replaced by factories, smoking chimneys and steaming machines. The farmers were replaced by an urban population. Workers forged an Olympic ring while protesters voiced their demands. This was followed by a short film with Daniel Craig , who in the role of James Bond escorted Queen Elizabeth II to the stadium by helicopter.
The second part presented Great Britain as a cultural nation. Important elements were British children's book literature, Rowan Atkinson in the role of Mr. Bean , British everyday culture and pop music as well as the social changes brought about by the World Wide Web . After the invasion of the athletes from 204 countries, the official part followed with speeches, the opening of the games by the Queen and the hoisting of the Olympic flag. The British teakwondo fighter Sarah Stevenson , British boxing referee Mik Basi and British canoe trainer Eric Farrell took the Olympic oath . Seven young athletes lit the Olympic flame . The conclusion was formed by two songs performed by Paul McCartney .
The closing ceremony took place on August 12, 2012, the artistic direction was the choreographer Kim Gavin . The motto was A Symphony of British Music ("A Symphony of British Music"). Contributions by British bands and solo artists such as The Who , Spice Girls and George Michael were a central part of the event. As usual, the Olympic flag was ceremoniously handed over to the venue for the next Summer Olympic Games , in this case Rio de Janeiro : Boris Johnson presented the flag to Eduardo Paes .
204 nations or National Olympic Committees (NOK) sent athletes. The NOK of the Netherlands Antilles wanted to continue its activities after the dissolution of the overseas territory and its incorporation into the Netherlands in October 2010. But the IOC Executive Council withdrew its membership from the NOK during the 123rd IOC session in Durban in July 2011 , as there was no longer a legal basis for an independent NOK. Athletes from the former overseas territory who qualify for the 2012 Olympic Games, however, had the opportunity to compete as independent Olympic participants . Athletes from South Sudan did not take part under their own flag , as the IOC had not yet recognized an organization as a NOK in the state that had become independent in 2011 and a sports infrastructure was only being set up. The South Sudanese also had the opportunity to compete as independent Olympians. South Sudanese Guor Marial , who lives in the United States , made use of it and ran the marathon. For the first time, all 204 participating nations sent women to the games.
List of participating nations:
|Europe (5,308 athletes from 49 nations)|
|America (2,044 athletes from 41 nations)|
|Asia (1,789 athletes from 44 nations)|
|Africa (918 athletes from 53 nations)|
|Oceania (675 athletes from 17 nations)|
|Others (4 athletes)|
(Number of athletes)
* first participation in summer games
The organizing committee published the official schedule on February 15, 2011. 302 competitions (162 for men, 132 for women, 2 mixed and 6 open competitions) in 26 sports / 40 disciplines were held. This was 2 sports / disciplines less than in Beijing 2008 , but the same number of competitions. The changes are detailed below:
- The team sports softball and baseball have been removed from the Olympic program.
- In canoe racing, the men's 500-meter races were replaced by 200-meter races. The men's two-man canoe over 500 meters was deleted and a woman's kayak one over 200 meters was added.
- In sailing , the open class Finn-Dinghy was again held as a men's class. In contrast, the open class Tornado and the women's class Yngling were completely canceled, while a match race competition in the women's class Elliott 6m was newly included.
- In track cycling , the single pursuit and points race for women and men were canceled, as was the men's Madison , and Omnium for women and men and team sprint and team pursuit for women were newly included .
- In fencing , team competitions in women's sabers and men's epee were replaced by women's and men's épée.
- In boxing , there were three weight classes for women for the first time (flyweight, lightweight and middleweight), while one of the weight classes for men was cut with featherweight.
- In tennis , the mixed doubles were taken back into the program after 88 years.
The Olympic sports / disciplines
- Badminton total (5) = men (2) / women (2) / mixed (1)
- Basketball total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Archery total (4) = men (2) / women (2)
- Boxing total (13) = men (10) / women (3)
- Fencing total (10) = men (5) / women (5)
- Football total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Weightlifting total (15) = men (8) / women (7)
- Handball total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Hockey total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Judo total (14) = men (7) / women (7)
- Athletics total (47) = men (24) / women (23)
- Modern pentathlon total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- horse riding
- Rowing total (14) = men (8) / women (6)
- Shooting total (15) = men (9) / women (6)
- Sailing total (10) = men (6) / women (4)
- Taekwondo total (8) = men (4) / women (4)
- Tennis total (5) = men (2) / women (2) / mixed (1)
- Table tennis total (4) = men (2) / women (2)
- Triathlon total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Beach volleyball total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Volleyball total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
Number of competitions in brackets
|Swimming sport||Open water swimming||1||1||2|
|Rhythmic sports gymnastics||1||1||2|
The preliminary round was held in a group mode for the first time, followed by a knockout round . On the last day of the group stage, the games took place at different times, so that certain placements were already fixed before the start of the last games. Four Asian teams who recently played their games then clearly showed that they were not interested in winning the games. If they had lost, they would have met supposedly weaker opponents. This concerned the game Wang Xiaoli / Yu Yang (China) against Ha Jung-eun / Kim Min-jung (South Korea) and Jung Kyung-eun / Kim Ha-na (South Korea) against Greysia Polii / Meiliana Jauhari (Indonesia). After numerous expressions of displeasure from the audience and a warning from the referees, the South Korean doubles began to play more seriously. In a subsequent investigation by the Badminton World Federation , all four teams were disqualified for match-fixing. South Korea protested the decision, but it was rejected.
There was a Chinese victory in all five disciplines: Lin Dan in men's singles, Cai Yun and Fu Haifeng in men's doubles, Li Xuerui in women's singles, Tian Qing and Zhao Yunlei in women's doubles and Zhang Nan and Zhao Yunlei in mixed doubles.
The men's basketball tournament ended with the victory of the US national team . She prevailed against Spain in the final with 107: 100 points . In the bronze medal game, Russia beat Argentina with 81:77 points . In the preliminary round, the Americans had defeated Nigeria 156-73. This was the highest score ever scored in an Olympic basketball game. Carmelo Anthony scored 37 points in just 14 minutes of play, the highest score for any player in a single game. In addition, the Americans got 29 three-point throws (the previous record was 13).
In the preliminary round of the men's individual, the South Korean Im Dong-hyun had set a new world record, also with the team. For the big favorite, however, there was only one team bronze medal. The individual won his compatriot Oh Jin-hyek , the team competition the Italians Michele Frangilli , Marco Galiazzo and Mauro Nespoli . The South Korean Ki Bo-bae won the gold medal in the women's singles, as well as the team competition together with Lee Sung-jin and Choi Hyun-joo . The South Korean women's team remained undefeated for the seventh time in a row.
The most successful nation in boxing was Great Britain with three Olympic victories, ahead of Ukraine and Cuba with two each. The men's winners were: Zhou Shiming (China) in light flyweight , Robeisy Ramírez (Cuba) in flyweight, Luke Campbell (Great Britain) in bantamweight, Wassyl Lomatschenko (Ukraine) in lightweight, Roniel Iglesias (Cuba) in light welterweight, Serik Säpijew (Kazakhstan) welterweight, Ryōta Murata (Japan) middleweight, Yegor Mechonzew (Russia) light heavyweight, Oleksandr Ussyk (Ukraine) heavyweight and Anthony Joshua (Great Britain) super heavyweight. Säpiev was chosen as the best boxer of the tournament and awarded the Val Barker Cup .
Women's boxing was part of the Olympic Games program for the first time in London. The Olympic champions were the British Nicola Adams in the flyweight, the Irish Katie Taylor in the lightweight and surprisingly the 17-year-old American Claressa Shields in the middleweight.
In the class up to 56 kg (bantam weight) in the duel between Satoshi Shimizu (Japan) and Magomed Abdulhamidov (Azerbaijan) there was a serious misjudgment: Although Shimizu had sent his opponent to the ground six times, the judges determined the badly battered Abdulhamidov as the winner. After a protest by the Japanese coaching staff, AIBA subsequently declared Shimizu the winner. Since the Turkmen referee Ischanguly Meretnyjasow had failed to count Abdulhamidov in three downfalls, he was excluded from the further Olympic tournament. Before that, a controversial verdict had already been reached in the heavyweight fight between Ali Mazaheri (Iran) and José Larduet (Cuba), as a result of which the German referee Frank Scharmach received a suspension for five days of competition.
In the men's category, there were winners from five different countries: Rubén Limardo (Venezuela) won with the sword, Lei Sheng (China) with the foil , Áron Szilágyi (Hungary) with the saber ; Italy won the foil team competition (with Andrea Cassarà , Valerio Aspromonte and Andrea Baldini ), the saber team competition was won by the South Koreans Gu Bon-gil , Won Woo-young , Kim Jung-hwan and Oh Eun-seok . The only double Olympic champion was the Italian Elisa Di Francisca in the foil singles, together with Arianna Errigo and Valentina Vezzali also with the foil team. Vezzali celebrated her sixth Olympic victory since 1996 and built on her leading position as the most successful female fencer in Olympic history. The single sword went to the Ukrainian Jana Schemjakina , the single sword to the South Korean Kim Ji-yeon . The Chinese women Li Na , Lü Xiaojun , Sun Yujie and Xu Anqi prevailed in the Degen team competition .
In the semifinals of the women's epee fencing between Britta Heidemann (Germany) and Shin A-lam (South Korea), the automatic timekeeping failed fractions of a second before the end of the fight when the score was 5: 5. For technical reasons, the clock was then reset to a full second of remaining fighting time in which Heidemann scored the winning goal. After a one-hour discussion by the referees due to the protest of the Korean team, Heidemann was confirmed as the winner.
In the men's football tournament, Mexico secured the gold medal by beating tournament favorites Brazil 2-1 in the final . It was Mexico's first medal in an Olympic soccer tournament. In the game for third place, South Korea won the bronze medal 2-0 against Japan .
In the women's category, the United States won the gold medal by beating Japan 2-1 in the final . It was the third American victory in a row and the fourth victory in the fifth Olympic tournament. Canada won the bronze medal by beating France 1-0 .
On July 25, during the women's preliminary round match between North Korea and Colombia in Glasgow, the flag of South Korea, with which the country is still formally in the Korean War, was shown on the video wall next to the photos when the North Korean players were introduced . The players then left the field and refused to re-enter until the Olympic Committee officially apologized. The game, which started an hour late, was won by the North Koreans 2-0.
In the Olympic weightlifting competitions, there were a total of eight new world records. The most successful team was China with five wins, ahead of Kazakhstan with four and North Korea with three wins.
The men's Olympic champions were the following athletes: Om Yun-chol and Kim Un-guk from North Korea (up to 56 and 62 kg respectively), Lin Qingfeng and Lu Xiaojun from China (up to 69 and 77 kg respectively), the Pole Adrian Zieliński (up to 85 kg), the Kazakh Ilya Ilyin (up to 94 kg), the Ukrainian Oleksij Torochtij (up to 105 kg) and the Iranian Behdad Salimikordasiabi (over 105 kg). Successful women were the Chinese Wang Mingjuan (up to 48 kg), Li Xueying (up to 58 kg) and Zhou Lulu (over 75 kg), the North Korean Rim Jong-sim (up to 69 kg) and the Kazakh women Sülfija Tschinschanlo (up to 53 kg) kg), Maija Manesa (up to 63 kg) and Swetlana Podobedowa (up to 75 kg).
In the final round of the super heavyweight class over 105 kg, Matthias Steiner (2008 Olympic champion) was hit in the neck by the barbell when he fell while trying to tear down 196 kg. He suffered bruises in the chest and neck area and had to cancel the competition as a result.
As the first team ever, France was able to repeat the Olympic victory in an Olympic handball tournament, with a narrow 22:21 victory over Sweden . The bronze medal went to Croatia , which defeated Hungary 33:26 in the game for third place .
Also for the second time in a row, Norway won the Olympic handball tournament for women. The Norwegians won the final with 26:23 against the surprising team from Montenegro , which celebrated a significant success on an international level for the first time. In the game for the bronze medal, Spain beat South Korea 31:29 after extra time .
In the men's Olympic hockey tournament, Germany secured the gold medal by beating the Netherlands 2-1 in the final, repeating the 2008 Olympic victory . Australia won the bronze medal by beating Great Britain 3-1 .
In the 14 judo competitions there were winners from ten different countries. The Russians were most successful with Arsen Galstjan (up to 60 kg), Mansur Issajew (up to 73 kg) and Tagir Khaybulaev (up to 100 kg). Other winners in the men's category were the Georgian Lascha Schawdatuaschwili (up to 66 kg), the South Koreans Kim Jae-bum (up to 81 kg) and Song Dae-nam (up to 90 kg) and the French Teddy Riner (over 100 kg). In the women's category , the Brazilian Sarah Menezes (up to 48 kg), the North Korean An Kum-ae (up to 52 kg), the Japanese Kaori Matsumoto (up to 57 kg), the Slovenian Urška Žolnir (up to 63 kg) and the French Lucie Décosse (up to 70 kg), the American Kayla Harrison (up to 78 kg) and the Cuban Idalys Ortíz (over 78 kg).
In canoe slalom, the Frenchman Tony Estanguet celebrated his third Olympic victory with the single-canoe after 2000 and 2004. While the Italian Daniele Molmenti won with a single kayak, Timothy Baillie and Etienne Stott achieved the first British Olympic victory in this sport with the two-man Canoe. The French woman Émilie Fer won the women's single kayak competition .
In the canoe races, German athletes were most successful with three gold medals. Sebastian Brendel won with the single canoe over 1000 meters, Peter Kretschmer / Kurt Kuschela with the two-person canoe over 1000 meters, Franziska Weber / Tina Dietze with the two-person kayak over 500 meters. Other Olympic champions among men were the Briton Ed McKeever (single kayak 200 m), the Ukrainian Yuri Cheban (single canoe 200 m), the Norwegian Eirik Verås Larsen (single kayak 1000 m), the Russians Juri Postrigai / Alexander Djatschenko (Two-person kayak 200 m), the Hungarians Rudolf Dombi / Roland Kökény (two-person kayak 1000 m) and the Australian four-person kayak over 1000 meters. The women also won the New Zealander Lisa Carrington (single kayak 200 m), the Hungarian Danuta Kozák (single kayak 500 m) and the Hungarian four-person kayak over 500 meters.
In the men's team all-round match, the Chinese won for the second time in a row, while the Japanese Kōhei Uchimura prevailed in the individual all-round competition . The American Gabrielle Douglas won the gold medal both in the individual all-around and with the team.
The most successful gymnast in London was the Chinese Zou Kai . He won the gold medal on the one hand with the team, on the other hand in floor exercise. He also won the bronze medal on the horizontal bar. Also, Feng Zhe , also from China, won two gold medals, namely with the team and one on the parallel bars. The other discipline victories went to the Hungarian Krisztián Berki (pommel horse), the South Korean Yang Hak-seon (jump), the Dutchman Epke Zonderland ( horizontal bar) and the Brazilian Arthur Zanetti (rings). The latter was the first South American to win an Olympic medal in gymnastics.
In the women’s category, alongside Gabrielle Douglas, US American Alexandra Raisman was also a double Olympic champion. She won both with the team and in floor exercise and took bronze on the balance beam. With these medals she was the most successful gymnast. The other disciplines were decided by the Russian Alija Mustafina (uneven bars), the Romanian Sandra Izbașa (jump) and the Chinese Deng Linlin (balance beam).
The German Lilli Schwarzkopf was initially disqualified after the last heptathlon competition , the 800-meter run , because she had allegedly left the track. However, she was confused with the Russian Kristina Sawizkaja , who had walked a lane further out. The result was corrected before the German Athletics Association could protest, but Zavizkaya remained in the ranking. But now the Ukrainian federation, to which Lyudmyla Jossypenko , who was now only fourth, belongs, protested, because Schwarzkopf, in his opinion, had stepped on the line. The protest was dismissed. Gold went to the Briton Jessica Ennis , silver to Schwarzkopf and bronze to the Russian Tatyana Tschernowa .
The Jamaican Usain Bolt was the first track and field athlete in Olympic history to win the gold medal for the second time in a row in both the 100-meter and the 200-meter run . The Jamaican team celebrated a triple victory over 200 meters (Usain Bolt ahead of Yohan Blake and Warren Weir ). The Kenyan David Rudisha set a new world record in the 800 meter run .
During the semifinals of the 4 x 400 meter relay , the American Manteo Mitchell suffered a fracture of his fibula, but his replacement came to an end and was able to hand over the baton to the final runner who ensured qualification for the final. In the final of the women's 4 x 100 meter relay , the victorious USA improved the 27-year-old world record of a GDR relay.
In the women's hammer throw , the German Betty Heidler failed to measure the distance. For a throw clearly over 75 meters, 72.34 meters were initially displayed. First a substitute throw was made, which Heidler made invalid due to the short distance. According to her information in subsequent interviews, the judges told her that the attempt had been measured by the system. For them there was no concern that the correct distance would be included in the rating. Later it turned out that the thrower had thrown the same distance to the centimeter in front of Heidler, and therefore the system assumed double measurements of the same experiment and did not include Heidler's distance in the results. In the official result, Heidler's attempt was 77.12 m (reduced by 1 cm) and she was awarded the bronze medal.
In the modern pentathlon there were changes in the process compared to 2008: The shooting and the cross-country run were carried out together, similar to a biathlon in winter. The men's competition was won by the Czech David Svoboda and the women's competition by Laura Asadauskaitė from Lithuania .
Over a million spectators along the route watched the men's street race. A British victory was generally expected, especially by the sprinting strong Mark Cavendish . However, the race was won by Kazakh Alexander Vinokurov , who shortly thereafter announced his resignation. As in the 2012 Tour de France, Briton Bradley Wiggins was far superior to the competition in the individual time trial . In the women's road race, the Dutchwoman Marianne Vos prevailed, in the individual time trial the American Kristin Armstrong .
As expected, the London Velodrome was extremely fast and ten new world records were set. The British team won seven of the ten competitions held. Gold medal winners in the men's race were Jason Kenny in the sprint, Philip Hindes / Chris Hoy / Jason Kenny in the team sprint, Chris Hoy in the keirin and Ed Clancy / Geraint Thomas / Steven Burke / Peter Kennaugh in the team pursuit. The only non-British winner in the Omnium was the Dane Lasse Norman Hansen . In the women's category, Victoria Pendleton won the Keirin, while she had to admit defeat in the sprint to the Australian Anna Meares . The Britons Danielle King / Laura Trott / Joanna Rowsell won the team pursuit, the victory in the Omnium went to the Briton Laura Trott.
In the women's team sprint, the Germans Miriam Welte and Kristina Vogel benefited from two relegations of their opponents due to substitution errors. The British women, who finished second after the first knockout round, were the first to be relegated. Since their re-qualified opponents from Ukraine were slower, the Germans moved up to second place and were thus in the final. The Chinese, who had already set a new world record in the two previous rounds, initially won the final, but were also relegated and downgraded to second place. The Germans moved up to first place, although even the third-placed Australians were faster in the small final.
In the eventing team classification, Germany took the lead right from the start and did not give it up in the two following partial tests. Princess Anne presented the medals, including to her daughter Zara Phillips , who came second with the British team. The individual ranking was won by the German Michael Jung , who was fourth after two of three tests. Before that, the Swede Sara Algotsson-Ostholt had a throw at the last obstacle, without which she would have been the first woman to win Olympic gold in the individual eventing.
The ARD commentator Carsten Sostmeier caused displeasure with his comment "Since 2008 we have been riding back!", An allusion to Adolf Hitler's speech after the attack on the station Gleiwitz ("Since 5:45 am now firing back!") And the Olympic Games in 2004 , when the leading Germans in the individual and the team were downgraded to fourth (team) and ninth ( Bettina Hoy ) due to an objection by the western victorious powers .
The team competition in show jumping was won by the British team, ahead of the Netherlands and Saudi Arabia (including Abdullah ibn Mutaib Al Saud , the grandson of King Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz ). In the individual ranking, the Swiss Steve Guerdat won , who was the only rider on Nino des Buissonnets to have no fault points in both rounds. For the first time ever, Great Britain won the team standings in dressage, the victory in the individual dressage standings went to Britain’s Charlotte Dujardin .
Rhythmic sports gymnastics
As in 2008 in Beijing, the Russians won the group formation again. In the individual all-around, they even celebrated a double victory. Here Evgenija Kanajewa won ahead of Darja Dimitrijewa . Kanajewa had already become Olympic champion in Beijing. She was the first female athlete in this discipline to defend her title.
The winner in one of the men was Mahé Drysdale from New Zealand . His compatriots Nathan Cohen and Joseph Sullivan won the double scull, Eric Murray and Hamish Bond won the double; the latter also set a new world record in the run-up. In the lightweight double scull, the Danes Mads Rasmussen and Rasmus Quist Hansen defeated the favored British. The victory with the double quad and with the eighth went to German boats, in the four to the British and surprisingly in the lightweight four to South Africa.
The Czech Miroslava Knapková won the women's one, while the Ukrainians won the double fours and the Americans won the eighth. There were British successes in the three other boat classes. Anna Watkins and Katherine Grainger prevailed in the double scull, Katherine Copeland and Sophie Hosking in the lightweight double scull , Helen Glover and Heather Stanning in the double.
The most successful nations in the shooting competitions were South Korea and the USA, each with three gold medals. The South Korean Jin Jong-oh was successful with both the air pistol and the free pistol. The Cuban Leuris Pupo won with the rapid fire pistol, the Romanian Alin Moldoveanu with the air rifle, the Italian Niccolò Campriani in the small caliber three-position battle. The trap competition was won by the Croatian Giovanni Cernogoraz , the double trap competition by the British Peter Wilson , and the skeet competition by the American Vincent Hancock . The Belarusian Sjarhej Martynau won the gold medal in small-caliber prone shooting with a new world record. The Italian Jessica Rossi set two new world records in the women's trap competition. Other Olympic champions for women were the Chinese Guo Wenjun (air pistol) and Yi Siling (air rifle), the South Korean Kim Jang-mi (sport pistol) and the Americans Jamie Lynn Gray (sport rifle) and Kim Rhode (skeet).
Michael Phelps was not as outstanding as he was in 2004 and 2008, but with four gold and two silver medals he was still the most successful swimmer in London, as well as the most successful participant ever. With a total of 22 medals, he is also the most successful Olympian in history (he had already had the most gold medals before). In the 200 meter medley he was the first swimmer ever to win the same discipline for the third time in a row. The only 20-year-old Yannick Agnel won the 200 meter freestyle and the French 4 x 100 meter freestyle relay (for the first time ever a European relay had won in this discipline). The Chinese Sun Yang and the Americans Ryan Lochte and Nathan Adrian also won two gold medals . Cameron van der Burgh over 100 meters chest and Chad le Clos over 200 meters butterfly took care of the first South African swimming Olympic victories in individual disciplines .
For women, the 16-year-old Chinese Ye Shiwen made the headlines when she won the gold medal in the 400 meter medley and improved the four-year-old world record (at that time still wearing a full-body suit) by over a second. Since she had swum the last 50 meters faster than Ryan Lochte, various media then made hints of possible doping abuse. The Chinese coach and Ye (who also won over 200m medley) denied the allegations. The temporary media hype was put into perspective by the achievements of three other teenagers: 15-year-old Lithuanian Rūta Meilutytė won the 100-meter chest, 15-year-old American Katie Ledecky won the 800-meter freestyle, and her 17-year-old compatriot Missy Franklin even won four Gold medals: over 100 meters back, 200 meters back, with the 4 by 200 meter freestyle relay and with the 4 by 100 meter relay relay. She also won bronze in the 4 x 100 meter freestyle relay, making her the most successful athlete in the games. Franklin's teammates Rebecca Soni , Dana Vollmer and Allison Schmitt and the Dutchwoman Ranomi Kromowidjojo won two gold medals .
The pool swimmers of the German Swimming Association did not win a medal, equivalent to the worst result since 1932. The only German medalist in swimming was Thomas Lurz , who came second in open water swimming over 10 kilometers behind the Tunisian Oussama Mellouli . The women's open water swimming was decided by the Hungarian Éva Risztov with a lead of only four tenths of a second.
The most successful sailing nations were Australia with three and Spain with two gold medals. In the men's regattas, the Dutchman Dorian van Rijsselberghe (windsurfing), the Australian Tom Slingsby (laser), the British Ben Ainslie (Finn dinghy), the Swedes Fredrik Lööf / Max Salminen (star boat) and the Australians Mathew Belcher / Malcolm Page (470s) and Nathan Outteridge / Iain Jensen (49ers). The women's sailing regattas were won by the Spaniard Marina Alabau , the Chinese Xu Lijia (Laser Radial), the New Zealanders Jo Aleh / Olivia Powrie (470s) and the Spaniards Támara Echegoyen / Ángela Pumariega / Sofía Toro (Elliott).
As four years earlier in Beijing, the Russians Swetlana Romaschina and Natalja Ishchenko won the duet competition. Russia (with Romaschina and Ishchenko) also won the team competition for the third time in a row.
The taekwondo tournaments ended with eight winners from eight different countries. The men won the Spanish Joel González (up to 58 kg), the Turk Servet Tazegül (up to 68 kg), the Argentine Sebastián Crismanich (up to 80 kg) and the Italian Carlo Molfetta (over 80 kg). The latter prevailed in the final against Anthony Obame , who won the first ever Olympic medal for Gabon . The women who were successful were the Chinese Wu Jingyu , the British Jade Jones , the Korean Hwang Kyung-seon and the Serbian Milica Mandić .
The men's individual tournament was won by the Briton Andy Murray , who defeated world number one Roger Federer from Switzerland in the final and thus returned the favor for his defeat at the 2012 Wimbledon Championships . Two days earlier, the semi-final between Federer and the Argentine Juan Martín del Potro had ended with 19:17 in the third set and lasted 4:26 hours; it was the longest set of three match in the Open Era (since 1968). In the third round, the match between French Jo-Wilfried Tsonga and Canadian Milos Raonic , in which the French won the decisive third set with 25:23, lasted "only" 3:57 hours thanks to a clearer result in the second set .
Olympic gold in mixed doubles was won by Belarusians Wiktoryja Asaranka and Maks Mirny , who beat Laura Robson and Andy Murray in the final . The Germans Sabine Lisicki and Christopher Kas , who played together here for the first time, ensured a respectable success with their fourth place. The US twin brothers Bob and Mike Bryan won the men's doubles tournament . The Williams sisters Serena and Venus won the women's doubles for the third time after 2000 and 2008.
As expected, the Chinese table tennis players turned out to be superior; they achieved the best possible result with four gold and two silver medals. The victory in the men's singles went to Zhang Jike . This won together with Wang Hao and Ma Long in the team competition. The winner of the women's singles was Li Xiaoxia , who also won the team competition together with Ding Ning and Guo Yue .
In the men's trampoline competition, six-time world champion Dong Dong (China) prevailed and became Olympic champion for the first time. In the women’s category , the Canadian Rosannagh MacLennan surprisingly won . She was fourth after the qualification round and benefited from mistakes made by the competitors ahead of her.
There was an extremely close decision in the women's triathlon race. After almost two hours of racing, Nicola Spirig (Switzerland) and Lisa Nordén (Sweden) crossed the finish line with the same time. Only the finish photo decided in favor of the Swiss woman, who had a lead of a few centimeters. The men's race was won by British rider Alistair Brownlee , while his younger brother Jonathan Brownlee came third.
The German men reached the quarterfinals in fifth place and thus the best result since the GDR silver medal in 1972. In the final, Russia prevailed after a 2-2 set deficit against Brazil and won their first gold medal since the 1980 home game in Moscow . Bronze went to Italy . In the women's category, the 2008 final between Brazil and the United States was repeated , which the defending champions from South America won again. Japan won bronze.
The Germans Julius Brink and Jonas Reckermann , who were world champions in 2009 and European champions in 2011 and 2012, ensured the first European Olympic victory in this sport by winning the gold medal in the final against reigning world champions Emanuel Rego and Alison Cerutti . The Latvians Mārtiņš Pļaviņš and Jānis Šmēdiņš won the game for bronze against the Dutch Reinder numberdor and Richard Schuil . The second German duo Jonathan Erdmann and Kay Matysik were eliminated in the round of 16 against Emanuel / Alison.
In the women’s first knockout round, there was a German duel between Sara Goller / Laura Ludwig and Katrin Holtwick / Ilka Semmler . Goller / Ludwig decided the game for themselves and then had to admit defeat to world champions Larissa França and Juliana Felisberta da Silva in the quarterfinals . The Brazilians later won the bronze medal. In the final, Kerri Walsh and Misty May-Treanor became Olympic champions for the third time in a row by beating their compatriots Jennifer Kessy and April Ross .
The water polo tournament was won by Croatia for the first time, beating Italy 8: 6 in the final. Bronze went to the Serbian team after a 12-11 win in the game for third place against Montenegro. The Olympic victory in women went to the USA for the first time. The Americans beat Spain 8-5 in the final. Australia secured the bronze medal with a 13:11 victory over Hungary.
As expected, the most successful nation in diving was China with six out of eight possible gold medals. China remained undefeated among women. The winners are Wu Minxia in springboard diving and Chen Ruolin in diving, while Wu along with He Zi in the 3-meter synchronized diving and Chen together with Wang Hao has been successful in the 10-meter synchronized diving. The victories in the men's individual disciplines went to the Russian Ilya Sakharov (artificial jumping) and the American David Boudia (high diving). The synchronized jumping competitions were won by the Chinese Luo Yutong and Qin Kai (3 m) as well as Cao Yuan and Zhang Yanquan (10 m).
5000 doping tests were carried out during the 2012 Olympic Games, an increase of ten percent compared to 2008. Thus more tests were carried out than ever before at the Olympic Games. The World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratory was in Harlow . It was provided by GlaxoSmithKline and directed by scientists from King's College London . The cleaning staff had also been specially trained to recognize doping. As early as the 2002 Winter Games, cleaning staff discovered doping offenses committed by the Austrian team. Staff should identify and report doping equipment and suspicious behavior themselves while working. In addition, a new test procedure should be able to detect the consumption of growth hormones even after three weeks.
The Italian walker Alex Schwazer tested positive for EPO before arriving in London and was disqualified. One day after the end of the Games, the Belarusian Olympic shot put winner Nadseja Astaptschuk was disqualified after testing positive for anabolic steroids twice; the Olympic victory subsequently went to the New Zealander Valerie Adams .
In follow-up tests in the first half of 2016, 15 athletes from nine nations and two sports tested positive in both the A and B samples.
During the 2016 Summer Olympics , follow-up tests were carried out on the 2012 and 2008 Games. The javelin thrower Alexander Pjatnyzja from Ukraine was stripped of the silver medal for anabolic steroids. The silver medal was subsequently awarded to the Finn Antti Ruuskanen . The Czech Vítezslav Veselý moved up to the bronze place . The Belarusian hammer thrower Pavel Krywizki was also convicted.
The LOCOG sold a large number of fan articles in cooperation with various manufacturers. For example, the toy manufacturer Hornby brought Airfix models from all Olympic venues and an Olympic Scalextric toy collection onto the market. In March 2011 LOCOG issued a series of training manuals. These and other items were sold online and in five stores in London called The London 2012 Shop. In addition, Adidas sold a London 2012 collection in its flagship store on Oxford Street , as did the Next chain in selected locations. As the official sponsor of the Paralympics, Sainsbury’s also had special Olympic items on offer.
The single Survival by the English rock band Muse was the official song of the Olympic Games. It was played during reports from international television stations about the games, before the award ceremonies and when the athletes entered the competition venues.
Postage stamps and coins
In August 2009 the Royal Mail commissioned artists and illustrators to design 30 stamps; these were published in series of ten from 2009 to 2011. The stamps symbolize the fact that it was the 30th Olympic Games. Each stamp features an Olympic or Paralympic sport, along with the official logo. The Royal Mail had originally also turned to photographers, but abandoned the idea. By law, the photos should have shown people who were already deceased, as members of the royal family are the only people living in the UK who are allowed to be shown on postage stamps.
The Royal Mint issued two commemorative coins with a face value of five pounds in November 2011 , designed by Pippa Sanderson and Saiman Miah. As has been customary since the Olympic Games in 1952, the Royal Mint also minted a special coin each consisting of one kilogram of gold or silver. The minting of such large coins required the enactment of a new coin law by parliament.
"Chariots of Fire"
In 1981 with several Oscars excellent film Chariots of Fire (Chariots of Fire) , which focuses on the British track and field success at the Olympic Games in 1924, was a recurring theme in the promotion. The theme song, composed by Vangelis , was played at the 2012 London New Year fireworks display , which was themed around the Olympic Games. The famous beach running scene of the movie and the theme song found use in commercial Let's Make It Great, Britain , that of The Sun had been commissioned.
A digitally post-processed version of Chariots of Fire was shown in over a hundred UK cinemas as an official part of the London 2012 Festival celebrations . The re-release took place on July 13, 2012. A conversion of the film in the form of a play premiered on May 9 at London's Hampstead Theater and was also shown in the West End theater district from June 23 .
During the opening ceremony the piece was performed live by the London Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Simon Rattle . Rowan Atkinson was seen in the role of Mr. Bean in a recording , as he unfairly beats the other runners in the famous beach run scene in the film. In addition, each medal award ceremony was accompanied by the soundtrack.
Already in London's 2003 Olympic bid it said that the 2012 Olympics should be the most sustainable games ever. After being awarded the contract in 2005, the “Commission for a Sustainable London 2012” was set up in January 2007 with the following objectives:
- The lowest possible emissions of carbon dioxide during the construction of the Olympic Park and the competition venues
- Lowest possible waste during the construction phase
- Use of environmentally friendly materials
- Promotion and improvement of healthy living conditions
- Cooperation with the municipalities in the Olympic Park and its surroundings
Sustainability aspects were already taken into account when the site was selected . For example, an east London district marked by unemployment and derelict industrial sites was turned into a park - equipped with clean, renewable energy and water sources that have remained after the 2012 Olympic Games.
On the northwestern edge of the Olympic Park was the London Olympics Media Center , the media center for the Olympic Games and the Paralympics, which offered space for more than 20,000 media professionals.
The majority of the television images were produced by Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS). As the main broadcasting facility in the UK (Home Broadcaster) which entered the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in appearance. The BBC had set itself the goal of broadcasting all competitions, a total of around 5000 hours on several channels. The television rights for the United States accounted for over half of the IOC's income from broadcasting rights. These were owned by NBC , the 1.181 billion USD paid only for the Olympic Summer Games 2012, compared to 2008 meant a price increase of 32%.
Two cable TV channels reported across borders, Eurosport across Europe and ESPN in nine South American and 22 Asian countries. Various TV channels offered broadcasts in 3D format , including NBC, CCTV , BBC, Nine Network , Eurosport and Sky 3D . NBC also partnered with YouTube to provide live stream coverage of all decisions made online.
The rights for television broadcasting in Germany were held by ARD and ZDF . In contrast to the two previous games, these did not use the opportunity to broadcast parallel competitions in their specialty programs, but rather the respective media libraries on the Internet ( ARD Mediathek , Das Erste: Mediathek , ZDFmediathek ) and HbbTV on both channels. Up to six live broadcasts were offered simultaneously via HbbTV, plus the current medal table and all competitions in the live ticker. In Switzerland, SF broadcast two , RTS Deux and RTS Sport and RSI LA 2 . There were also three other uncommented channels on the Internet and in the Swiss television app . In Austria, the games were broadcast by ORF . The European Broadcasting Union also presented all television broadcasts of its members in its own media library, as well as the streams of the Olympic Broadcasting Service, both live and on demand from the archive.
BBC Radio produced its own radio program called BBC Radio 5 live Olympics Extra , which reported exclusively on the Olympic Games around the clock. The program could only be heard within the UK for legal reasons. Initially, all of the BBC's radio programs covering the Games were only allowed to be broadcast within the UK. The news magazines in other programs were also not streamed worldwide. This did not change until July 30, 2012. From then on, magazines in which the Olympic coverage only made up a small part of the entire program were broadcast abroad again via live stream.
The ARD stations and Deutschlandradio brought short live insertions with reports into the current program. There was no Olympic wave with ongoing radio coverage, as in previous years.
Criticism and controversy
In connection with the sponsorship agreements, the organizer was accused of protectionism . Tickets for the competitions, which were sold over the Internet alone, could only be paid for using the main sponsor's credit cards. A fast food chain was given the exclusive right to offer french fries , while otherwise this was only allowed as a side dish, for example fish and chips . Logos of all companies without a sponsorship contract were banned from the Olympic site, even the clothing of the visitors was affected. NGOs protested against the sponsors BP , Rio Tinto and Dow Chemical . The trademark protection was the most restrictive, there has ever been in the Olympics. In advertising, words such as “gold”, “silver”, “bronze”, “summer”, “sponsors” and “London” were reserved for the organizers and sponsors. Restaurants that announced live TV coverage had to make sure that the boards did not have a logo of a non-sponsoring company. Likewise, no food sold was allowed to have a connection to the Olympic Games. 300 inspectors monitored the requirements and brought violations to court. Violations of the rules were punished with up to £ 20,000.
Abusive rent increases
Shelter, a charity for the homeless, reported in February 2012 that landlords near the competition facilities in east London had increased rents or added new clauses to leases that would force tenants to leave their homes before the Olympics. The responsible Ministry of Community and Local Government replied that there was no evidence of such practices. However, three months later, the BBC reported that shelters had evidence that landlords were acting ruthlessly and illegally evicting residents. The BBC quoted a real estate agent as saying that apartments, which typically cost £ 350 a week, are now being offered for £ 6,000 a week. The potential profits would have led some landlords to force tenants to leave their homes at extremely short notice.
Campaign against the Bahraini Prince Nasser
In June 2012, the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) asked the UK authorities to refuse entry to Nasser bin Hamad Al Chalifa, President of the Bahraini Olympic Committee, during the Olympic Games. Prince Nasser, son of King Hamad bin Isa Al Chalifa and commander of the Bahraini Royal Guard, was accused of torture and human rights abuses during the protests in Bahrain . ECCHR alleged that it suppressed Bahraini athletes who expressed support for the pro-democracy protests. More than 150 athletes, coaches and referees have been arbitrarily arrested, ill-treated and tortured. The global political foundation Avaaz supported the ECCHR's request.
In Denmark and Sweden in November 2011, criticism of the IOC guidelines on social media was voiced. With these the right of the athletes to freedom of expression was curtailed. According to the guidelines, athletes were not allowed to rate other participants, upload photos of other athletes without their permission, advertise their own sponsors, or use the Olympic rings. The IOC also set up a website to report suspected violations of the guidelines.
Argentine Olympic advertising
A controversial commercial was shown in Argentina on May 2, 2012, the 30th anniversary of the sinking of the cruiser General Belgrano during the Falklands War . This showed how Fernando Zylberberg , captain of the Argentina national hockey team , completed a training session in Port Stanley , the capital of the Falkland Islands . The film ended with the slogan "To compete on British soil, we train on Argentine soil." The Secretary of the UK Defense Department described the film as "tasteless". The IOC took the position that the Games were not a political platform. Gerardo Wertheim, chairman of the Argentine Olympic Committee, joined the criticism. Zylberberg was deleted from the Argentine hockey squad a few days later.
Minute of silence for the victims of Munich
A few weeks before the start of the Games, a campaign began to persuade the IOC to observe a minute's silence during the opening ceremony - in memory of the eleven Israeli athletes and coaches who were murdered by Palestinian terrorists in the 1972 Olympic attack in Munich . American President Barack Obama publicly supported the campaign. The Senate of the United States , the German Bundestag and numerous members of the parliaments of Canada , Australia , Great Britain and Italy joined this call . The Olympic Committee refused to observe a minute's silence, however, as the victims had already been remembered on various occasions. Instead, a memorial service was held on August 6th at the Guildhall in London .
Disregard for Ramadan
The Olympic Games were held on a date that fell during Ramadan . As a result, about a third of the participants got into the conflict, either neglecting their religious duties or starting with less efficiency. Even if some religious leaders from Islamic countries had tried to obtain exemptions for their believers, it had made it clear that religious diversity had played no role in the thinking of the organizers.
Even in the run-up to the Games, there had been criticism of the security precautions after the security company G4S was unable to provide the civilian security forces requested and instead the British Army had to expand its contingent. US presidential candidate Mitt Romney , head of the organizing committee of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City , had expressed "concern" about the security measures and with this statement triggered in part violent objections from British Prime Minister David Cameron and London Mayor Boris Johnson .
During the opening ceremony, a woman unknown at the time managed to mingle with the Indian delegation as the nations marched in and walk next to the standard-bearer Sushil Kumar . Representatives of the NOK India thereupon asked the organizers in a letter for an official statement.
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