|legal form||Public limited company|
|Seat||London - Brentford , United Kingdom|
|management||Emma Walmsley , CEO|
|Number of employees||approx. 100,000 (2018)|
|sales||£ 33.8 billion (2019)|
|As of April 15, 2020|
The GlaxoSmithKline plc ( GSK ) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in London . The company has other production facilities in Europe as well as in North America and Asia. In addition to pharmaceuticals and vaccines, it also manufactures health and hygiene products. On April 22, 2014, the group announced a major overhaul by means of an exchange deal: Novartis is taking over the cancer drugs of the group for a total of 16 billion US dollars , which in return pays 7.1 billion dollars plus a share in sales for the Novartis vaccines. Novartis brought its OTC drug business into a joint venture with GSK. On March 27, 2018, the two companies announced that GSK would acquire Novartis' stake in the joint venture for $ 13 billion.
GlaxoSmithKline currently ranks seventh among the top-selling pharmaceutical companies worldwide. In the Forbes Global 2000 of the world's largest companies, GlaxoSmithKline ranks 226 (as of fiscal year 2017). The company had a market value of approximately $ 99 billion in mid-2018.
GlaxoSmithKline plc employs around 100,000 people. The company reports sales of £ 30.2 billion in 2017 . Adjusted operating profit in 2017 was £ 8.6 billion. Spending on R&D was £ 3.9 billion, and an equally large amount was paid out in dividends .
The group invests in its own research to develop new active pharmaceutical ingredients. According to the company, every sixth employee works in research, and 13 million euros are invested in this every day. Research efforts are also directed towards diseases that are prevalent in underdeveloped countries . GSK therefore claims to pursue humanitarian goals in addition to the primary corporate purpose of making profit. The company describes its goal with the motto: to help people do more, feel better, live longer .
GlaxoSmithKline is listed on the NYSE and the LSE , among others . CEO is Emma Walmsley . Sir Philip Hampton has been Chairman of the Supervisory Board since May 2015 .
In Germany, the company has locations in Berlin , Dresden ( GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Dresden ), Marburg , Hamburg , Heidelberg (Boxberg) and Munich .
GlaxoSmithKline is divided into three areas according to the products manufactured:
- GSK Pharma manufactures drugs for treating diseases
- GSK Vaccines / Biologicals (GSK Bio) manufactures vaccines for prophylaxis against diseases
- GSK Consumer Healthcare manufactures health and hygiene products
Story / criticism
GlaxoSmithKline plc was established in December 2000 . from the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham . Like other research-based pharmaceutical companies, GSK worked to protect its patents on chemical formulas and the associated trademarks . In 2002 GSK went to court to protect a patent on amoxicillin and in 2003 on paroxetine ; both proceedings were lost.
At the shareholders' meeting on May 19, 2003, shareholders refused to pay Jean-Pierre Garnier £ 22 million as a bonus . That was the first time that shareholders resisted a large British corporation like this. It is considered a turning point in the struggle of shareholders against excessive bonuses for board members .
In June 2004, GSK was on trial and had to defend itself against accusations of preventing clinical trials . These studies were intended to show whether the active ingredient paroxetine used against depression is actually more effective than placebos , or, on the contrary, increases the risk of suicide among young people suffering from depression.
In connection with this, the BBC aired a report in 2004, according to which GlaxoSmithKline plc. used unproven drugs on children who tested HIV-positive in New York children's homes.
But it wasn't until years later that the lawsuit came to a conclusion: In July 2012, the company was fined $ 3 billion on criminal and civil charges of illegal drug advertising and withholding information about drug safety. According to a statement by the US Department of Justice, this was the largest case of fraud in the health sector up to that point and also the highest compensation sum ever paid by a drug manufacturer in the US.
In an effort to increase the transparency of clinical trials, GSK was the first pharmaceutical company to begin publishing the results of clinical trials with detailed data on the Internet in 2004. In the so-called GSK Study Register , data is successively published from all studies on GSK products that the Group has carried out itself or financially supported. This is independent of whether the study results were "opportune". The public registration of clinical studies has now been included in the Helsinki Declaration and is mandatory for doctors in Germany.
In 2009 GlaxoSmithKline formed a joint venture with Pfizer for HIV medicine. In this way, the two companies bundled the research, development and marketing of drugs against the immunodeficiency virus. The high costs incurred in the field of HIV and AIDS research are shared through the cooperation of the pharmaceutical companies. In the spring of the same year, GlaxoSmithKline took over the US skin care manufacturer Stiefel Laboratories for up to $ 3.6 billion. GSK paid $ 2.9 billion in cash and took over Stiefel's debt.
In February 2010, GlaxoSmithKline research director Slaoui tried to prevent the publication of a critical article on rosiglitazone in the European Heart Journal . In July, a letter from the US Senate Finance Committee accused GSK of not disclosing information about problems with the drug in a timely manner. In the summer of 2012, the London headquarters will be converted into an accredited laboratory for doping tests during the Summer Olympics.
The US company Human Genome Sciences is acquired by GlaxoSmithKline in July.
In July 2013, the Chinese police filed a serious allegation of bribery against GlaxoSmithKline: The pharmaceutical company is said to have paid millions to Chinese doctors. In May 2014, Chinese authorities first raised allegations in this matter not only against the Chinese, but now also against a British person in charge of the company.
Selection of drugs ( active ingredient in brackets) with area of application:
- Augmentan ( amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid ), Amoxil (amoxicillin) - antibiotic
- Avamys ( fluticasone furoate ) - For the treatment of year-round and seasonal allergic rhinitis
- Avandia, Avandamet ( rosiglitazone ) - diabetes
- Arixtra ( Fondaparinux ) - antithrombotic
- Bipolam, Elmendos, Lamapol, Lamictal ( lamotrigine ) - antiepileptics and antidepressants
- Benlysta ( belimumab ) - treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus
- Chlorhexamed ( Chlorhexidine ) - Medical mouthwash solution
- Cimetag ( cimetidine ), pylorisine and Zantac (both: ranitidine ) - H2 antagonists for reflux disease
- Combodart ( dutasteride and tamsulosin ) for benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Elontril, Wellbutrin ( bupropion ) - antidepressant
- Formigran ( Naratriptan ) - for migraines
- Hycamtin ( topotecan ) - ovarian cancer , cervical cancer , lung cancer
- Kapanol ( morphine ) - pain reliever
- Lamisil ( terbinafine ), used to treat foot and nail fungus
- Nicotinell ( nicotine ) for smoking cessation
- NiQuitin ( nicotine ) - preparations for smoking cessation
- Otrivin / Otriven ( xylometazoline ) for the symptomatic treatment of runny nose and non-infectious conjunctivitis
- Panadol ( paracetamol ) - pain reliever
- Paxil ( USA ), Seroxat ( EU ), Aropax ( AUS ) ( Paroxetine ) - antidepressant
- Relenza ( zanamivir ) - neuraminidase inhibitors for flu
- Retrovir, Retrovis ( zidovudine ) - AIDS drug
- Tyverb ( lapatinib ) - breast cancer
- Trobalt ( retigabine ) - epilepsy drug
- Viani ( fluticasone plus salmeterol ) - therapy of asthma / COPD
- Voltaren ( diclofenac ), pain reliever and anti-inflammatory
- Zovirax ( acyclovir ) - for herpes infections
- Zyban ( bupropion ) - used for smoking cessation
- Zyloric ( Allopurinol ) - for gout prevention
GSK's division that deals with vaccine production is called GSK Vaccines / Biologicals (GSK Bio) with its headquarters in Rixensart , Belgium . The development department has also been located there for a long time, which is why GSK's vaccines traditionally end with "-rix" for Rixensart.
The company operates the former Saxon serum factory in Dresden . GSK Bio produced 70 million doses of flu vaccine there in 2007, achieving a world market share of 14 percent. Also located in Marburg Behringwerke where GSK on the MARS (Marburger location) also produces vaccines.
A total of 30 approved vaccines are being manufactured and another 20 are in development.
Trade names (selection):
- Boostrix against tetanus , diphtheria and pertussis
- Boostrix Polio against tetanus , diphtheria , pertussis and poliomyelitis
- Cervarix against human papillomaviruses , which can cause cervical cancer
- Fluarix against flu
- Havrix against hepatitis A
- Pandemic againstflu caused by H1N1 influenza viruses
- Priorix against measles , mumps and rubella
- Rotarix against human rotaviruses
- Shingrix vaccine against herpes zoster
- Twinrix against hepatitis A and B.
Health products and hygiene articles (selection)
- Breathe better - nasal patches to prevent snoring
- Cetebe - a line of nutritional supplements and medicines for the prevention and treatment of colds
- Corega - denture cleaner and adhesive cream
- Dr. Best - toothbrushes
- Lactacyd Femina - intimate care products
- Lucozade - energy drink
- Naaprep - nasal drops and nasal spray
- Odol - oral care series
- Parodontax - toothpaste
- Sensodyne - toothpaste, toothbrushes, mouthwash, dental floss
- Settima - toothpaste
- Voltaren - Diclofenac
- Website of the parent company GlaxoSmithKline plc.
- Website of the German GlaxoSmithKline GmbH & Co. KG
- GSK Biologicals website
- GlaxoSmithKline Switzerland
- ↑ Corporate Executive Team , accessed April 15, 2020
- ↑ a b c Key facts gsk.com, accessed on August 14, 2018.
- ↑ ADHOC: Trade of pharmaceutical giants
- ↑ APOTHEKE ADHOC: The new OTC giant
- ↑ Voltaren, Fenistil, Sensodyne: Novartis exits from joint venture - and receives $ 13 billion . March 27, 2018 ( handelsblatt.com [accessed March 27, 2018]).
- ↑ Pharm Exec's Top 50 Companies 2018 pharmexec.com, August 10, 2018
- ^ The World's Largest Public Companies . In: Forbes . ( forbes.com [accessed July 17, 2018]).
- ↑ glaxosmithkline.de: Research
- ↑ About us gsk.com
- ^ Board of Directors: Sir Philip Hampton, Non-Executive Chairman gsk.com
- ↑ BBC report dated November 30, 2004 on the use of untested drugs in children
- ↑ Freace.de German summary of the BBC report
- ↑ Bloomberg: GlaxoSmithKline Agrees to Pay $ 3 Billion in US Drug Settlement
- ↑ GlaxoSmithKline - Seroxat (Paroxetine / Paxil) - fine $ 3 billion. In: depression-heute.de. Peter Ansari, Sabine Ansari, accessed June 26, 2018 .
- ↑ GSK Study Register. GlaxoSmithKline, accessed June 26, 2018 .
- ↑ GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer establish joint venture for HIV medicine
- ↑ GlaxoSmithKline takes over US skin specialist Stiefel
- ↑ S. E Nissen: The rise and fall of rosiglitazone . In: European Heart Journal . 31, No. 7, April 2010, pp. 773-6. doi : 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehq016 . PMID 20154334 .
- ^ TF Lüscher, U. Landmesser, F. Ruschitzka: Standing firm - the European Heart Journal, scientific controversies and the industry. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. In: European Heart Journal . 31, No. 10, May 2010, pp. 1157-8. doi : 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehq127 . PMID 20418345 .
- ^ Max Baucus , Chuck Grassley : Finance Committee Letter to the FDA Regarding Avandia . United States Senate Committee on Finance , July 12, 2010, accessed August 24, 2010.
- ↑ Financial Times Deutschland: Pharmaceutical manufacturer Human Genome approves takeover by GlaxoSmithKline ( Memento from July 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Bribery allegation against Glaxo-Smith-Kline , SPON, July 15, 2013
- ^ GSK response to China investigation. GSK, July 15, 2013, accessed August 8, 2017 .
- ↑ China accuses British GlaxoSmithKline executive in bribery case. In: Guardian . May 14, 2014, accessed on May 14, 2014 (English): "Chinese police have accused a British executive in drugs maker GlaxoSmithKline's China unit of ordering his salespeople to bribe doctors and hospital officials to use the company's products. Wednesday's announcement marks the first time a foreign employee in China of British-based GSK has been accused in connection with the bribery allegations against the company. "
- ↑ Dresdner Latest News : www.archive-de.com »DE» G »GLAXOSMITHKLINE.DE ( Memento of the original from August 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ innovations-report.de: company announcement October 16, 2006