|founding||June 16, 1977|
|Seat||Redwood City , United States|
Safra Catz (Co- CEO )
Larry Ellison ( Executive Chairman )
|Number of employees||136,000 (May 2019)|
|sales||USD 39.5 billion (FY 2019)|
|Branch||Hardware and software development|
|As of May 21, 2019|
Oracle Corporation [ ˈɔːɹəkl̩ ˌkɔːɹpəˈɹeɪʃn̩ ] is a US software and hardware manufacturer headquartered in Redwood City ( Silicon Valley ), California . The company specializes in the development and marketing of computer hardware and - software for enterprise customers - in particular the database system Oracle Database . Oracle is one of the world's largest software manufacturers in terms of sales. Oracle has more than 138,000 employees and 430,000 customers in 175 countries. The German headquarters are in Munich , and Oracle Direct has been in Potsdam since 2001 . There are eleven branches in Germany. The company has four branches in Switzerland and one in Austria. Oracle produces and sells next to the database product , Oracle Database , the Oracle Fusion Middleware and the JEE server , Oracle Application Server and Oracle WebLogic .
In the market for enterprise solutions (package applications), Oracle is represented with Oracle Applications , E-Business Suite , Hyperion Performance Management , PeopleSoft Enterprise , JD Edwards EnterpriseOne , JD Edwards World and Siebel Systems .
With a turnover of 39.5 billion US dollars and a profit of 3.7 billion US dollars, Oracle is the 107th largest company in the world according to Forbes Global 2000 (as of fiscal year 2017). The company had a market capitalization of approximately USD 191 billion in mid-2018.
Larry Ellison, Bob Miner, and Ed Oates founded Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in June 1977 . This is where the first version of the database system was created, which was named Oracle . The database was developed for the CIA until 1979 . The company was renamed Relational Software, Inc. (RSI) in 1979 and moved to Menlo Park , California . An Oracle database running on a PDP-11 was sold to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base . The company named the first product Version 2 because it feared Version 1 would sell poorly. Company founder Larry Ellison also chaired the company for a long time, until he retired to the board of directors in September 2014.
Oracle V3 for VAX was released in March 1983. The code was new to C written. RSI renamed itself to Oracle . Oracle V5.1 was released in 1986 and was the first database system to support distributed queries. Oracle went public on March 15, 1986.
In 1993, Oracle's Cooperative Development Environment (CDE) was released and Oracle Industries and Oracle Media Server were introduced. Oracle's headquarters moved to Redwood Shores in 1994. In the same year the company bought the database product DEC Rdb (today Oracle Rdb) from the company Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and continues to develop it to this day. Oracle Rdb can only run on OpenVMS (also a former DEC product - today Hewlett-Packard ). Oracle bought the OLAP ( Express Server ) product line from Information Resources Inc. (IRI) in 1995 for US $ 100 million .
In September 2005, Oracle announced the acquisition of Siebel Systems , the leading provider of customer management standard software, for approximately 5.85 billion US dollars. At the beginning of 2006, Siebel Systems and its 5500 employees were taken over. In early November 2006, Oracle announced the acquisition of Stellent, a leading manufacturer of content management system software .
The largest acquisition to date in the business intelligence market occurred in March 2007 when Oracle bought Hyperion for $ 3.3 billion. At the same time, the company filed a lawsuit in the USA against long-standing rival SAP for copyright infringement.
Other takeovers followed. In May 2007, Oracle took over the US company Agile Software Corporation for US $ 495 million, Moniforce in December 2007 and BEA Systems for US $ 8.5 billion in January 2008 ). In October 2008, Oracle acquired Primavera Systems Inc., a provider of project portfolio management (PPM) solutions.
On April 20, 2009, Oracle announced that it would acquire Sun Microsystems for $ 7.4 billion. The US Department of Justice approved the acquisition in August 2009 without restrictions . The EU Commission approved the takeover by Oracle on January 21, 2010, also unconditionally.
On July 23, 2009, Oracle acquired GoldenGate Software Inc., a provider of solutions for real-time data integration. The takeover is expected to provide improved opportunities for maintaining critical applications during the upgrade and migration phase .
On September 29, 2009, Oracle acquired HyperRoll Inc., a manufacturer of financial reporting solutions. Oracle now owns HyperRoll's Data Performance Management Suite, which enables the rapid creation of financial reports.
On January 4, 2010, Oracle acquired Silver Creek Systems Inc., a specialist in data quality assurance systems. With the software from Silver Creek, Oracle wants to improve the product data quality in its enterprise applications and make it possible to manage product data across different industries.
On February 8, 2010, Oracle acquired AmberPoint. Amberpoint is an SOA and software specialist that counts companies such as Reuters, Bell, Motorola and Best Buy among its customers. Oracle plans to further expand its Fusion middleware through the takeover.
On February 10, 2010, Oracle acquired Convergin, a provider of J2EE-based real-time switching solutions and network integration software for the communications industry. The integration of Convergin products into Oracle's communications portfolio is intended to support customers on the way to perfect IP networks and to drive the development of pre-paid and value-added services of the next generation.
On April 16, 2010, Oracle acquired Phase Forward, a healthcare software company. Among other things, hospitals use SaaS products from the US provider for the administration of patient data.
On November 23, 2010, Oracle won $ 1.3 billion in suing SAP - the largest software piracy judgment in history.
On March 24, 2011, Oracle announced that FY 2011 Q3 total GAAP revenue increased 37% to $ 8.8 billion, while total non-GAAP revenue increased 36% to $ 8.8 billion Dollar.
In October 2011, Oracle Corporations acquired RightNow Technologies Inc. for $ 1.5 billion for stronger cloud services.
On February 9, 2012, Oracle announced the acquisition of Taleo for $ 1.9 billion - to add talent management products and services.
On May 23, 2012, Oracle announced the acquisition of the social marketing platform Vitrue for $ 300 million.
On July 10, 2012, Oracle announced the acquisition of the social marketer Involver.
On February 4, 2013, Oracle announced that it had agreed to purchase Acme Packet.
On March 25, 2013, Oracle announced that it had agreed to buy Tekelec.
On May 2, 2013, Oracle reached an agreement with Paradox Engineering to work on new solutions in the smart city market.
On May 9, 2013, Oracle announced new in-memory applications for Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne, Oracle PeopleSoft, Oracle Siebel, Oracle E-Business Suite and Oracle Hyperion.
In June 2014, Oracle announced that it would acquire Micros Systems for approximately $ 5 billion.
In December 2014 it was announced that Oracle plans to cut around 170 IT support positions at the German headquarters in Munich. That would be almost eight percent of the total of more than 2200 employees in Germany. The tasks are to be outsourced to Romania.
Since June 2017 Kenneth Johansen Head of Technology Sales and so-called Country Leader ( English for Guide or [country] -directors ) responsible for the Germany business from Oracle.
On October 18, 2019, Co-CEO Mark Hurd, who had recently withdrawn from business operations due to illness, passed away. Co-CEO Safra Catz and Larry Ellison as founder, CTO and chairman of the board of directors have taken over the duties until a new CEO is named. Internal candidates were initially named for the possible successor, but a decision is still pending.
Company product strategy
Oracle is currently trying to gain a foothold with its E-Business Suite and the Collaboration Suite in the area of ERP software and groupware , in which SAP ( SAP ERP , R / 3 ), Microsoft and IBM ( Lotus ) are already established. Furthermore, Oracle positions itself with the Oracle Application Server or the Oracle WebLogic and numerous additional products against IBM WebSphere and SAP NetWeaver in the JEE area. An expansion of the business area seems necessary because the market for relational databases appears to be largely exhausted.
On December 13, 2004, Oracle took over its longstanding rival PeopleSoft in a hostile takeover for $ 10.3 billion, thereby strengthening its standard business software division. Despite the takeover, Oracle is in this area (22% market share, status: 2004) behind the competitor SAP (40% market share, status: 2004). It is currently still open whether Oracle can successfully merge the four similar products (Oracle E-Business Suite, PeopleSoft, JD Edwards Enterprise One, JD Edwards World) into one product. Under the name “Fusion”, work has begun on an overarching product platform that will unite these offers. This "Fusion Application Suite" should be available on the market in 2008.
In October 2005 Oracle presented a database version that was free for private and commercial use under the name "10g Express Edition".
In February 2006, takeover bids to open source companies JBoss and MySQL were announced, and after JBoss was acquired by Red Hat , Oracle is now considering releasing its own distribution derived from Redhat as a certified base for database servers. This step was taken with the announcement of Oracle Unbreakable Linux at the Oracle Openworld in October 2006.
Ellison rejected a possible takeover of Novell , the owner of Suse Linux , because it would “put Oracle in a very unfavorable situation in the event of a takeover” due to Novell's integration with IBM. Since 2006, Oracle has been offering its own Linux distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux under the name Oracle Linux .
With the takeover of Sun Microsystems, Oracle is expanding its product portfolio in addition to Java , the Unix Solaris operating system , Linux technology, development tools and an open source database, as well as server hardware (SPARC and Sun servers, SPARC processor (M7) , Storage), which makes the company a full-service provider. The company wants to build on the successes of Apple and Cisco . In addition, this strategic reorientation could also make Oracle a serious competitor to industry giants such as IBM and Hewlett-Packard . In January 2010, the EU Commission approved the takeover for 7.4 billion US dollars without conditions. On January 27, 2010, the acquisition of Sun was completed.
The communities of some open source projects previously funded by Sun formed forks in 2011 in order to be independent of Oracle. These include the LibreOffice office suite (formerly OpenOffice.org ) and the Jenkins continuous integration server (formerly Hudson ).
Company marketing strategy and competition
The main competitor in the business solution market segment is SAP . The management consulting market segment is currently (2006) only rarely served by Oracle, but is handled by partners , especially in the ERP area (such as Accenture in Germany since 1991 ) - the competition in this area is led by IBM .
In the market segment for relational databases , Oracle competes with open source databases, e.g. B. PostgreSQL , and providers of commercial database server solutions such as DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server .
With the Oracle Express Edition, the database product Oracle Server is available for free use under certain conditions and restrictions.
Years ago, Oracle entered into a partnership with the software manufacturer SAS Institute . This resulted in a jointly used solution in which the SAS high-performance analytics solution runs on the Oracle system. Thanks to this partnership, the two IT groups can focus on the big data market segment and try to solve big data problems efficiently.
The Oracle Technology product family includes Oracle databases, Business Intelligence Technology products (such as BI SE, BI SE1, BI Suite EE plus etc.), Hyperion BI technology products, Application Server (AS), WebCenter (WCE ), Identity Management (IdM), tools, collaboration products and applications.
In 2004 Oracle Corporation released Release 10g (“g” stands for grid ) of the Oracle Database. The current version 11g of the Oracle Database Version was published in 2007, followed by 11g (Release 2) in September 2009. This version is available in four editions - Enterprise, Standard, Standard Edition One, Personal Edition - and a free edition (the Express Edition). The Enterprise Edition (EE DB) is the most expensive database edition. In 2013 version 12c ("c" for cloud ) was released.
Other database technologies:
- Berkeley DB offers an embedded database.
- Oracle Rdb, a relational database system, runs on OpenVMS platforms. Oracle acquired Rdb from Digital Equipment Corporation in 1994 and has continued to develop it.
- Oracle CODAYSL DBMS is a database supporting the CODASYL proposal for OpenVMS platforms (see Virtual Memory System ).
- TimesTen has in-memory database operations.
- Oracle Essbase continues the tradition of Hyperion Essbase multidimensional database management.
- MySQL , a relational database management system available under a dual license model of GPL (General Public License) and a commercial license, originally developed by MySQL AB.
- Oracle NoSQL Database, a more scalable, distributable-key-value NoSQL database
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Some database administrators (DBAs) use Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) to manage the DBMS. With Oracle Database Version 10g it was introduced that Oracle Corporation offers a web-based rewrite from OEM (Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control). Oracle used the Super Enterprise Manager to manage and synchronize a grid of multiple DBMS and application servers such as Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.
Oracle Secure Enterprise Search
Oracle Secure Enterprise Search (SES), Oracle Enterprise Search enables users to search content across multiple locations including websites, file servers, content management systems, enterprise resource planning systems, customer relationship management systems, Business intelligence systems.
Oracle Collaboration Suite
Oracle Collaboration Suite (OCS) contains messaging, groupware and collaboration applications. Oracle Beehive has replaced OCS.
Released in 2008, Oracle Beehive offers team workspaces (including wikis, calendar functions, and file sharing), email, calendar, instant messaging, and video conferencing on a single platform. Customers can use Beehive as licensed software or as Software as a Service ( SaaS ).
Oracle Corporation Tools for Application Development:
- Oracle Designer
- Oracle Developer - which consists of Oracle Forms, Oracle Discoverer and Oracle Reports
- Oracle JDeveloper
- Oracle Application Express (APEX)
- Oracle SQL Developer
- Oracle SQL Plus Worksheet
- OEPE, Oracle Enterprise Pack for Eclipse
Many external and third-party tools make the Oracle database administrator's job easier.
- The Sun hardware division of Oracle Corporation
- Engineered systems: pre-engineered and pre-assembled hardware / software bundles for use in companies
- Exadata Database Machine - hardware / software with integrated memory
- Exalogic Elastic Cloud - Hardware / software with integrated application server
- Oracle Database Appliance
- Big Data Appliance - integrated solution for big data
- SPARC T4-4 SuperCluster - an all-purpose system
Oracle also sells a number of business applications. The Oracle E-Business Suite contains software to perform various functions related to companies, such as finance, manufacturing, customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP) and human resource management. The Oracle Retail Suite includes the provision of inventory management, price management, invoice matching, assignments, store operations management, warehouse management, demand forecasts, goods financial planning, product range planning and category management. Users can access these facilities through a browser interface on the Internet.
Oracle Corporation offers these product lines:
- Oracle Fusion Applications
- Oracle E-Business Suite
- PeopleSoft Enterprise
- Siebel Systems
- JD Edwards EnterpriseOne
- JD Edwards World
- Planning & optimization
- Store Operations (formerly 360Commerce)
- Oracle VM Virtualbox
Applications are often developed in Java (with Oracle JDeveloper) or via PL / SQL (with e.g. Oracle Forms and Oracle Reports / BIPublisher).
Third party applications
Oracle Corporation is working with "Oracle Certified Partners" to expand its full range of products.
The variety of third-party applications includes database applications for archiving, dividing and controlling ERP and CRM systems. Other niche products offer a range of commercial functions in the areas of human resources, controlling and governance, risk management and compliance (GRC).
- HighJump software
- Human concepts
- Q Software Global Ltd, security and compliance solutions developer
- Solix Technologies
- UC4 software
- Knoa software
For numerous products, Oracle offers certifications such as Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) as part of the “Oracle University” , including the well-known “Oracle Certified Professional Database Administrator” for the Oracle Database System.
According to a recent study, “Oracle Hyperion” is in second place in business intelligence software sales in Germany with sales of 104 million euros.
- Larry Ellison , Executive Chairman of the Board and Chief Technical Officer
- Safra A. Catz , CEO
- Mark Hurd , CEO
- Oracle Annual Report 2019 (PDF)
- An overview of Oracle's enterprise solutions on oracle.com
- The World's Largest Public Companies . In: Forbes . ( forbes.com [accessed July 18, 2018]).
- Roland Lindner: A bang at Oracle. Larry Ellison resigns. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, September 18, 2014, accessed on September 19, 2014 .
- Lawsuit by Oracle against SAP: the background. ZDNet, April 5, 2007, accessed November 25, 2013 .
- Oracle acquires Sun for $ 7.4 billion . April 20, 2009.
- Reuters of August 20, 2009: UPDATE 1-Oracle wins US approval to buy Sun Microsystems . From: www.reuters.com , accessed on August 28, 2009 at 2:00 a.m.
- Reuters Germany of August 21, 2009: USA gives Oracle the green light for Sun takeover . Retrieved August 28, 2009, 2:00 a.m., from de.reuters.com
- Approval by EU Commission - Oracle may take over Sun. on spiegel.de (accessed on January 21, 2010)
- Oracle and GoldenGate. July 23, 2009.
- Oracle and Hyper Roll. September 29, 2009.
- Oracle and Silver Creek Systems. January 8, 2010.
- Oracle and Amber Point. February 8, 2010.
- Oracle and Convergin. February 10, 2010.
- Oracle and Phase Forward. April 16, 2010.
- Oracle and ATG. November 2, 2010.
- Alexia Tsotsis Nov 23, 2010: $ 1.3 billion Oracle-SAP Verdict Is Biggest Ever For Software Piracy . Techcrunch.com. November 23, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- marketwire.com. Oracle Report Q3 GAAP EPS Up 75% to 41 Cents; Non-GAAP EPS Up 40% to 54 cents . March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- Oracle buys RightNow for $ 1.5 billion to add cloud services . October 24, 2011. Archived from the original on October 26, 2011. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Oracle buys Taleo . February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Oracle buys Taleo Press Release . February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Ingrid Lunden, Josh Constine: Social Media Marketer Vitrue was bought by Oracle for $ 300 million. May 23, 2012.
- Josh Costine: Oracle buys Social Marketer Involver. July 10, 2012.
- Oracle buys Acme Packet . In: Oracle , February 4, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- Oracle buys Tekelec . In: TechCrunch , March 25, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Oracle partnership with Paradox Engineering for smart cities . In: Itp.net. Retrieved September 2, 2013 .
- Oracle In-Memory Applications , Oracle.com, accessed July 14, 2013.
- Billion acquisition: SAP arch-rival Oracle buys Micros Systems. Report to Spiegel Online from June 23, 2014.
- Oracle cuts 170 jobs in Munich . In: Wirtschaftswoche , December 6, 2014. Accessed December 7, 2014.
- Kenneth Johansen becomes head of Oracle Germany . crn.de, 2017
- January 1, 1957 - October 18, 2019. In: Mark Hurd. Retrieved December 4, 2019 (American English).
- Nico Grant: Oracle Delays Decision to Replace Mark Hurd. Bloomberg, November 9, 2019, accessed December 4, 2019 .
- Product list. Oracle.com, April 21, 2007
- Netzwelt.de: Introduction to Oracle Linux , August 10, 2011.
- heise.de: SPARC is being further developed
- heise.de: Oracle is changing into a full-service provider ( Memento from April 21, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ROUNDUP: Oracle is allowed to swallow Sun - major merger
- Application Services for Oracle: Service Overview
- SAS on Oracle for Big Data and Cloud Services: Insights into a Strong Partnership (PDF) Kent, Paul, accessed on August 17, 2015
- Oracle Products . OMT-CO Operations Management Technology Consulting GmbH. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Oracle announces availability of Oracle Database 12c, the first database designed for the cloud . Retrieved July 1, 2013.
- CODASYL DBMS . Oracle. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Darryl K Taft: Oracle to Boost Data Management With Endeca Buy . In: eWeek . Point Davis . October 18, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2011: "Oracle Announces Oracle NoSQL Database."
- Oracle Collaboration Suite . In: Basex: TechWatch . Basex. 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2009: "Oracle Beehive replaces Oracle Collaboration Suite"
- Eric Lai: Oracle Beehive . Computerworld. May 4, 2009. Archived from the original on March 2, 2007. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved May 15, 2009.
- Eric Grancher: Oracle and Storage IOs, explanations and experience at CERN (PDF) In: CERN-IT-Note-2009-005 . CERN. May 15, 2009. Retrieved on January 17, 2010: "The Oracle Exadata Storage Server version 1 is a solution developed by Oracle and HP."
- Jaikumar Vijayan: New Oracle database solution for small and medium-sized companies . In: Computerworld , Computerworld Inc., September 22, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2012. "New Oracle database solution for small and medium-sized companies"
- Oracle Big Data Appliance
- SPARC T4-4 - the all-purpose solution from Oracle. Oracle Corporation, September 26, 2011, accessed October 27, 2013 .
- Q Software: The JD Edwards Security People . Q Software Global Limited. 2009. Retrieved October 30, 2009: "Q Software: The JD Edwards Security People"
- OPNSC: Knoa Experience and Performance Manager (EPM) for Oracle Siebel CRM
- Overview of the Oracle certification program
- Oracle Executives oracle.com, accessed October 15, 2015