Central Intelligence Agency
|Supervisory authority||Director of National Intelligence|
|Consist||since September 18, 1947|
|Headquarters||George Bush Center for Intelligence , Langley , VA|
William Joseph Burns
David S. Cohen
Courtney Simmons Elwood
|Employee||21,575, official information is confidential|
|Budget volume||approx. 14.8 billion US dollars, official information is confidential|
The Central Intelligence Agency , official abbreviation CIA , is the foreign intelligence service of the United States . In contrast to the other US intelligence agencies , particularly the National Security Agency (NSA), the focus of the CIA is on obtaining information from and through people ( Human Intelligence , HUMINT ) rather than through technology ( Signals Intelligence , SIGINT ).
The CIA is a civilian intelligence agency based in Langley , Virginia . In contrast to an intelligence service whose task is purely to obtain classified information, the tasks of the CIA include not only espionage , acquisition and analysis of information about foreign governments, associations and persons in order to make it available to the various branches of the American government but also secret operations abroad. It is not uncommon for the CIA, like other intelligence agencies, to use disinformation and illegal means to influence international politics, public opinion and the representatives of the United States.
In contrast to the National Security Agency (NSA), the procurement focus of the CIA is less on technical information acquisition (signals intelligence) than primarily on the use of human sources (human intelligence) .
On the instructions of the US President, the CIA is allowed to exert political and military influence abroad through covert operations . The responsible department is the Directorate of Operations , formerly the National Clandestine Service . The authority is known for numerous cases in which the internal affairs of foreign countries were actively interfered with (see known operations ). The boundary between your operating agents and combatants is fluid. A well-known example is the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961. This practice has been sharply criticized by observers in the United States and internationally.
Documents published on the Internet on June 26, 2007 by the intelligence service at the behest of its director Michael Hayden, showed that the CIA wanted to poison Cuba's President Fidel Castro in the 1960s . According to these documents, the list of planned political murders of the service also included the leader of the independence movement in the Congo , Patrice Lumumba , and the ruler of the Dominican Republic , Rafael Trujillo .
The CIA is part of the United States Intelligence Community (IC). Within this community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence , who is the highest authority responsible for monitoring the intelligence community. With 17 different secret and security services, the intelligence community is the largest association of its kind in the world.
The service is controlled by an intelligence committee each of the Senate , the Select Committee on Intelligence and the House of Representatives , the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence . Unlike other authorities, the CIA does not need to publish its budget. Critics see this as contradicting the American constitution.
The CIA is divided into five directorates (departments). All departments are headed by a department head with the rank of Deputy Director of the CIA. The department heads are part of the management level of the CIA.
Directorate of Analysis
The Directorate of Analysis is responsible for evaluating and evaluating all information gathered by the CIA.
Directorate of Operations
Directorate of Science & Technology
The Directorate of Science & Technology is responsible for researching and developing new methods and devices for collecting the information.
Directorate of Support
The Directorate of Support is responsible for the support and equipment of the agents ("Operatives"), for example with security, information and finances.
Directorate of Digital Innovation
The Directorate of Digital Innovation is the newest department of the CIA and is responsible for the innovation and introduction of new, digital technologies and IT infrastructure within the CIA.
The CIA is led by the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DCIA). It reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). In addition to the departments of the CIA, the director is also assisted by other people who support her in the fulfillment of her tasks:
|Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DCIA)||William Joseph Burns|
|Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DDCIA)||David S. Cohen|
|Chief Operating Officer of the Central Intelligence Agency||Andrew Makridis|
|Director of Public Affairs||Brittany Bramell|
|General Counsel||Courtney Simmons Elwood|
|Inspector General||Christopher Sharpley|
The headquarters of the CIA has been located in Langley , Virginia , a suburb northwest of Washington, DC , in the so-called George Bush Center for Intelligence , since the 1950s . The campus has no official address and the streets leading to it have no name. The CIA is often referred to as Langley after its place of business , sometimes casually as a company . Agents are sometimes mockingly referred to as Virginia Farm Boys , as basic training takes place in Camp Peary , a military restricted area of the US Department of Defense , but which is used by the CIA. It is located in York County , Virginia. The area covers 37.53 km², of which almost 32.37 km² are not built on. The 400,000 m² Bigler's Millpond borders the York River .
The American embassy in Bern was expanded into a European headquarters for the US secret service CIA. After the Second World War, the European headquarters of the CIA's predecessor organization OSS was located in Bern . In the meantime, the CIA activities in Europe were coordinated from Stuttgart . And in the so-called Bern Club , spies from all over the world have been meeting for years to exchange information.
The Open Source Center was an authority of the Director of National Intelligence that specializes in the intelligence gathering and analysis of publicly available sources. It was temporarily headed by the CIA director until it was renamed in 2015 and incorporated into the CIA.
Although in the past few years it looked as if the CIA had distanced itself from the cooperation with the former Blackwater company (now Academi ), there are now frequent reports that a very close cooperation still exists.
There is a branch of the CIA in Wiesbaden .
In 1986, the Spiegel reported on the then base in Frankfurt with reference to the GEHEIM magazine : “The activities of the CIA are varied. West Germany serves her as a base like hardly any other state outside the USA. Hundreds of CIA agents work here. They train potential agents in hidden camps. From the Federal Republic of Germany they supply allies all over the world with weapons and other supplies [...] ”He named the IG-Farben-Haus (now part of the Goethe University ) on Grüneburg-Platz as the headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, disguised as "Department of the Army Detachment": "From here, operations around the world, especially in the Near and Middle East, are coordinated, technically prepared and secured."
The intelligence service was established on September 18, 1947 through the passage of the National Security Act . The forerunner of the CIA in World War II was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), from which from 1945 to 1947 the Central Intelligence Group , CIG, emerged in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , headed by Air Force General Hoyt S. Vandenberg . However, it was quickly recognized that with the beginning of the Cold War, a rump espionage apparatus was not enough for the world power USA.
The first CIA director was Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter . Hillenkoetter was followed in 1950 by Walter Bedell Smith , who made OSS veteran Allen Welsh Dulles director of a department for special covert tasks that shaped the character of the CIA. Dulles, who served as director of the CIA between 1953 and 1961, was alongside George Tenet longest at the head of American foreign espionage.
During the Korean War , the CIA was responsible for all intelligence and military operations behind enemy lines. The disastrous results of these undertakings led after the war in the Defense Ministry to the realization that the military should again be responsible for military command operations and to the establishment of the Special Forces , a force for asymmetrical warfare . From then on, this unit formed the military interface to the CIA.
In the late 1950s, the CIA began spying flights in foreign airspace, mainly over the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China . From an intelligence and technical point of view, the programs with spy planes such as the U-2 and A-12 were very successful.
During the Vietnam War , the CIA directed numerous covert operations in Laos , Cambodia and North Vietnam , but was also involved in both pacification and liquidation programs ( Operation Phoenix ) on South Vietnamese territory . Until the 1970s, the CIA also operated covertly in Latin America and supported, among other things, right-wing military coups against the democratically elected governments of Guatemala (1954), Brazil (1964) and Chile (1973).
Within the United States, the CIA was active against civil rights and peace movements in the 1970s, see Operation CHAOS . This led from 1975 to investigations by the Church Committee and in 1978 to a reorganization of responsibilities and their control by standing committees of the US Congress in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act .
In 1988 George Bush was elected President of the United States as the first former head of the CIA (1977 to 1978).
In 1995, the CIA headquarters was the target of a planned assassination attempt. As part of Operation Bojinka , a small passenger plane loaded with explosives was to be flown into the headquarters in Langley . The assassin Abdul Hakim Murad took flight lessons in North Carolina in order to carry out this attack. However, the plan was thwarted by a fire in the apartment where the assassins lived. As a result, al-Qaeda changed its plans, which led to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 .
Since July 11, 1997, George Tenet was director of the CIA. He resigned on June 3, 2004 for "personal reasons" after criticizing the work of the service in connection with the Third Gulf War . Until a new director was appointed, his previous deputy, John E. McLaughlin, was acting as head of the CIA.
Since around 2004 the CIA has been responsible for many operations involving drones . In August 2011, the Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BIJ) presented a report on drone attacks in Pakistan , for which around 2,000 media reports were evaluated. According to this, at least 291 missions have been carried out since 2004, in which between 2292 and 2863 people died. 126 armed Islamist leaders , known by name, and several hundred Islamist militants were killed. About 385 to 775 bystanders, including 164 children, were killed in the attacks. Similar attacks took place in Yemen and on the African continent.
From September 24, 2004 to May 6, 2006, Porter Goss was CIA chief until he resigned from office under pressure from the Bush administration . Since May 30, 2006, Michael V. Hayden , former head of the NSA , headed the CIA. Until April 2005, the director of the CIA was also responsible as Director of Central Intelligence for advising the US president on intelligence issues and was in charge of the US intelligence community . As part of the reform of the US intelligence system following the September 11th terrorist attacks , this function was transferred to the Director of National Intelligence , who is also responsible for coordinating the work of the CIA with that of other intelligence services and for international cooperation. This nullified the role of the CIA as the leading intelligence agency.
At the beginning of January 2009, Leon Panetta was surprisingly nominated as the new director of the CIA by President- elect Barack Obama , although he had no intelligence experience. After Panetta succeeded Defense Secretary Robert Gates in July 2011 , General David Petraeus was nominated as the new director of the CIA.
On November 8, 2012, a few days after the US presidential election , Petraeus submitted a resignation from office, which US President Obama accepted on November 9, 2012. Petraeus had previously been traded as a candidate for ministerial office in President Obama's second term. Petraeus named an extramarital affair as the reason for the resignation . His office was temporarily taken over by Michael Morell before John Brennan was nominated as Barack Obama's new director in January 2013 .
Mike Pompeo served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency from January 23, 2017 to April 26, 2018. 2018 he was appointed by the US president to the new Secretary of State appointed as successor to Rex Tillerson .
Gina Haspel had been acting head of the CIA since April 26, 2018 , previously she had been Deputy CIA Director since February 2017. As of May 21, 2018, the US President entrusted her with the office of director. Your correct salutation is: Madam Director or Madam.
It is in the nature of things that secret service covert operations usually do not get to the public. The following operations were mostly by historical research, research by investigative journalists , official investigations or the release of documents under the Freedom of Information Act known. For a host of other examples, see the article List of United States Military Operations in which the CIA was often instrumental.
- Operations for the financial, logistical and propaganda support of the struggle of nationalist and anti-communist partisan and guerrilla organizations in the Baltic States and Western Ukraine ( Forest Brothers , OUN ) against the Soviet Union beginning in 1948 until the early 1950s
- Operation Mockingbird : Influencing the media in line with the CIA's views and goals in the 1950s, beginning in 1948
- Operation Zipper: Commissioning and financing of the Gehlen Organization , the predecessor organization of the Federal Intelligence Service , from 1949 to 1956. With the help of Operation Zipper, the CIA expanded its information volume about the GDR and other Eastern Bloc states , but also determined, among other things, the attitude of West German elites to the American one Germany policy. In the mid-1950s, Zipper was the largest CIA operation in Europe financially.
- Operations in the People's Republic of China : In 1952 a CIA C-47 was shot down in Jilin Province, China . The commander and the copilot died. Two other crew members survived, were imprisoned and were only able to leave for the USA in 1971 and 1973
- Stay-behind organizations : Establishment and maintenance of paramilitary partisan units and stay-behind organizations in Western Europe from the 1950s to the early 1990s
- Operation Artichoke : Program to Research Brainwashing and Interrogation Methods Using Drugs and Torture (1952)
- MKULTRA : Program for mind control from 1953 until the 1970s, successor program of artichoke
- Congress for Cultural Freedom : 1953 to 1969, influencing cultural workers in Western Europe in order to strengthen pro-Western attitudes and to combat Marxism . Promotion of abstract art
- Operation Ajax : Overthrow of Iranian Prime Minister Mossadegh in 1953 in collaboration with Iranian General Fazlollah Zahedi
- Operation Fortune : Planned overthrow of President Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán in Guatemala in collaboration with the United Fruit Company and the dictator of Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza García . The company was discontinued in 1952 under pressure from the US State Department. The conceptual considerations went into Operation Success and Operation PBSUCCESS
- Operation Washtub in Nicaragua in 1954
- Operation PBSUCCESS : the fall of Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán , President of Guatemala in 1954
- Support of the Permesta rebels in Indonesia in 1958 to destabilize the Sukarno government through false flag operations (see San Flaviano affair )
- Bay of Pigs Invasion ( Operation Zapata ): attempted invasion of Cubans in exile in Cuba in 1961 to overthrow Castro's revolutionary government
- The CIA supplied the South African Police Special Branch information that in 1962 the arrest of Nelson Mandela in the former South African apartheid regime led
- Air America : largest airline in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War , the CIA controlled and intensively since 1962 secret operations and the smuggling of heroin use
- Operation Brother Sam : Undercover operation in support of the 1964 military coup in Brazil that overthrew the democratically elected government of João Goulart .
- Persecution of Che Guevara in Bolivia in collaboration with the Bolivian army in 1967, with his execution ended
- Operation Phoenix : Operation to identify and combat communist leadership cadres of FNL ( Viet Cong it to several) during the Vietnam War mid-1960s, which, according to the South Vietnamese sources 20,000 people fell victim to US figures 6000 and the human rights violations came
- Operation CHAOS : Spying on around 7,000 people and 1,000 organizations in the United States that opposed the Vietnam War or belonged to the civil rights movement , exposed by journalist Seymour Hersh
- Project FUBELT : From 1970 to the 1973 coup, covert operations to undermine the Allende government in Chile . CIA agents were involved in the assassination of the pro-democracy chief of staff René Schneider . This had been preceded by extensive propaganda campaigns against the left-wing parties in Chile since 1963
- Azorian project : Recovery of the Soviet submarine K-129, which sank off Hawaii in 1968, from a depth of 5000 m by the specially built special ship Hughes Glomar Explorer
- Operation Condor was a multinational operation of right-wing military dictatorships in South America to jointly persecute and kill political opponents, which was supported by the CIA with technical, logistical and training courses
- Operation IAFEATURE : Support for UNITA and the intervention of South Africa in the Angolan civil war , which led to the intervention of Cuba in 1975
- Operation Charly in Central America , 1979 to approx. 1985: Combating guerrilla groups in El Salvador , Honduras and Guatemala with the involvement of Argentine and Chilean intelligence services
- Contra war : Establishment and support of the contra guerrillas in the war against Nicaragua from 1981 to 1990, carried out by the forerunner division of the Special Activities Division , the paramilitary arm of the CIA
- Iran-Contra affair : Financial support for the Contras in Nicaragua through proceeds from secret arms sales to Iran and the toleration of the smuggling of cocaine into the USA, which they self-financed
- Operation Cyclone : Supporting Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence in training at least 80,000 mujahideen and supplying Afghan resistance groups with US and Saudi Arabia- funded weapons during the Afghan War .
- Operation Rosewood : After German reunification , the CIA succeeded in stealing most of the real names of GDR agents abroad
- In 2006, a Chicago Tribune journalist did an Internet search to find the names of 2,600 CIA employees, some of them undercover agents. Aircraft used for covert CIA operations and secret facilities could also be exposed in this way
- On September 6, 2006, US President George W. Bush publicly confirmed the existence and maintenance of secret CIA prisons abroad, known as Black Sites . A ruling by the Supreme Court ruled that sentencing prisoners by military tribunals was unconstitutional. The court found that the Supreme Court alone, not the President, has the authority to interpret US law.
- December 31, 2009: Homam Khaleel Mohammad Abu Mallal, a Jordanian doctor , was reportedly recruited by Jordanian intelligence to infiltrate al Qaeda into Afghanistan and obtain information critical to US military operations in Afghanistan. Instead, the 33-year-old Jordanian turned against them. He was wearing an explosives belt under his clothes when he went to meet America's agents at Forward Operating Base Chapman in eastern Afghanistan near Khost on New Year's Eve . He was a double agent . The alleged defectors pulled seven CIA operatives, including the head of the CIA base, Jennifer Lynn Matthews and his Jordanian commanding officer , Sharif Ali bin Zeid from the GID , with the death
- In the 1990s, asylum seekers in Germany were checked in by a CIA liaison officer in refugee camps such as B. interviewed the Adams Barracks in the Bavarian Zirndorf.
- Operation Neptune Spear : Preparing for Operation to Capture or Kill Osama Bin Laden , leader of al-Qaeda , in May 2011
- Operation Timber Sycamore in support of the Syrian rebels from 2013.
- Operation Kayla Mueller : Preparing for the operation to capture or kill Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi , leader of the Islamic State , in October 2019
The activities of the CIA have created political controversy in the United States and other countries. The main reason for this is the proven massive interference in the internal affairs of other countries by means of covert operations , which also included coups against democratically elected governments (see above ). The long-standing installation and support of dictatorial regimes has also been criticized, especially in Central and South America in the 1970s and 1980s , such as by Augusto Pinochet in Chile , Manuel Noriega in Panama and Somoza in Nicaragua , as well as autocratic systems like that of the Shah in Iran. The earlier cooperation with former members of the Wehrmacht and the SS was also criticized ( MK Ultra ) or the partial support and tolerance of the so-called rat lines , a legal escape route for Nazi war criminals, such as Klaus Barbie , who was with the Vatican and the Red Cross provided official documents escaped to South America.
In addition, many critics saw the task of the CIA not least in spreading disinformation in the home country, for example with regard to the military-nuclear threat potential of the Eastern Bloc , in order to keep the US military budget and the agency's budget at the highest possible level. The CIA, on the other hand, was unable to predict the collapse of the Soviet Union .
The covert CIA operation Operation Cyclone for the mujahideen from 1979 onwards, which began in Afghanistan during the period of “purges” of communists by Vice President Hafizullah Amin , six months before - and thus contrary to popular historiography - the Soviet one, is also viewed as disadvantageous Intervention in Afghanistan . US President Jimmy Carter , influenced by his security advisor Zbigniew Brzeziński , signed the first directive on July 3, 1979 in support of the Mujahideen in Afghanistan. The Soviet Army invaded Afghanistan on December 24, 1979. This was done in the knowledge that the likelihood of military intervention by the Soviet Union would increase. The calculation was to impose a military burden on the Soviet Union that was comparable to the situation in the USA during the Vietnam War . Brzeziński claimed in 1998 that he lured Moscow into the “Afghan trap”. The Soviet Union then justified its intervention by claiming that it intended to fight secret US interference in Afghanistan. The radical warlords , who are also involved in the drug trade ( opium ), were promoted as well as Islamist organizations, not least through the Pakistani secret service ISI . After the end of the Cold War , the USA largely ceased its contacts with the groups in the early 1990s, while the ISI continued to use them as an instrument to assert Pakistani interests. This has led to the strengthening of international terrorism , which the US sees as the greatest threat today. The phenomenon that a covert operation falls back on the country of origin is known as blowback .
In 2014 the White House assured that the CIA would no longer use vaccination campaigns to obtain information. As part of Operation Neptune Spear 2011, the CIA had apparently tried to obtain the unquestionable identity of the residents of the Bin Laden property as part of a vaccination campaign . Although the rejection of everything “Western” in Islamist circles is fundamentally much older, the fact that it became known certainly led to an additional setback for the polio vaccination campaign in Pakistan.
In March 2017, large-scale information about interception techniques of the CIA in the IT sector was made known via Wikileaks and was publicly discussed under the keyword "Vault 7".
Human rights abuses in the war on terrorism
The current criticism relates to the repeatedly proven violations of human rights in the course of the so-called war on terror . Since around 2001, the US began to kidnap terrorist suspects and detain them for long periods of time in secret prisons that the US military calls black sites , without trial . In doing so, the USA disregarded treaties that it ratified itself and which basically guarantee every individual a right to protection from state attacks. Several cases have become known in which, after several months or even years of imprisonment, it turned out that the arrested were innocent or the victim of mistake. The most well-known cases include the kidnappings of the Turkish citizen Murat Kurnaz , who was born and raised in Germany , the German Khaled al-Masri and the Canadian Maher Arar , who said they were tortured in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.
Since the CIA is officially not allowed to use torture , it has become common practice to fly the prisoners to friendly countries, where they are interrogated by " interrogation specialists " from those countries. In this context, the fact, which has also been confirmed several times by US authorities, that preference is given to countries that systematically torture, such as Syria and Egypt , is particularly criticized . In April 2009, US President Barack Obama published internal CIA papers confirming the existence of a Polish secret prison and showing that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was waterboarded 183 times in March 2003 alone , an average of eight times a day.
In 2005, media reported that the CIA was using airlines disguised as civilians to transport illegally arrested terror suspects. The airlines Premier Executive Transport Services , Tepper Aviation , Pegasus Technologies and Aero Contractors were named . She is said to have misused Frankfurt's Rhein-Main Air Base as a destination for secret prisoner transports in order to fly to secret prisons around the world from there.
The reports led to an official investigation on behalf of the European Parliament by Special Counsel Dick Marty . According to his findings, the CIA is said to have kidnapped over 100 people in Europe . Marty stressed, however, that he did not have the capacity to produce enough evidence to identify the torture facilities. He accused some European governments of secretly complicity with the United States in the matter. Poland and Romania in particular have made CIA prisons possible in their countries.
The approach is at least partially consistent with the definition of enforced disappearance , which was defined as a crime against humanity in the Rome Statute , which came into force in 2002 . It forms one of the legal norms for the case law of the International Criminal Court in The Hague . For years, the administration of President Bush has demanded immunity for US citizens, which the criminal court has not yet wanted to grant. The USA has now signed bilateral agreements with more than 50 states that are intended to prevent US citizens from being extradited from these countries to The Hague.
In Germany, arrest warrants have been issued against 10 CIA agents in connection with the kidnapping of the German citizen Khaled al-Masri . In Italy, 26 CIA agents are wanted by arrest warrant for the kidnapping of Imam Abu Omar . In November 2009, 22 CIA employees and one Air Force member were sentenced to between 7 and 9 years in prison. The appeal proceedings were finally dismissed by the highest Italian court in September 2012. The CIA employees were exposed by the Italian investigators with the help of a software called Analyst's Notebook from the company IBM . The software analyzed the connection data and other metadata of a large number of cell phones to find patterns and relationships.
In 2006, the US Supreme Court ruled that many of the US government practices listed above were illegal. In order to create a legal basis for its further action, the Bush administration created the controversial Military Commissions Act . In one part that has received little public attention, the law contains a kind of general amnesty for crimes committed by US citizens before the law came into force, which commentators have interpreted as related to the above-mentioned practices.
According to official US data, the secret prisons operated by the CIA were closed in the course of 2006. According to a report in the Financial Times, this decision, which has long been requested by the UN Human Rights Council, was accelerated by the fact that interrogation specialists from the CIA refused to continue interrogating prisoners in these facilities due to the unclear legal situation.
In 2006, a coalition of six human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch , published a list of 36 people who were either known or likely to have been held under suspicion of terrorism by US agencies such as the CIA, who " disappeared " ( Eng. disappeared ) are. They had not reappeared, nor would the US authorities answer questions about their fate or whereabouts. This situation had not changed significantly by April 2009. The US law professor Margaret Satterthwaite said:
“By the time the US government clears up the fate and whereabouts of these individuals, these people will still be missing, and enforced disappearances is one of the most serious international human rights violations . (Until the US government clarifies the fate and whereabouts of these individuals, these people are still disappeared, and disappearance is one of the most grave international human rights violations.) "
Drug trafficking and money laundering
The involvement of the CIA in drug trafficking has been publicly demonstrated on many occasions. The activities served, among other things, to provide financial support to allied paramilitary groups, for example in Laos , Nicaragua and Afghanistan , and to destabilize opposing governments and regimes.
- The American historian Alfred W. McCoy published the book The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade as early as 1972 , an extensive study of the cooperation between the CIA and Southeast Asian drug producers during the Vietnam War . The CIA tried by pressure on the publisher to censor the manuscript before it was published . Investigative journalist Seymour Hersh wrote an editorial about the Washington Post's attempt at censorship , which sparked a scandal and was picked up by a wide variety of media outlets. After the book was published unchanged, McCoy testified before several committees of inquiry of the US Congress.
- During the Senate hearings on the Iran-Contra affair in 1986 it was revealed that the Nicaraguan Contra rebels, with the knowledge of the CIA, had smuggled large quantities of cocaine into the United States for years . The paramilitary contra organizations used the proceeds from drug sales to finance their guerrilla war against the leftist Sandinista government .
- 1996 described investigative journalist and Pulitzer Prize winner Gary Webb in the series of articles Dark Alliance , as the smuggled from the Contras cocaine mainly in the ghettos of Los Angeles had been put on the market. The resulting scandal led to an extensive internal CIA investigation, which essentially confirmed Webb's statements. Webb later wrote that elements in the U.S. government at the time knew about the drug ring's activities but did little or nothing to put an end to them. The glut of cheap cocaine caused by drug smuggling by the Contras played a central role in the creation of the first major crack- based cocaine market in the United States. The criminal gangs Crips and Bloods , originally limited to Los Angeles, could have gained a foothold in other cities with their profits from crack sales and spread the crack abuse there in the black quarters, so that a serious regional problem became a serious one became a national problem.
- Other investigative journalists corroborated Gary Webb's research and broadened allegations about the involvement of US government officials in the drug trafficking of the contra rebels. Robert Parry , a journalist specializing in intelligence operations in South America, wrote that the most explosive detail in the official CIA investigation into Webb's allegations ( Hitz report ) was the disclosure of evidence that Reagan's National Security Council was involved in drug smuggling and money laundering by the contras especially about Oliver North, who is responsible for Contra operations in the White House . John Lawn, a former DEA officer , testified that North undercover investigations by the DEA had betrayed the US press, and thereby also put the lives of the undercover agents at risk, because he voted for a US Congress vote Wanted to manipulate support for the Contras.
In 2001, the American professor Christopher Simpson reported on the drug trafficking activities of the CIA Directorate of Operations (renamed National Clandestine Service in 2005 ):
"The CIA's Directorate of Operations - in other words, covert operations , paramilitary operations, or" dirty tricks "whatever you want to call it - has documented a significant amount of their work through the CIA over a period of at least 40 years Paid sales of heroin and cocaine . It happened in Vietnam and Afghanistan, and it happened in South America and the Iran-Contra affair. [...] Drug money has been an integral part of the CIA's covert operations, practically since the agency began. "
Former US Secretary of State John Kerry said in 1987 during the Senate hearings on the Iran-Contra affair , on the subject of drug smuggling into the United States by the Contra rebels , which the CIA had tolerated :
“Our country became an accomplice in the drug trade at the same time as we were spending tons of dollars trying to get a grip on drug-related problems - it's just amazing. [...] I don't know if we have the worst intelligence system in the world; I don't know if we have the best, and they knew it all and just looked the other way - but no matter how you look at it, something is going wrong, something is really going wrong out there. "
On the same occasion, the US Senator Al D'Amato also said:
"By God, the secret services of this country should help in the war [against the drug traffickers] instead of working with this scum of the earth - because that's what they did."
The CIA has in the money laundering collaborated drug money repeatedly with banks that were founded partly for this purpose. The case of the major bank Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), which went bankrupt in 1991, is well documented . According to an investigation by the American Senate, the bank was involved, among other things, in the money laundering of the drug profits of the Contras (see above). Senator John Kerry wrote in a report back in April 1989: The CIA knew from the start that the BCCI was a thoroughly corrupt and criminal company. The CIA has therefore used the BCCI for its secret operations. The bank's collapse was a direct consequence of Kerry's investigative commission, the results of which resulted in the forcible closure of branches of the bank in several countries.
The CIA's support payments for the Afghan mujahideen in the 1980s ( Operation Cyclone ) also passed through the BCCI . The warlords rose to become the world's leading opium producers. This happened immediately after the opium harvest in the Southeast Asian Golden Triangle largely failed. The raw material was converted en masse into heroin in the border area with Pakistan . The regional warlords were able to launder their profits from drug trafficking through the bank, which contributed to the enormous increase in heroin production in the region. Robert Morgenthau, former New York District Attorney, described the BCCI as "one of the greatest criminal ventures in world history". Regular customers of the bank were also Manuel Noriega, who through the BCCI blurred the origin of the drug profits for the Medellín cartel , the then Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein and the Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal .
The staff of the Australian Nugan Hand Bank , founded in 1973, consisted mainly of former CIA employees who previously worked in Vietnam and Laos . As legal counsel (legal counsel) , the former CIA director acted William Colby . After the insolvency of the bank founder Frank Nugan, an Australian lawyer, was shot dead in his car. The second founder, the American citizen and former US Special Forces soldier Michael Hand, fled Australia on June 14, 1980 with the help of two ex-CIA employees. He has been missing since then and is wanted by the Australian authorities for numerous offenses, including drug money laundering and fraud.
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D / CIA)
With the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act , the office of the D / CIA was limited to the direction of the Central Intelligence Agency. He administratively leads the operations of the CIA as well as personnel and budget planning. He is also a National Human Source Intelligence (HUMINT) Manager . He reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).
Office of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
|Deputy Director (DD / CIA)||Gina Haspel|
|Chief Operating Officer||Brian Bulatao|
|Director of Analysis||Fran P. Moore|
|Director of Operations||John D. Bennett|
|Inspector General||Christopher Sharpley (acting)|
US Secret Services Budget 2013
According to a report of the Washington Post , the budget was all intelligence services of the United States in 2013 together 52.6 billion US dollars . The five largest authorities whose budgets Swiss Post has divided into the four categories of maintenance , data collection , data processing and utilization and data analysis are listed below .
|Name of the authority / program||Budget
(management and support)
(Data processing and exploitation)
|Central Intelligence Agency||1.8||11.5||0.387||1.1||14.787|
|National Security Agency||5.2||2.5||1.6||1.5||10.8|
|National Reconnaissance Program||1.8||6.0||2.5||-||10.3|
|National Geospatial Intelligence Program||2.0||0.537||1.4||0.973||4.91|
|General Defense Intelligence Program||1.7||1.3||0.228||1.2||4,428|
Figures in billions of US dollars
The 2014 CIA Torture Report
On December 9, 2014, the US Senate Intelligence Committee published the CIA Torture Report (officially Committee Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's Detention and Interrogation Program ). The 480-page summary of the 6300-page confidential Senate report confirms long-known suspicions that high-level "systematic crimes and gross violations of international human rights law" have been committed, that the practices have been essentially ineffective, and that CIA government officials have committed so The White House, the Department of Justice and the US Congress routinely mislead and repeatedly lied about the type, extent and success of the interrogation methods - this is how the New York Times summarized the findings from the torture report.
A key message of the torture report is: The range of torture methods used was broader and far more brutal and much more intense in their implementation than the public had previously experienced. In the process, hardly any usable information was obtained - on the contrary, it was often incorrect information.
Among the used methods of torture used included insect, fake funeral, guilt by association , sleep deprivation to hallucination , mock executions , weeks of waterboarding (Ertränkungsfolter to unconsciousness), utter neglect, rectal torture (puriertes food was rectally into the colon administered and rectal water supply - without medical Necessity), sexual humiliation and rape - the torture could lead to death , as in the case of the accidentally arrested Gul Rahman in the notorious secret prison “Cobalt” in Afghanistan, who was killed after taking ice showers. Another was Manadal Al-Jamadi, who died after hanging his head in a plastic bag on a wall like a cross ( Abu Ghraib torture scandal ). One of these prisoners was an "intellectually disadvantaged person" who was arrested only to be used as leverage against another family member.
In doing so, the report does not describe unfortunate individual incidents, excesses, or the acts of individual individuals, but rather a systematic, organized, fully authorized program that was approved by President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney as a follow-up to the 9/11 attacks. September 2001 the "robust questioning techniques" were released against suspects. In 2002, then National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice gave the CIA permission to torture the Palestinian Abu Subeida - she became Foreign Minister in 2005. Then-CIA director George Tenet officially approved the program, current CIA director John O. Brennan was Tenet's executive assistant. At the John Ashcroft Justice Department , legal advisors John Yoo and Jay Bybee wrote the infamous "Torture Memos." The psychologists Bruce Jessen and James Mitchell developed the torture methods. Jose Rodriguez , the CIA's counter-terrorism chief, authorized the destruction of videotapes documenting the crimes.
Under international law, all of these methods of state brutality and murder are prohibited by the Geneva Conventions , which classify them as war crimes , and the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ; the prohibition of torture is absolute, there are no exceptions, and the signatories pledged to take action against violations. At the state level, they also violate the American Constitution and laws that prohibit torture and murder. To cover up the torture, the CIA set up clandestine secret prisons, " black sites ", in countries such as Afghanistan, Thailand, Romania, Poland and Lithuania. To carry out the torture, the CIA worked with many of the world's most repressive authoritarian regimes - including those dictatorships that the US government claims it is fighting, including Egypt under Hosni Mubarak , Syria under Bashar al-Assad, and Libya under Muammar al-Gaddafi .
Criminal proceedings have been demanded from the United Nations . The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al-Hussein recalled the UN Convention against Torture - according to this, even extraordinary circumstances such as war or danger of war, domestic political instability or any other public emergency may not be invoked as a justification for torture. The United States signed the Anti-Torture Convention in 1988 and finally ratified it in 1994 after many years. UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights Ben Emmerson stated: "Now is the time to act - those responsible must be held accountable", those responsible would have to face “criminal sanctions that correspond to the gravity of their crimes” and spoke of a “criminal conspiracy ”.
The sculpture Kryptos stands on the premises of the Central Intelligence Agency in Langley . Of the four encrypted messages, only three have so far been decrypted.
There is a CIA museum showing technical equipment that the CIA used over the years. There is also information about the history of the service. The museum is only accessible to the public online.
In 2006 it became known that the CIA had illegally withdrawn a number of documents from the public for years, some of which were exempted from secrecy in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act .
Science and Research
The Directorate of Science & Technology (DS&T) is one of the four main components of the intelligence service.
In 1999, the Intelligence Service formed the venture capital company In-Q-Tel with the express business purpose of providing the CIA and other United States intelligence agencies with the latest technology.
- Mark Carlton (2011, Pakistan)
- Jonathan Banks (2010, Pakistan)
- Jennifer Lynne Matthews (head of the CIA base at Forward Operating Base FOB Chapman in eastern Afghanistan, killed in 2010 at the age of 45 in the attack at Camp Chapman )
- Darren LaBonte (CIA agent, killed in 2010 at the age of 35 by suicide bombers at Camp Chapman)
- William J. Daugherty, Fall 1979, Iran. Employee of the Tehran office.
- Dan Mitrione (CIA agent and an expert in torture using electric shocks , such security adviser various internal authorities allied with the US Latin American countries, is in the Uruguayan capital of Montevideo after a ten-day hostage on August 10, 1970 by Tupamaros shot after negotiations with the Government failed to release political prisoners)
- Stephen Holmes (head of the CIA base in Moscow). He was exposed by the Russian FSB in connection with the arrest of CIA agent Ryan Fogle.
- Valerie Plame (2003, Washington DC.). She was betrayed by the then US Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage during a political argument.
- Philip Agee : CIA Intern. Diary 1956–1974. 2nd Edition. European Publishing House , Frankfurt am Main 1981, ISBN 3-434-25116-2 .
- Robert Baer : See no evil. The true story of a ground soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. Arrow Books, London 2002, ISBN 0-09-944554-9 .
- Milt Bearden, James Risen: The Main Enemy. CIA and KGB in the last days of the Cold War. Siedler Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-88680-711-8 .
- Tyler Drumheller: How the White House Lies to the World. The inside report of the former CIA chief of Europe. Hugendubel, Kreuzlingen and others 2007, ISBN 978-3-7205-3013-2 .
- Arthur S. Hulnick: Fixing the Spy Machine. Preparing American intelligence for the twenty-first century. Praeger, Westport CT et al. 1999, ISBN 0-275-96652-6 .
- Richard H. Immerman : The hidden hand. A brief history of the CIA , Chichester et al. (John Wiley & Sons) 2014. ISBN 978-1-4443-5136-1 .
- Tricia Jenkins: The CIA in Hollywood. How the agency shapes film and television , Austin (University of Texas Press) 2012. ISBN 978-0-292-72861-5 .
- Ronald Kessler: Inside the CIA. Revealing the secrets of the world's most powerful spy agency. Pocket Books, New York NY 1992, ISBN 0-671-73458-X .
- Egmont R. Koch : The CIA lie. Torture in the Name of Democracy. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-351-02658-5 .
- Mark Mazzetti : Killing Business. The CIA's Secret War . Berlin-Verlag, Berlin 2013. ISBN 978-3-8270-1174-9 .
- Alfred W. McCoy : The CIA and Heroin. World politics through drug trafficking. Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-86150-608-4 .
- Alfred W. McCoy: Torture and Let Torture. 50 years of torture research and practice by the CIA and the US military. Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-86150-729-3 .
- L. Fletcher Prouty : The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the United States and the World. Skyhorse Publishing, United States 2011, ISBN 1-61608-284-4 / ISBN 978-1-61608-284-0 .
- Mary Ellen Reese: General Reinhard Gehlen: The CIA Connection . Fairfax, George Mason University Press 1990. ISBN 978-0-913969-30-4 (English)
- James Risen: State of War. The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-455-09522-4 ( see sueddeutsche.de , heise.de ).
- John A. Rizzo, Company Man: Thirty Years of Controversy and Crisis in the CIA. Scribner, New York 2015.
- Frances Stonor Saunders: The Cultural Cold War. The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters. Reprint. New Press, New York NY 2001, ISBN 1-56584-664-8 .
- John Tower et al .: The Tower Commission Report. The full Text of the President's Special Review Board. Bantam Books, New York NY 1987, ISBN 0-553-26968-2 .
- Gary Webb : Dark Alliance. The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion. Seven Stories Press, New York NY 1999, ISBN 1-888363-93-2 .
- Tim Weiner : CIA: The whole story . 5th edition. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-10-091070-7 (English: Legacy of Ashes. The History of the CIA . Translated by Elke Enderwitz, Ulrich Enderwitz, Monika Noll, Rolf Schubert).
- H. Bradford Westerfield (Ed.): Inside CIA's Private World. Declassified Articles from the Agency's internal Journal, 1955-1992. Yale University Press, New Haven CT, 1995. ISBN 0-300-07264-3 .
- Bob Woodward : secret code VEIL. Reagan and the CIA's Secret Wars. (German translation) Droemer Knaur, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-426-26340-8 ).
- Amy B. Zegart: Flawed by design. The evolution of the CIA, JCS, and NSC. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA 1999, ISBN 0-8047-3504-2 .
- Website of the CIA (English)
- The National Security Archive , an independent research institute advocating the release of government records under the Freedom of Information Act : The CIA's Family Jewels . (English)
- Factbook CIA at ebooks.gutenberg.us ( Memento from November 28, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- Muckrock: global map of Agency activities
- "Sausage": Covert torture. On the alleged mistreatment of alleged al-Qaida fighters - Zeit online, 2005
- Kleine-Brockhoff : "The CIA has the right to break any law" - Time No. 1, December 29, 2005
- Vietnam and Iraq: The Unwanted Knowledge of the CIA
- Barton Gellman , Greg Miller: 'Black budget' summary details US spy network's successes, failures and objectives. The Washington Post , August 29, 2013, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- The secret budget of the US secret services , stern.de. Retrieved on August 30, 2013.
- CIA Vision, Mission, and Values. Archived from the original on January 12, 2006 ; accessed on April 23, 2018 (English).
- David Isenberg: The Pitfalls of US Covert Operations. Cato Policy Analysis No. 118, April 7, 1989. Quotation about the legal basis of covert actions: “(…) the National Security Act (1947) said nothing about conducting covert-action programs. But it contained a catch-all clause allowing the CIA to take on "such other functions and duties relating to intelligence affecting the national security as the National Security Council may from time to time direct," and that clause was later cited as an authorization for covers actions. " About the power of action of the president: "(...) under the law passed in the aftermath of the Church committee hearings, the president is required to consult with Congress in advance of a covered operation but is allowed, in special circumstances, to give only" timely notice "after an operation has begun."
- David Isenberg: The Pitfalls of US Covert Operations. Cato Policy Analysis No. 118, April 7, 1989. Quotation on the type and scope of covert operations of the CIA: “(…) both the scope and the scale of such operations have been enormous. Paramilitary operations - which can be more accurately described as secret wars, the most extreme form of covert action - have resulted in countless deaths and immense destruction. Covert operations have become the instrument of choice for policymakers who assume that a cold war status quo is inevitable. "
- Der Tagesspiegel: CIA put Mafia on Castro
- Clandestine Service - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 27, 2018 .
- The CIA moves to Bern. Swiss newspaper Blick , September 21, 2008, archived from the original on October 3, 2010 ; Retrieved October 3, 2010 .
- CIA reads on Twitter and Facebook. In: The world . November 8, 2011, accessed November 8, 2011 .
- Blackwater staff among those killed in CIA base bombing. January 8, 2010, accessed December 28, 2011 .
- Spiegel Online of February 8, 2013: "Liaison Office 61": Investigations against the boss of a secret BND group
- "The Germans do not find out everything" . In: Spiegel Online . tape 41 , October 6, 1986 ( spiegel.de [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Historical documents approved by the CIA under the Freedom of Information Act .
- BRAZIL MARKS 40th ANNIVERSARY OF MILITARY COUP - DECLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS SHED LIGHT ON US ROLE. In: The National Security Archive. Retrieved October 26, 2014 (English, Historical Documents, published under the Freedom of Information Act and edited by Peter Kornbluh ).
- CIA acknowledges involvement in Allende's overthrow, Pinochet's rise. September 19, 2000, archived from the original on November 26, 2004 ; accessed on October 26, 2014 (English).
- Historycommons.org: Operation Bojinka
- Homeland Security: Operation Bojinka .
- US drones are said to have killed hundreds of civilians. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . August 12, 2011, accessed August 12, 2011 .
- Sven Hansen: Neither clean nor precise. In: The daily newspaper . August 12, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011 .
- Sebastian Fischer, Max Gebauer: Spiegel Online on November 10, 2012: The deep fall of the great general. Retrieved November 10, 2012 .
NBC November 9, 2012: CIA Director David Petraeus resigns, cites extramarital affair. Retrieved November 10, 2012 . Tagesschau online on November 10, 2012: CIA boss Petraeus resigns. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012 ; Retrieved November 10, 2012 .
- Armin Wertz: The world rulers: Military and secret service operations of the USA. Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2015, ISBN 978-3-86489-088-8 .
- Frauke Steffens: CIA agents: Nazi? Mainly anti-communist . In: The time . November 6, 2014, ISSN 0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed April 30, 2017]).
- Thomas Wolf: The emergence of the BND. Construction, financing, control . Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96289-022-3 , pp. 105-114, 176, 214 .
- Nicholas Dujmovic: Two CIA Prisoners in China, 1952-73. Extraordinary Fidelity. In: Studies in intelligence - VOL. 50, NO. 4, 2006. Central Intelligence Agency, accessed October 26, 2014 .
- Mark Siemons: The CIA and Culture: How to Steal the Big Words. In the 1950s, the CIA conspiratorially influenced the culture and ideas of the West. A Berlin exhibition asks what follows from this for today's system struggles. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. November 12, 2017, retrieved on March 1, 2019 : "As an exact counter-image to the ideologically filled Socialist Realism, therefore as a model art of the free world par excellence, the agents discovered in particular the Abstract Expressionism of Jackson Pollock." "" - [from]
- William Blum : Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower . Zed Books, London 2006, ISBN 1-84277-827-7 , pp. 288, 289 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Mohammad Yousaf, Mark Adkin: The Battle for Afghanistan. The Soviets Versus the Mujahideen During the 1980s. Pen & Sword Military, Barnsley 2007, ISBN 978-1-84415-616-0 , pp. 115–117 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search).
- articles.chicagotribune.com 
- Bush Confession: CIA operates secret prisons . In: Spiegel Online . September 7, 2006 ( spiegel.de [accessed August 26, 2018]).
- Judgment on US prison camps: Guantanamo military tribunals are illegal . In: Spiegel Online . June 29, 2006 ( spiegel.de [accessed August 26, 2018]).
- Joby Warrick: The Triple Agent: The al-Qaeda Mole who Infiltrated the CIA . Random House LLC, New York 2011, ISBN 0-385-53419-1 , pp. XIV ( The Triple Agent: The al-Qaeda Mole who Infiltrated the CIA ).
- Joby Warrick: The Triple Agent: The al-Qaeda Mole who Infiltrated the CIA . Random House LLC, New York 2011, ISBN 0-385-53419-1 , pp. 2 ( The Triple Agent: The al-Qaeda Mole who Infiltrated the CIA ).
- Agent Al Balawi: The Deceiver. Der Tagesspiegel , January 6, 2010, accessed on January 1, 2011 .
- Der Spiegel, issue 15/1992 of April 6, 1992: Secret Services: Blaues Wunder ( spiegel.de ( Memento from December 19, 2012 on WebCite ))
- Nazis in the US secret services: From SS officer to CIA spy . In: Spiegel Online . October 27, 2014 ( spiegel.de [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Uwe Klußmann: The Triumph of the West: Brave, tough people, In: Spiegel Special Geschichte from July 29, 2008, accessed on October 8, 2015.
- Vincent Jauvert: Les révélations d'un ancien conseiller de Carter: "Oui, la CIA est entrée en Afghanistan avant les Russes ...". In: Le Nouvel Observateur , number 1732 of January 15, 1998 (an interview by Vincent Jauvert with Zbigniew Brzezinski about the armament of the mujahideen during the Cold War ( Operation Cyclone )); William Blum translated the article from French into English, on January 15, 1998 it was published on CounterPunch "Zbigniew Brzezinski: How Jimmy Carter and I Started the Mujahideen" ; Reproduction of the article ; German translation
- Vaccination terror out of fear of the CIA , Tages-Anzeiger, August 20, 2015.
- Spiegel Online from March 5, 2014: After investigating illegal interrogation methods: CIA is said to have monitored the CIA control committee
- Senate Intelligence Committee investigating leak to McClatchy, Feinstein says
- heise online: Vault 7: FBI is allegedly looking for a mole after Wikileaks revelations. Retrieved March 13, 2017 .
- Amnesty International: Off the Record - US Responsibility for Enforced Disappearances in the “War on Terror” ( Memento of March 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 100 kB).
- Torture in Masuria . In: Der Spiegel . No. 18 , 2009, p. 106 ( online ).
- From Smithfield on Torture The Daily, Feb. 1, 2007
- More than 1,200 CIA flights: EU countries knew it: n-tv.de. Retrieved February 28, 2015 .
- USA cancel military aid to 35 states. In: Spiegel Online. July 2, 2003, accessed August 20, 2008 .
- Al-Masri kidnapping: arrest warrants against 13 CIA agents ( memento of February 2, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), Die Zeit, January 31, 2007.
- Investigations against the CIA also in Italy , the daily newspaper, February 1, 2007.
- Arrest warrant against 26 people in Italy Flight to Egypt ( Memento from October 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Blick.ch The list of Henry Habegger and Beat Kraushaar | 01:21 | February 1, 2007.
- Spiegel Online from September 19, 2012: CIA torture scandal: Italy's judiciary upholds judgments against US citizens
- Spiegel Online from August 2, 2013: Telephone surveillance: Cell phone data reveal illegal CIA operation
- CIA officials refused to interrogate them in secret prisons. In: Spiegel Online. September 21, 2006, accessed August 22, 2008 .
- Off the Record. ( Memento from June 14, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 47 kB) US Responsibility for Enforced Disappearances in the “War on Terror”. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch et al. Retrieved from Ney York Law School.
- Dafna Linzer: The Detention Dilemma. Dozens of Prisoners Held by CIA Still Missing, Fates Unknown. ProPublica, April 22, 2009.
- Robert Parry : CIA, Drugs & the National Press. Consortium News, 1996.
- Robert Parry: CIA's Drug Confession Consortium News, October 15, 1998.
- Gary Webb: Information or Intoxication? The CIA, the crack and the cons. in: Kristina Boriesson (Ed.): Zensor USA. How the American press is silenced . P. 250, Pendo, 2004, ISBN 3-85842-577-X .
- Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair : Whiteout: the CIA, Drugs and the Press. Verso Books, 1998, ISBN 1-85984-139-2 Building on the results of Webb, the authors, both well-known US investigative journalists, claim that the actual involvement of the CIA in the drug trade was far greater than that described by Webb.
- Sally Denton, Roger Morris: The Crimes of Mena. Penthouse , July 1995, archived at Whatreallyhappened.com. The two authors are [see first paragraph] reporters for the Washington Post , where the article was originally supposed to appear and was already ready for printing. Shortly beforehand, Bob Kaiser, one of the newspaper's senior editors, prevented the publication from appearing, but refused to speak to the two journalists. Further down the article webpage is a comment from the London Sunday Telegraph of January 29, 1995.
- The Oliver North File . National Security Archive - George Washington University. February 2004. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- Profile of Christopher Simpson , American University , Washington DC
- Crack the CIA. Short documentary on CIA drug activities from Guerrilla newsnetwork.com, 2001, quoted at 1:06 min.
- Crack the CIA. Short documentary about CIA drug activities from Guerrilla newsnetwork.com, 2001, quoted at 8:20 min.
- Crack the CIA. Short documentary on CIA drug activity from Guerrilla newsnetwork.com, 2001, at 3:00 min.
- Crack the CIA. Short documentary about CIA drug activities from Guerilla newsnetwork.com, 2001, at 4:47 min.
- Crack the CIA. Short documentary on CIA drug activity from Guerrilla newsnetwork.com, 2001, quoted at 2:00 min.
- Federal Agency for Civic Education: Networks of Terror. Event documentation, October 2002.
- Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown: The BCCI Affair. Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, Senate, December 1992.
- David Sirota and Jonathan Baskin: Follow the Money ( September 11, 2004 memento in the Internet Archive ) Washington Monthly, September 2004.
- Paul DeRienzo: Interview with Alfred McCoy. November 9, 1991.
- Nugan Hand Bank. Sourcewatch, July 28, 2004.
- Ross Coulthart: The Nugan Hand Bank. ( Memento of February 18, 2009 on the Internet Archive ) MSN Australia.
- Jonathan Kwitney: The Crimes of Patriots, a True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA , Touchstone Books, September 1988.
- Leadership - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 12, 2019 .
- The Black Budget. Covert action. Surveillance. Counter intelligence. The US "black budget" spans over a dozen agencies that make up the National Intelligence Program. In: The Washington Post. August 30, 2013, accessed September 7, 2013 .
- Committee Study of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program ( Memento of December 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Here is the Senate's 500-page report on Bush-era torture. Raw Story Media, December 9, 2014, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- Jeremy Ashkenas, Hannah Fairfield, Josh Keller, Paul Volpe: 7 Key Points From the CIA Torture Report . In: The New York Times . December 9, 2014, ISSN 0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Trevor Timm: Stop believing the lies: America tortured more than 'some folks' - and covered it up | Trevor Timm . In: The Guardian . December 9, 2014, ISSN 0261-3077 ( theguardian.com [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- According to CIA torture report: Fear of attacks. Hannoversche Allgemeine , December 10, 2014, accessed on April 12, 2019 .
- Thomas Pany: CIA Torture Report: How Much Did the Government Know? December 9, 2014, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- CIA torture was brutal and ineffective. Deutsche Welle, December 9, 2014, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- Mark Mazzetti: CIA torture tactics didn't work, Senate report says. The Boston Globe , December 9, 2014, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- Gail Collins: Opinion | It's cruel. It's useless. It's the CIA In: The New York Times . December 10, 2014, ISSN 0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Scott Shane: Report portrays a Broken CIA Devoted to a Failed Approach . In: The New York Times . December 9, 2014, ISSN 0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Shane Harris | Tim Mak: The Most Gruesome Moments in the CIA 'Torture Report' . December 9, 2014 ( thedailybeast.com [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Dominic Rushe, Ewen MacAskill, Ian Cobain, Alan Yuhas, Oliver Laughland: Rectal rehydration and broken limbs: the grisliest findings in the CIA torture report . In: The Guardian . December 11, 2014, ISSN 0261-3077 ( theguardian.com [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- US torture report: The CIA tortured its prisoners so brutally . In: Spiegel Online . December 10, 2014 ( spiegel.de [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- Jonathan Topaz: 13 shocking moments in the Senate torture report. Politico , December 9, 2014, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- Half-naked, chained, died of hypothermia. Handelszeitung , December 9, 2014, accessed on April 12, 2019 .
- Feinstein report: UN expert calls for prosecution of CIA officers and other US Government officials. OHCHR , December 9, 2014, accessed April 12, 2019 .
- CIA report: UN demands punishments for torturers . In: Spiegel Online . December 10, 2014 ( spiegel.de [accessed April 12, 2019]).
- CIA Museum - CIA. In: cia.gov. Retrieved April 20, 2021 .
- Siegfried Buschschlueter: The return coach of the CIA. Deutschlandradio , February 22, 2006, accessed on April 12, 2019 .
- Directorate for Science and Technology. Retrieved May 4, 2010 .
- In-Q-Tel. CIA, archived from the original on March 16, 2015 ; accessed on May 4, 2010 .
- CIA to examine impact of files recently released by WikiLeaks washingtonpost.com, December 22, 2010, accessed December 23, 2010.
- CIA investigates Wikileaks revelations ( memento of December 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) ftd.de, December 23, 2010.
- Reaction to Bin Laden's death: Pakistan exposes CIA chief in Islamabad. Spiegel Online , May 9, 2011, accessed May 10, 2011 .
- Pakistani Lawsuit Against US Drones: The Brave Dozen. Spiegel Online , January 20, 2011, accessed May 10, 2011 .
- CIA honors 12 officers, contractors killed in action. The Washington Post , June 8, 2010, accessed December 28, 2011 .
- Tim Weiner: CIA The Whole Story . 6th edition. Fischer, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-10-091070-7 , pp. 491 ff . (English: Legacy of Ashes - The History of the CIA . Translated by Elke Enderwitz, Ulrich Enderwitz, Monika Noll, Rolf Schubert).
- Fogle's detention became public because CIA 'crossed the line' - FSB , Voice of Russia , Interfax . May 17, 2013. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved on May 24, 2013.
- Vladimir Radyuhin: Russia reveals CIA head identity. In: The Hindu , May 19, 2013 (English).
- Rainer Leurs: Espionage affair: Suspected CIA agent leaves Russia. In: Spiegel Online , May 20, 2013.