Ernesto "Che" Guevara (* officially June 14, 1928 , according to other sources as early as May 14, 1928 in Rosario , Argentina ; † October 9, 1967 in La Higuera , Bolivia ) was a Marxist revolutionary, guerrilla leader , doctor and author.
Guevara came from a middle-class Argentine family. The travel diaries he wrote during his medical studies were of literary quality and were filmed several times. Some of his writings and speeches influenced revolutionary currents far beyond Cuba . His life as well as the circumstances of his death and the posthumous cult of personality around him have been and are the subject of diverse considerations in films, books and other media.
The US magazine Time named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century in 1999. A photograph of "Che" by Alberto Korda , Guerrillero Heroico , is considered the most famous photographic image of a person, it is one of the media icons .
Guevara's ancestors were argentinian citizens. Already during his medical studies Guevara made numerous trips, which he commented on and documented extensively. He was outraged by the economic inequality and social injustice encountered in Latin and Central America. In Guatemala , he met his first wife, a government employee, who introduced him to other political activists. After Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán's government was overthrown by the USA (on June 27, 1954), he went to Mexico and met Fidel Castro there in 1955. He joined its July 26th Movement and received military training. In December 1956 he participated in the landing of Castro's revolutionaries in Cuba who wanted to overthrow the US-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista . He was appointed commander ("Comandante") during the Cuban Revolution and played an important role in the guerrilla war , which was ultimately successful in 1959 .
Guevara was appointed by Castro as Minister of Industry and then as head of the Cuban Central Bank . He strove to completely nationalize the Cuban economy and build heavy industry . The flight of capital and the emigration of over 10% of the population, almost all of the former upper class, led to a drastic decline in economic output and productivity. The trade agreements that Guevara concluded with other countries also caused considerable difficulties in practice. Furthermore, Che's critical attitude towards the “ de-Stalinized ” Soviet Union and his political sympathies for the China of the Cultural Revolution led to conflicts with Fidel Castro. Che resigned from all offices in 1964 after returning from a conference appearance in Algiers , which attracted great international attention, and disappeared completely from the Cuban public. He tried in vain to promote the Cuban revolutionary model in other countries, for example in the Congo and later in Bolivia . In 1967 he was captured by government soldiers in Bolivia and shot shortly afterwards. To this day he is revered as a folk hero in Cuba.
In addition to his travel logs and diaries, which have been published and filmed several times with great success, his theoretical writings and his political and military actions, Che Guevara's posthumous impact as a martyr and idol of the 1968 movement and the Latin American left is of particular importance. The first commercial film adaptation of his biography, the US film Che! .
Che's commitment to revolutionary ideals made him an important social leader in Cuba. His claim to force the “new man” less with material incentives than with moral demands, self-discipline and also violent means, led to considerable conflicts in post-revolutionary Cuba. His economic policy was not very successful. Critics also blame him for political repression and the execution of numerous opponents.
As a "romantic hero", according to Sean O'Hagan in the succession of Lord Byron , his followers - far beyond Cuba and South America also in the industrialized countries - are synonymous with resistance, emancipation and rebellion.
Che's well-known images also developed into ubiquitous symbols of resistance and protest. As a media icon of the 1960s, the famous and unprotected (revolutionary Cuba had terminated copyright agreements) portrait Guerrillero Heroico is marketed worldwide. This portrait was also featured on the 3- CUP banknote.
Childhood and youth
Ernesto Guevara was born on a boat trip with a stopover in Rosario . His parents Celia de la Serna y Llosa (1906-1965) and Ernesto Rafael Guevara Lynch (1901-1987) also had Basque and Irish ancestors and had broken out of a middle-class background. Shortly after the wedding in November 1927, they moved from Buenos Aires to Puerto Caraguatay in the Misiones province to run a mate plantation there. The company did not do particularly well, and at times the family suffered from financial bottlenecks, whereby they could fall back on inherited securities.
At the age of two, Guevara suffered his first asthma attack . The disease accompanied him all his life and shaped his personality and development. In 1932, the family moved to the city of Alta Gracia , Argentina, on medical advice . At first he was tutored at home by his mother, read a lot - including works of European literature in his family's important library - and learned French , which he spoke fluently as an adult. When the asthma attacks later became less frequent, he was obliged to attend school. The illness also did not prevent him from playing with other children and exercising intensively.
His family, which had meanwhile grown to seven people through the births of his siblings Celia (* 1929), Roberto (* 1932), Ana Maria (* 1934) and Juan Martín (* 1942), gave him an early political footing. When the Spanish Civil War broke out after Franco's military coup in 1936 , their house became a meeting place for Spanish republican exiles. In 1941 he moved to the Dean-Funes-Gymnasium in Córdoba , which meant that he had to cope with a total of 70 km a day to get to school.
In 1943 Ernesto's sister Celia moved to a school in Cordoba - the parents moved there to save the children the arduous journey to school. In 1946 his parents separated. In the same year Guevara witnessed the death of his grandmother directly. That is one of the reasons why he decided to study medicine after passing his Abitur exam in Buenos Aires , where he lived with his mother .
Study and travel
Guevara interrupted his medical studies several times for extensive trips through Argentina and South America. In October 1950 he met Maria del Carmen Ferreyra, a millionaire's daughter, and fell in love. The relationship didn't last. A year before Guevara's state examination , he and a friend, the budding biochemist Alberto Granado , set off from Córdoba in December 1951 to explore the Latin American continent with a Norton Model 18 and, among other things - a very formative experience - a leprosy colony in Visiting Peru . Guevara had set out with the view that conditions in all of South America were similar to those in Argentina, but the trip made him aware of the misery of the rural population and the great social differences that his prosperity was an exception.
The trips were filmed posthumously under the title The Motorcycle Diaries (German Die Reise des Junge Che ). After completing the trip, he took his remaining exams in the following seven months and also revised his travel diary, in which he noted: "This aimless stroll through our vast America has changed me more than I thought".
In July 1953, Guevara traveled to La Paz in Bolivia, accompanied by his childhood friend Carlos Ferrer . They stayed there for six weeks and met Ricardo Rojo - an Argentine lawyer - who had to leave his home because of his anti- peronist stance. While Rojo then went to Ecuador , Guevara and Ferrer traveled to Peru. They visited Machu Picchu , Lima and finally reached Guayaquil in Ecuador at the end of September , where they met Rojo again. The plan was to go next to Venezuela, where Guevara wanted to see Alberto Granado again. Guevara changed the travel plans, however, because Rojo had convinced him to go with him to Guatemala , where a revolution was imminent.
On October 31, they went by ship to Panama and from there to Costa Rica , where he visited United Fruit plantations . In Costa Rica he also got to know two Cubans who had tried in vain months earlier to overthrow the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista : Calixto Garcia and Severino Rossel. Among the survivors of this failed coup attempt were Fidel and Raúl Castro , whom he did not yet get to know at the time.
With the death of Stalin and the slowly beginning thaw in the Eastern Bloc, Guevara's devotion to the Soviet dictator began. In December 1953, while still in Costa Rica, he wrote in a letter to his aunt Beatriz: “In front of a picture of old, grieving Stalin, I swore not to rest until these capitalist octopuses have been destroyed. In Guatemala I will drag myself to the ground and do what I have to do to become a real revolutionary. ”He even signed another letter from April 1955 with Stalin II.
Becoming a revolutionary
Guevara arrived in Guatemala on New Year's Eve of 1953. A few days later he met the Peruvian Hilda Gadea (1925–1974), his future wife. Hilda had studied economics , was a member of the Peruvian Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana, and worked as a government employee in Guatemala City . She cared for him during his episodes of asthma, helped him in financial emergencies and taught him the basics of Marxism as well as contacts with members of the left Arbenz government . In Guatemala he also met Ñico López , a survivor of the 1953 attempt to overthrow Batista ( attack on the Moncada barracks ), through whom he later met Fidel Castro. He was nicknamed "Che" for the first time in Guatemala .
During his stay in Guatemala, a coup against Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán, largely organized by the CIA , took place . Arbenz was elected in 1950 after the dictator Jorge Ubico Castañeda was overthrown and had initiated reforms to help the country's poor. He had introduced a minimum wage and nationalized fallow land, most of which belonged to US companies. On June 18, 1954, mercenaries, organized and logistically supported by the USA, marched into the country to protect the economic interests of US companies such as the United Fruit Company and for fear of a communist seizure of power, overturned Arbenz and installed Castillo Armas in office. One of his first official acts was the withdrawal of the land reform.
Guevara witnessed the US bombing of Guatemala City. Many of his friends were arrested after Armas came to power, including Hilda Gadea. Ernesto, on the other hand, was able to flee to the Argentine embassy, but refused to fly home. Instead, he waited two months to be granted a visa that would allow him to enter Mexico.
Ernesto Guevara reached on 21 September 1954 in support of Julio Roberto Caceres Valle, a Guatemalan Communists , Mexico City . Together with him he got by for the first time. Hilda Gadea followed him after her release, they met again in Mexico City, where Ernesto Guevara was meanwhile working at the General Hospital. Both married on August 18, 1955, and their first child Hilda Beatriz was born on February 15, 1956.
When Juan Perón was overthrown in 1955 and there was a prospect of revolution in Argentina, Ricardo Rojo wanted to leave for Buenos Aires. He tried to persuade Guevara to come along, but Guevara had other plans. At the end of 1954 he had already met other Cubans in exile who had participated in the failed coup attempt in 1953 and who now lived in Mexico City. Through her he met Fidel Castro in the summer of 1955. The leader of the rebels who made a name for themselves with the attack on the Moncada barracks in 1953 went into exile in Mexico after his release from prison . Castro prepared an armed expedition back to Cuba with a group of Cubans in exile with the help of Alberto Bayo , a veteran of the Spanish Civil War and guerrilla expert, with the aim of overthrowing the Batista regime. Guevara initially joined the group as an expedition doctor. His participation became more concrete in April 1956 when the rebels received military training in Chalco, 60 kilometers from Mexico City. The training camp was discovered by the police in July and the rebels ended up briefly in jail. Guevara was the last to be released after two months, on condition that he leave the country. Guevara ignored this and went into hiding with friends. Now time was pressing - Cuba had found out about the rebels and Castro wanted to leave quickly. After he had bought the motor yacht Granma , the rebels met on November 23, 1956, a total of 86 in number, in Tuxpan and set off two days later for Cuba, which they reached on December 2, 1956.
After the yacht Granma landed in Cuba, the majority of the rebels were killed or arrested in the first battle. Celia Sánchez and Frank País , who maintained a "Second Front" in the Cuban cities, supported the fighters with weapons and medicine. New comrades-in-arms joined them and enabled the guerrilla fight to continue . In the course of the fighting, Guevara's role quickly changed from that of a doctor to a direct participant in armed actions. His commitment and his tactical overview quickly made him a sought-after military authority. He cracked down on alleged deserters and did not shy away from executing death sentences himself. As the first guerrillero after Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro, Guevara was raised to the rank of Comandante of the rebel army of the July 26th Movement on July 21, 1957 and entrusted with the leadership of the 2nd Column.
His greatest military achievement is the capture of Santa Clara on December 29, 1958 after two years of guerrilla warfare against the numerically superior Batista army, which was supported by the USA until March 1958, but has since become demotivated and outdated. The way to the capital Havana was clear. On January 1, 1959, the dictator Fulgencio Batista fled Cuba and Castro's group took control. On February 9, 1959, Guevara was made a "Born Cuban Citizen".
Participation in the Cuban revolutionary government
After the revolution in 1959, Castro wanted to build a Cuba that was particularly independent of the USA. Guevara became an important member of the new Cuban government alongside Fidel Castro, his brother Raúl Castro, Camilo Cienfuegos and a few others. Guevara took positions oriented towards Soviet communism , even more so than Fidel Castro, who was primarily pragmatic and politically oriented. He also had sympathy for Stalin , the Chinese model under Mao and especially the North Korean model . Later (1965) Guevara said after a trip to Pyongyang that North Korea was a model that revolutionary Cuba should also strive for.
At the height of his political activity in Cuba, Guevara was head of the National Bank of Cuba and minister of industry. The former guerrilla leader Huber Matos , who resigned as military governor of Camagüey province in protest against the government's course , and who was subsequently sentenced to twenty years imprisonment for high treason with Guevara's consent, accuses Guevara and Castro of the revolution against Batista for the creeping transformation of Cuba into a communist dictatorship to have used. Under Guevara's leadership, the Cuban companies and US holdings were nationalized. Benefiting from a generously managed immigration regime, around a tenth of the population, including almost the entire Cuban upper class, emigrated to the USA - particularly to Florida . In addition to political activities, some of these Cuban exiles - together with US government agencies - subsequently launched covert and open military operations against Cuba. The 1961 attempted invasion of the Bay of Pigs at the beginning of John F. Kennedy's term of office with the participation of 1,500 Cuban exiles became known. Its failure led to the US economic boycott, which continues to this day, and accelerated the Cuban revolution in particular following Soviet models.
After 1963, there were controversial discussions between Fidel Castro, Guevara and the intellectual Marxists Charles Bettelheim and Ernest Mandel, who were engaged as economic advisors . Guevara was seen as a representative of a radically centralized and fastest possible transition to socialism and a moral mobilization of the "new man". As Minister of Industry, Guevara sought to implement the pure doctrine of the planned economy and to strive for a complete nationalization of the Cuban economy. As a result, sugar production fell by a third, grain production halved, and industrialization plans were postponed. In 1962, Czechoslovak economic experts criticized the poor implementation of the planned economy. However, Guevara's lack of expertise in economic issues was known. At the company level, he rejected increased material incentives, freedom for small private companies and a wage differentiation based on performance for ethical reasons. Rather, Guevara was convinced of a duty to participate in the Cuban revolution, the socialist construction and the fight against attacks on liberated Cuba, which he put forward in writing in 1965 under the title Socialism and the people in Cuba . Guevara himself lived his resolutions and ideals and demanded the corresponding willingness to sacrifice himself from others. He was regularly involved in voluntary work assignments and effectively renounced perks for himself and his family.
Politics in post-revolutionary Cuba
Immediately after the victory of the revolution, Guevara was in charge of the revolutionary tribunals against alleged or actual followers of the Batista regime as commander of the garrison fortress La Cabaña in Havana, which was also used as a prison, and as temporarily chairman of the "Supreme War Council" founded as a revision body . Numerous death sentences were passed and carried out under his responsibility. He was also jointly responsible for the establishment of penal and labor camps in which "opponents of the revolution" - which also included homosexuals - were interned.
As early as June 1959, Guevara was supporting Latin American guerrilla groups. In Honduras , several groups were preparing, such as the Frente Revolucionario Sandino, which u. a. the later FSLN members Tomás Borge and Edén Pastora Gómez were about to overthrow the Nicaraguan government. Guevara sent a ship with 300 handguns to Puerto Cortés to support her , but the Honduran army confiscated it while the weapons were being unloaded.
In La Cabaña, Che Guevara married his second wife, Aleida March , on June 2, 1959 , after he had divorced Hilda Gadea. Comandantes Fidel Castro and Camilo Cienfuegos and Celia Sánchez also took part in the simple civil ceremony. In the next few years the couple had four children:
- Aleida (born November 17, 1960; Cuban pediatrician and politician),
- Camilo (born May 20, 1962; Cuban lawyer and politician),
- Celia (born June 14, 1963; Cuban-Argentine veterinarian) and
- Ernesto (born February 24, 1965; Cuban lawyer and motorcycle tour guide).
Che Guevara's first wife Hilda lived with their daughter Hilda "Hildita" Beatriz Guevara Gadea (born February 15, 1956 in Mexico City , † August 21, 1995 in Havana) from 1959 in Havana. He is said to have largely renounced contact with his ex-wife for Aleida March's sake. However, he regularly took his daughter Hildita with him to his new family.
Guevara's son Omar Pérez López, who was born in Havana in 1964, came from an extramarital relationship with the then student and later journalist Lilia Rosa López (* 1940) - the writer and visual artist did not find out about Guevara's fatherhood until 1989.
Foreign policy activities
In the summer of 1960, Guevara visited the People's Republic of China during the " Great Leap Forward " campaign there and signed a trade agreement with China almost immediately after the public Sino-Soviet rift . At the end of 1960 Guevara traveled to Czechoslovakia , the Soviet Union (it became known that Guevara's laying of flowers on Josef Stalin's grave , against the will of the Soviet leadership), the German Democratic Republic , North Korea and Hungary, and concluded trade and credit agreements with these countries.
To secure its policy of confrontation with the United States, the Cuban government increasingly oriented itself towards the Soviet Union. Guevara had negotiated arms deliveries with the Soviet Union and after the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, together with Raúl Castro, had made preparations for the stationing of Russian nuclear weapons in Cuba, which led to the politically significant Cuba crisis in 1962. Guevara, however, was disappointed by the Soviet Union, which, in line with its foreign policy doctrine, gave way to “ peaceful coexistence ” at the height of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Shortly after the Cuban Missile Crisis, he told journalists from the Daily Worker that he would have fired nuclear missiles at the United States if the Soviet Union had allowed it.
On December 11, 1964, Guevara gave a high-profile speech at the United Nations, in which he described the foreign policy of the United States from his point of view and spoke about the question of nuclear armament in the NATO countries and the reunification of the two German states.
Political resignation and renewed revolutionary activities
Conflicts with Fidel Castro
Compared to the pragmatic, realpolitically influenced Fidel Castro, he began to contradict his radical ideals , which some interpreted as prochinese . In 1964, under pressure from the Soviet Union, Castro shifted the focus of the Cuban economy back to sugar cane production and postponed the industrialization aimed at by Guevara "by at least ten years".
Guevara made another trip in 1964 as head of the Cuban UN delegation to New York . In a well-known speech at the UN, he professed revolutionary violence as a means of international politics and called for the Cuban revolution to be carried over to other countries. He then visited the People's Republic of China in the run-up to the Cultural Revolution , the United Arab Emirates , Egypt , Algeria , Ghana and other African countries. Anti-Soviet reservations became known, which he expressed in February 1965 during a visit to an African-Asian solidarity conference in independent, socialist-ruled Algeria. This brought him into open conflict with the Soviet position as well as with the Cuban leadership.
The differences with the Castro brothers came to a head. After returning to Cuba, Guevara resigned from the public stage and resigned from his posts, to everyone's amazement. He left Cuba in the disguise of a businessman in order to support the rebels in the Congo with other Cuban fighters . On April 24, 1965, he reached the Congo via Lake Tanganyika .
Civil war-like conditions and political and military movements that were supported by the USA, the Soviet Union and China had existed in the Congo since 1960 . Guevara's attempt to instigate a Cuban-style revolution there failed, however. Guevara explained this (see The year in which we were nowhere ) with the phlegm and the lack of consistency and organization of the rebels around Laurent Kabila in the Congo. At the end of 1965 he returned to Cuba disappointed. External critics spoke of completely inadequate preparation, a lack of insight into the conditions on site and deficiencies in language skills, equipment and training. Jon Lee Anderson cites warnings from Gamal Abdel Nasser , with whom Guevara was on friendly terms, before the mission in the Congo, which he ignored.
On January 5, 1965, Guevara's visit to the headquarters of the Angolan guerrilla movement MPLA in Brazzaville marked the first high-level contact between Cuba and the MPLA. At his meeting he tried to convince their leaders Agostinho Neto , Lúcio Lara and Luís de Azevedo of his vision of a pan-African revolution. However, they rejected his suggestion that the MPLA send their fighters to the Congo. Instead, they asked for trainers, weapons and equipment as well as experienced Cuban guerrillas to support the MPLA fighters in Cabinda . With his meeting, Guevara had laid the foundation for Cuba's massive intervention in the 1975 Angola civil war . In May 1965 the first nine Cuban instructors arrived in Brazzaville. For them, however, the lack of discipline and the high degree of tribalism of the fighters presented a special challenge.
Initially Peru was intended as the next deployment site, but the Comandantes Guevara and Juan Vitalio Acuña Núñez and other armed Cuban fighters, including Tamara Bunke of German descent , finally went to Bolivia in 1966 . Che Guevara himself led (albeit under a false name) a group of 44 fighters under the name ELN (National Liberation Army) . He endeavored to transfer the experience with the rebel army to Bolivia. Guevara's personal experiences are documented in his later published Bolivian Diary . The group operated in the wooded mountain slopes of the eastern central Bolivian highlands. As of March 1967, she fought there skirmish with government troops. There was no contact with the Bolivian population, for example through a station comparable to the Cuban Radio Rebelde .
Contrary to high expectations, only two local farmers joined the troop - the predominantly Quechua- speaking indigenous rural population stayed at a distance from the Spanish-speaking revolutionaries. The expected support from Bolivian miners and the Communist Party of Bolivia (PCB) under Mario Monje also failed to materialize.
The group was split in two in April 1967, with Guevara leading the main group, the rearguard led by Guevara's deputy Juan Vitalio Acuña Núñez. However, due to the failure of the radio equipment, the two groups could no longer communicate with each other and therefore could not find each other. In August 1967 the rearguard was wiped out, Acuña died on August 31, 1967 together with Bunke in an ambush by Bolivian government troops near Vado de Puerto Mauricio.
Guevara's troop were also on the defensive and in the end consisted of only 14 people. He himself was wounded on October 8, 1967 after a battle with the Bolivian military near La Higuera and captured together with Simeón Cuba Sanabria . Five members of his group managed to escape to Chile.
Guevara was detained in a village schoolhouse in La Higuera after his arrest by an elite unit led by later Minister and Ambassador Gary Prado Salmón . On October 9, 1967 at 1:10 p.m., Guevara was executed there by Mario Terán , a sergeant in the Bolivian army, on the instructions of the Bolivian President René Barrientos Ortuño, without a prior trial and contrary to the prohibition of the death penalty in the Bolivian constitution . At the same time, his Bolivian comrade Cuba was shot in the next room.
In the spring of 1967, Guevara managed to send a greeting to a solidarity conference of the OSPAAAL (Organización de Solidaridad de los Pueblos de África, Asia y América Latina). In Germany, too, the manuscript translated by Rudi Dutschke and Gaston Salvatore became known, among other things, with the request to create "two, three, many Vietnamese", as well as with the admonition to let "indomitable hatred" drive you as a guerrilla fight, to represent an "effective, violent, selective and cold killing machine". Guevara's statements met with a wide response within the European student and protest movement .
After Guevara's death
Guevara was laid out in Vallegrande , about 30 kilometers from La Higuera , and his body was presented to the press. Several photos were taken, including the well-known photograph by the Bolivian photographer Freddy Alborta . According to official sources, he was killed in action. He was later buried in secret after his hands were severed in order to provide proof of identification. There was no death penalty in Bolivia, and the aim was to avoid years of imprisonment in a non-existent maximum security prison and the diplomatic complications that would be expected. Years later, the actual circumstances of death gradually became known.
The images of the dead Guevara - with their striking resemblance to representations of the dead Christ by Andrea Mantegna , for example - were interpreted in newspaper reports as the image of a modern saint who had risked his life twice for foreign countries and gave it up for a third. Régis Debray , who had accompanied Guevara in Bolivia, described Guevara as a mystic , as a saint without belief in God. Guevara's evocation of the “new man”, who was less interested in material than in spiritual progress, was, according to others, more committed to Jesuit than left ideals. Guevara himself is venerated like a religious saint in the vicinity of the place where he died in Bolivia.
Guevara's severed hands were preserved, sent to Buenos Aires for identification, and later given to Cuba. Guevara's bones themselves were only discovered in Vallegrande in 1997 after a former officer in the Bolivian army revealed the burial site. The remains of Che and some of his companions were exhumed and transferred to Cuba to be buried there with a state funeral in the specially created mausoleum Monumento Memorial Che Guevara in Santa Clara .
In late 2007, a lock of Guevara's hair and fingerprints and other documents of arrest were auctioned for a total of US $ 119,500.
Reception and criticism
Especially in Cuba, el Che is still a popular hero today. Schoolchildren are encouraged every day to emulate him as a revolutionary role model . This is the motto of the Children's Association ( Organización de Pioneros José Martí ): “Pioneros por el comunismo ¡Seremos como el Che!” (“Pioneers for communism - we will be like Che!”).
The veneration of Che found its way into art, especially in Cuba. In Carlos Puebla's song Hasta siempre, comandante , he is elevated to a revolutionary religious myth, a martyr, as it were. This can also be heard in one of the most famous songs by the Cuban singer-songwriter Silvio Rodríguez "Fusil contra fusil". Wolf Biermann, on the other hand, sang in his German version of “Hasta siempre” of “Christ with the gun”, who had become “not a bigwig” and would not have played “the heroes from his desk”.
His death in the name of a revolutionary movement made him a martyr of leftist independence and liberation movements around the world. Che Guevara is an icon today: His image can be found millions of times on clothing and everyday objects. To adorn oneself with it is not necessarily a political commitment, but promises ideal (and for producers and dealers of the objects equipped with it also financial) profit. Reinhard Mohr spoke of "a political failure all along the line, immortal as an icon" in view of what he believed to be a quasi-religious dealings with Guevara, who, among others , had been posthumously described by Jean-Paul Sartre as the "most complete person of our time". The transfiguration of Guevara is criticized as reinterpreting a combative communist into any icon of maladjustment, others see an uncompromising Stalinist concealed under the mask of a timeless youthful hero. According to Stephan Lahrem and Christopher Hitchens , Guevara was a popular idealized role model, less in developing countries than for bourgeois townspeople in the “ affluent societies ”, precisely because his struggle and death for revolutionary ideals by no means corresponded to normal bourgeois life. Hitchens places Guevara in a romantic rather than an orthodox left tradition, closer to the travel writer and rebel Lord Byron than to Karl Marx . In order to survive as a romantic icon, one not only has to die as young as possible, but "young and hopeless". Guevara met both criteria.
Also in the Extra-Parliamentary Opposition (APO) of Western Europe during the 1960s up to the German RAF , some invoked Guevara's theses on guerrilla warfare or were inspired by contemporary witnesses such as Régis Debray . In many demonstrations of the student movement , alongside the portrait of the leading North Vietnamese revolutionary Ho Chi Minh and Mao Zedong , Guerrillero Heroico (The Heroic Guerrilla Fighter ), a famous image of Guevara, was carried along. To this day, the strongly contrasted image of Che, with a beret, red star and a gaze that turns away from the viewer, has become one of the most famous photos of the 20th century, which is widely used in many variations. The picture was taken by the Cuban photographer Alberto Korda at a state funeral on March 5, 1960, at which Guevara was standing on a platform with other official mourners. After Guevara's death, the photo was distributed worldwide by publisher Giangiacomo Feltrinelli . Under the influence of the student movement in West Berlin in the 1960s , the artist Wolf Vostell created the picture Che Guevara in 1968 , a blurring of a photograph of the body of Che Guevara presented to the press.
The Mexican author and later foreign minister in the neoliberal Fox cabinet, Jorge Castañeda , uses his biography of Guevara to illustrate the view that the veneration of Guevara and his militant theses and actions was a reason for the delayed and long marginal development of a Latin American social democracy.
Criticism in particular of human rights violations
The Cuba-born American Humberto Fontova describes Guevara as an ineffective and brutal tactician. Various critics attribute the failure of the economic and industrial policy for which Guevara was responsible to his personality as well as to inadequate economic policy concepts.
Guevara was also accused of torturing and murdering hundreds of Cuban prisoners, murdering small farmers in the operating area of his guerrilla troops, and later enjoying the execution of opponents and setting up the first labor camp in Cuba. He described his brutality with paradoxical formulas, such as the definition of the revolutionary's incentive in "an immeasurable feeling of love" while at the same time he had to practice becoming "a cold-blooded killing machine, driven by sheer hatred"
A corresponding description of Guevara as unscrupulous and brutal in the left-wing taz caused a considerable stir in the German left-wing scene in October 2007, after such criticism was usually attributed to Cubans in exile and former dissidents from the former Eastern Bloc. Equally controversial was Gerd Koenen's interpretation , who spoke of "fantastic world arson scenarios" by Guevara, "which saw the New Man emerge from the 'atomic ashes'".
The ideal of freedom he embodied contradicts the uncompromising policy towards his opponents, often defined as Stalinist : During his time as prosecutor, Cubans were accused in the La Cabaña fortress, which was used as a prison, as former supporters of the Batista regime, as collaborators or as representatives of the US secret service sentenced in revolutionary military tribunals. These proceedings, held during the state of emergency in the first half of 1959, did not meet any minimum rule of law and sparked international outrage. There is no precise information about the number of executions directly ordered by Guevara - 216 cases are documented by name, a former member of the tribunal in La Cabaña assumes around 400, while Cuban opposition members are expecting significantly higher numbers. In 1964, Guevara explicitly justified the killings, which were frequent and internationally criticized, in a debate before the General Assembly of the United Nations with the remark that Cuba was in a life-and-death struggle. As Minister of Industry, Guevara sent numerous employees accused of “lack of revolutionary morality” without a court decision to the so-called “corrective labor camp” on the Guanahacabibes peninsula , one of the first of several hundred forced labor camps established in the first years of the revolution.
Awards and honors
- Honorary Doctorate from the Faculty of Education of the Central University of Santa Clara, Cuba, awarded on January 1, 1960.
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross , awarded on August 20, 1961 by the Brazilian President Jânio da Silva Quadros .
- Honorary doctorate from the Havana Medical School (UCMH), awarded posthumously on June 13, 2003.
- The Motorcycle Diaries. Latinoamericana. Diary of a motorcycle trip 1951/52. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-462-03449-9 .
- The magical feeling of being invulnerable. Latin America trip 1953–56, a. a. with Carlos Ferrer, Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 2003.
- Episodes from the Revolutionary War , Röderberg, Frankfurt / Main 1981.
- Cuban diary , extended new edition, Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-462-04040-1 .
- The African dream. The rediscovered diary of the revolutionary struggle in the Congo. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-462-02899-5 .
- Bolivian diary . Trikont, Munich 1968 ( excerpts ). , Complete edition, Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1990, Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 2008.
- The partisan war . Deutscher Militärverlag, Berlin 1962 (first German edition).
- Economy and new awareness. Writings on political economy , Wagenbach, Berlin 1969.
- Arson or New Peace? Speeches and essays , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1969.
Selected works in separate editions
- Volume 1, Guerrilla Struggle and World Circle Liberation Movement , Dortmund 1986.
- Volume 2, Cuban Diary , Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1990.
- Volume 3, essays on economic policy , Weltkreis Verlag, Dortmund 1988.
- Volume 4, Writings on Internationalism , Weltkreis Verlag, Dortmund 1989.
- Volume 5, The Complete Bolivian Diary , Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1990.
- Volume 6, The New Man: Drafts for Life in the Future , Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1995.
- André Scheer: Che Guevara , PapyRossa Verlag, Cologne, 2019, ISBN 978-3-89438-687-0 .
- Aleida March: Evocación (2008): Mi vida al lado del Che. (Engl. Remembering Che. My Life with Che Guevara. 2012).
- Hilda Gadea (1972): Che Guevara. Los años decisivos. Mexico (New edition 2005 under the title: Mi vida con el Che. Peru. Engl. My Life with Che. The Making of a Revolutionary. 2005).
- Jon Lee Anderson : Che. The biography. Ullstein, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-548-60122-7 .
- Jorge Castañeda : Che Guevara. Biography. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt / M. 2003, ISBN 3-518-39411-8 .
- Paul Jaime Dosal: Comandante Che. Guerrilla soldier, commander, and strategist, 1956–1967. University Park, PA u. a. (Pennsylvania State University Press) 2003. ISBN 0-271-02261-2 .
- Samuel Farber : The Politics of Che Guevara: Theory and Practice. Haymarket Books, 2016. ISBN 978-1-60846-601-6 .
- Ernesto Guevara: ¡Hasta la victoria siempre! A biography with an introduction by Bolívar Echeverría. Compiled by Horst Kurnitzky, translations from Spanish by Alex Schubert. Berlin (West): Verlag Peter von Maikowski, 1968. 208 pp.
- Frederik Hetmann : I have seven lives. The story of Ernesto Guevara, called Che. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1991, ISBN 3-499-20137-2 .
- Frederik Hetmann: "Solidarity is the tenderness of peoples". The life story of Ernesto Che Guevara. Beltz & Gelberg, Weinheim 2004, ISBN 3-407-78913-0 .
- Daniel James: Che Guevara. Myth and truth of a revolutionary. Heyne, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-453-12702-1 .
- Gerd Koenen : Dream Paths of the World Revolution. The Guevara Project. KiWi, Cologne 2008, ISBN 3-462-04008-1 ISBN 978-3-462-04008-1 .
- Stephan Lahrem: Che Guevara - life work effect. Suhrkamp BasisBiographie 6, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt / M. 2005, ISBN 3-518-18206-4 .
- Jean Lartéguy : Guerrillas or The Fourth Death of Che Guevara. Translated from the French by Hans Jürgen Wille. Translation of the appendix from English by Günther Deschner, Gütersloh 1968 (original title: Les guérilleros. 1967).
- Jacobo Machover: Che Guevara - The other side. Wolbern, Potsdam 2008, ISBN 978-3-9811128-2-5 .
- Frank Niess: Che Guevara. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2005, ISBN 3-499-50650-5 .
- Eberhard Panitz : Comandante Che. Biographical sketch. Verlag Wiljo Heinen, Böklund 2007, ISBN 978-3-939828-12-9 .
- Matthias Rüb : Che Guevara . 100 pages . Reclam, Ditzingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-15-020429-0 .
- Henry Butterfield Ryan: The fall of Che Guevara. A story of soldiers, spies, and diplomats. New York, NY (Oxford University Press) 1998, ISBN 0-19-511879-0 .
- Paco Ignacio Taibo II : Che. The biography of Ernesto Guevara. Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-89401-277-3 .
- Paco Ignacio Taibo II u. a .: The year we were nowhere. Ernesto Che Guevara and the African guerrillas. Edition ID archive, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-89408-054-X .
- Álvaro Vargas Llosa : The Che Guevara Myth and the Future of Liberty. 2006, ISBN 1-59813-005-6 .
- Adriano Bolzoni : El Ché Guevara. Vita e morte del "vagabondo della rivoluzione". Rome (Trevi) 1967.
- Sebastian Hergott: The Myth of Che Guevara: His work and the history of its impact in Latin America, Tectum Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3828884984 .
- Shock troop into the afterlife . ( El "Che" Guevara. Italy 1968, director: Paolo Heusch , failed attempt at revolution and death in Bolivia, with Francisco Rabal as Che Guevara).
- Che! Feature film, USA 1968, director: Richard Fleischer , leading actor: Omar Sharif .
- A photo goes around the world. 1981, directed by Pedro Chaskel.
- Among the legends of the Sierra Maestra. 1988, directed by Rebeca Chávez.
- Ernesto Che Guevara, the Bolivian diary. Documentary, France, Switzerland 1994, directed by Richard Dindo .
- El Che. Documentation and docu-drama , France, Spain 1997, 96 min., Script: Pierre Kalfon, Maurice Dugowson, director: Maurice Dugowson , production: Cinétévé, Igedo Komunikazioa, Canal + France, Canal + España, Canal + Belgique, RAI u. a., bonus recordings: Tracing Che, 2002, 54 min., summary from the NYT .
- Che Guevara myth. The image of the legendary revolutionary in Cuba today. Documentation, Germany, 1997, 30 min., Script and direction: Peter Puhlamm, production: SWF , first broadcast: November 19, 1997.
- Fidel & Che. (OT: Fidel. ) TV feature film, USA 2002, 123 min., Director: David Attwood, summary.
- Paths of Revolution - Che Guevara. (OT: Che Guevara donde nunca jamás se lo imaginan. ) 55 min., Directed by Manuel Pérez, Cuba 2004.
- Young Che's journey . Feature film, USA, Germany, Great Britain, Argentina, Chile, Peru 2004, director: Walter Salles .
- Myth Che Guevara. Documentation, Germany, 2005, production: ZDF , series: History, first broadcast: July 10, 2005.
- Snapshot with Che. Documentation, Germany 2007, 45 min., Director: Wilfried Huismann , production: WDR , first broadcast: October 10, 2007, summary and interview ( memento from April 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) by WDR
- Che Guevara - Death and the Myth. (Alternative title: Che Guevara - The Body and the Myth. ) Documentation, Italy, 2007, 53 min., Script and direction: Stefano Missio and Raffaele Brunetti, production: B & B1, Arte , ZDF, first broadcast: October 2, 2007, synopsis by arte.
- Che. Overall title of two films by Steven Soderbergh , USA, France, Spain 2008. The titles of the individual films are Che - Revolución and Che - Guerrilla . Premiere: May 21st, 2008 at the Cannes Film Festival .
- Regina Haunhorst, Irmgard Zündorf: Biography Che Guevara . Tabular curriculum vitae in LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Literature by and about Che Guevara in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Che Guevara in the German Digital Library
- Che Guevara in the Marxists Internet Archive
- Javier Martín Campos: Síntesis biográfica de Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna - compilation of images, writings, appointments and videos of Che as well as songs dedicated to him. January 25, 2006, archived from the original on September 10, 2011 ; Retrieved July 21, 2012 .
- Link collection for Che Guevara's 80th birthday. ( Memento of July 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Operated by the Red Blog.
- Eva Karnofsky: dreams without borders. In: Friday . January 9, 2009.
- Richard Gott: Major Ralph Shelton obituary. Obituary for the American anti-guerrilla instructor for the Bolivian units that arrested Guevara in: The Guardian. September 6, 2010, accessed November 9, 2012.
- Georg Seeßlen : Distance and heat. About Steven Soderberg's Che films (Herbert Debes: The Che Guevara Passion. )
- Che Guevara - a big lie. Interview with Huber Matos, Cuban revolutionary hero and companion of Che Guevaras (2008).
Che Guevara - original texts in translation:
- Nadir (Internet portal) : Che Mahir project. Che Guevara texts in German (“bald!” / “Updated: July 27, 1998”; the pages on Mahir Çayan with Kalashnikov decoration in RAF style).
- Partisan War - One Method.
- Address to the General Assembly of the UN on December 11, 1964.
- The first years 1959 to 1964. Photo book with previously unpublished pictures from the Granma archive of Che Guevara as Minister of Industry.
- Guevara is the only surname in the birth certificate . This name was also used in a university document (see Internet archives ). In Spanish-speaking countries it is actually common to have both father and mother surnames. Argentina differs from this, however (see last names in Spanish ). In many sources the name Ernesto Guevara de la Serna or Ernesto Guevara Serna is given. De la Serna is a last name of Guevara's mother.
See the birth certificate . Jon Lee Anderson, in his biography published in 1997, argues that Guevara was born on May 14, 1928. Guevara's mother had a doctor friend of hers postpone the date on the birth certificate by a month in order to cover up the fact that she was three months pregnant at their wedding.
Jon Lee Anderson: Che Guevara - A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press, New York 1997.
- Ariel Dorfman : CHE GUEVARA: The Guerrilla. In: Time Magazine . June 14, 1999 (English).
- Che Guevara photographer dies. In: BBC News . May 26, 2001 (English).
- In Che! he was portrayed by Omar Sharif , on the political background cf. also Richard Fleischer # resistances .
- Wolf Schneider : Che Guevara, sexy executioner. In: NZZ Folio . November 2006.
- The Che Guevara Myth (Alvaro Vargas Llosa). forum-ordnungspolitik.de, accessed on December 13, 2015 .
- Sean O'Hagan: Just a pretty face? In: The Observer . July 11, 2004 (English).
- Ralf Hanselle: "His likeness is explosive". In: one day . June 2, 2008 (interview with René Burri ).
- Jon Lee Anderson (1997), 17, 21 f., 25: … Guevara Lynch was often unable to pay the rent. […] In the opinion of friends and relatives, it was mainly the income from Celia's securities that helped the family make ends meet in the 1930s. They had no money, but they belonged to the "right" class of society, they had a name and the appropriate demeanor. The guevaras had "style, all of their friends could confirm that." 56: ... in the house of the guevaras [there was] constant lack of money ...
- Matthias Rüb: Che Guevara. 100 pages . Reclam, Ditzingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-15-020429-0 , p. 8-9 .
- Richard L. Harris: Che Guevara: A Biography. P. 4, Greenwood, Santa Barbara 2011 (English).
- L'interview de Che Guevara (1964). TV interview in French in Geneva, on YouTube, accessed on May 30, 2014 (French).
- Stephan Lahrem: Che Guevara - lifetime effect. Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, p. 15 f.
- Stephan Lahrem: Che Guevara - lifetime effect. P. 20.
- Stephan Lahrem: Che Guevara - lifetime effect. P. 26.
Guevara's restlessness and his significant travel and literary processing throughout his life have been compared to Jack London and Lord Byron . He would have been more interested in the adventure of the revolution than in practical government activity and, as a descendant of the Argentine upper class, was driven by a deep sense of guilt towards the poor of Latin America. See
Sean O'Hagan: Just a pretty face? In: The Observer . July 11, 2004 (English).
Critics accused the film adaptation as a road movie as an uncritical concealment of the political situation in today's Cuba.
Paul Berman: The Cult of Che. September 24, 2004, Slate Online. Retrieved June 18, 2006.
His diary entries of these trips became a bestseller almost 50 years later, especially in the USA. See
NYT bestseller list: # 38 Paperback Nonfiction. February 20, 2005, # 9 Nonfiction. October 7, 2004.
"Recibe el título de Doctor en Medicina y Cirugía el 11 de April 1953 en la Universidad de Buenos Aires."
La juventud de Ernesto Guevara. In: CheGuevara.com.ar. December 13, 2006, archived from the original on August 8, 2007 ; Retrieved November 2, 2017 (Spanish).
- Che Guevara - Notes on the Cuban Revolution (1960) in the English language Wikiquote .
- Gerd Koenen : Dream Paths of the World Revolution. Kiepenheuer & Witsch , 2008. P. 15 f.
- Matthias Rüb: Che Guevara. 100 pages . Reclam, Ditzingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-15-020429-0 , p. 29-30 .
- Che is a nickname common in Central America for Argentines , which goes back to the salutation “Che”, which is particularly common in Argentina and Uruguay and means something like “Listen!” Or “Man!”. Guevara was first called that in Guatemala . See also: Argentina Travels ( Memento from December 1, 2017 in the Internet Archive ): Where does the name “Che” Guevara come from
- Wolfgang U. Eckart : Guevara Serna, Ernesto (Ché) , in: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann (eds.): Ärztelexikon. From antiquity to the present , 3rd edition 2006 Springer Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin, New York p. 148. doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-540-29585-3 .
- Toni Keppeler: The Marlboro man of the left. In: the daily newspaper . October 9, 2007.
- Gerd Koenen : Dream Paths of the World Revolution. Kiepenheuer & Witsch , p. 224 f.
- Bruce Cumings: Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. (Updated Edition), WW Norton & Company, 2005; P. 404. Quoted from: Comprended a Corea. December 19, 2009.
- kath.net quotes an interview with "Kirche in Not" in Munich: "Che Guevara - 'a big lie'". June 13, 2008. The interview in full: Che Guevara - a big lie. ( Memento of November 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (Word document; 57 kB), June 12, 2008.
- Law of Value, Planning and Awareness. The planning debate in Cuba. Charles Bettelheim (Author), Ernesto Che Guevara, Ernest Mandel, Fidel Castro. New Critique Publishing House, 1969.
- David Mayer is critical of this: The attraction of Che Guevara and the limitations of the guerrilla struggle. in: The spark. Marxist standpoint in the labor movement. August 2005.
- Felipa de las Mercedes Suarez Ramos: Tribunales revolucionarios: Monumento a la justicia. In: Trabajadores. January 19, 2014, accessed June 18, 2014 (Spanish).
- Jon Lee Anderson: Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1600-0 , pp. 372-425.
- Monika Krause-Fuchs : Cuba - My Hell, My Paradise. ISBN 978-3-86634-623-9 , pp. 324-329.
- Peter Schneider: They want to be avengers. In: The time . March 10, 2007.
- Che Guevara's daughter becomes Argentine , welt.de, August 13, 2007
- Che's daughter , ZEITMagazin No. 41 of October 3, 1997
- Cuba: On a motorcycle tour with Che Guevara's son , stern.de , published in Stern 41/2017, August 8, 2017
- Che's daughter dies - true to uncle until the end , The Independent , August 24, 1995
- Kristin Dykstra: Omar Pérez and the Name of the Father . In: Jacket Magazine. No. 35, 2008, accessed on July 10, 2015.
- Michael J. Casey: Che's Afterlife: The Legacy of an Image. Vintage, London 2009, pp. 285-297 (English).
- Che Guevara's son on Cuba's coming identity crisis. In: PBS. July 7, 2015 (English).
- Jon Lee Anderson: Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press, New York 1997, ISBN 0-8021-1600-0 , p. 545: “In an interview with Che a few weeks after the crisis, Sam Russell, a British correspondent for the socialist Daily Worker , found Guevara still fuming over the Soviet betrayal. Alternately puffing on a cigar and taking blasts from an inhaler, Guevara told Russell that if the missiles had been under Cuban control, they would have fired them off. Russell came away with mixed feelings about Che, calling him 'a warm character whom I took to immediately… clearly a man of great intelligence though I thought he was crackers from the way he went on about the missiles. '"
- Address to the General Assembly of the UN on December 11, 1964.
- Bernd Wulffen : Cuba in transition. Christoph Links Verlag, 2008. P. 60 f.
- Edward George: The Cuban Intervention in Angola, 1965-1991 (PDF) academia.edu , January 20, 2005, accessed November 17, 2019.
Mensaje a la Tricontinental: Crear dos, tres… muchos Viet-Nam, es la consigna. Ernesto Guevara, 1967, publicado el 16 de April 1967 en un Suplemento Especial de la revista Tricontinental. filosofia.org is a website of the Spanish national foundation Fundación Gustavo Bueno.
- “El odio como factor de lucha; el odio intransigente al enemigo, que impulsa más allá de las limitaciones naturales del ser humano y lo convierte en una efectiva, violenta, selectiva y fría máquina de matar. Nuestros soldados tienen que ser así; un pueblo sin odio no puede triunfar sobre un enemigo brutal. "
- “Hatred as a factor in the struggle, the indomitable hatred of the enemy, which pushes people beyond their physical limits and transforms them into an effective, violent, selective and cold killing machine. Our soldiers have to be like that; a people without hatred cannot conquer a brutal enemy. "
- Lukas Böckmann: "The Savior from the Jungle". Ernesto Guevara's Death, Legacy and Resurrection. Retrieved March 6, 2017 .
- A modern saint and sinner. In: The Economist . October 11, 2007 (English).
- Andres Schipani:The final triumph of Saint Che.In: The Observer . September 23, 2007 (English).
- Marc Lacey: Lone Bidder Buys Strands of Che's Hair at US Auction. In: The New York Times . October 26, 2007 (English).
- On the following Richard L. Harris: Che Guevara. A biography. Greenwood, 2010, pp. 193-204.
- Stephan Lahrem: A global protest icon of the 20th century. In: Gerhard Paul (ed.): The Century of Pictures, Vol. 2: 1949 to today. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 2008, pp. 234–241.
- Reinhard Mohr : revolutionary, killer, pop star. In: one day . October 8, 2007.
- Christopher Hitchens : Goodbye to All That. In: The New York Review of Books . July 17, 1997 (English).
- Wolf Vostell. Dé-coll / agen, blurring 1954–1969. Edition 17, Galerie René Block, Berlin 1969
- Humberto Fontova: Fidel's Executioner . In: FrontPage Magazine. October 14, 2005.
- Sean O'Hagan: Che Guevara ... The Dark Underside of the Romantic Hero. In: History News Network. February 26, 2006, accessed July 22, 2013 .
- Free Cuba Foundation: Che Guevara's Dubious Legacy. Retrieved February 26, 2006.
- Peter Gaupp: Che Guevara - the failed messiah of the world revolution. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . October 9, 2017.
- Álvaro Vargas Llosa : The Killing Machine: Che Guevara, from Communist Firebrand to Capitalist Brand. In: The New Republic . July 11, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- Samuel Farber: The Resurrection of Che Guevara. In: New Politics. Vol. 7, No. 1, Summer 1998, accessed July 29, 2012.
- Jon Lee Anderson: Blood and Hope . In: Magnum Revolution - 65 years of the struggle for freedom . 2012, ISBN 978-3-7913-4643-4 , pp. 5 ( buecher.de [PDF]).
- Gerd Koenen : In the terror trap. In: Spiegel Online . January 11, 2006 (essay).
- The holy seriousness. February 1, 2003, accessed October 7, 2017 .
- Che Guevara: Great Revolutionary and Wretched Loser. October 6, 2017, archived from the original on October 6, 2017 ; accessed on October 7, 2017 .
- Gerd Koenen : Dream Paths of the World Revolution. Kiepenheuer & Witsch , pp. 187–192.
- Ignacio Gutiérrez: Che what? In: The Liberal Conservative. October 15, 2007, accessed October 11, 2011.
- Ivan García: Los fantasmas taciturnos de La Cabaña. In: El Mundo. February 9, 2011, accessed October 11, 2011 (Spanish.)
- Che Guevara: Anatomía de un mito. At: YouTube.com. Retrieved October 11, 2011 (Spanish).
- Samuel Farber : The Resurrection of Che Guevara. In: New Politics. No. 25, Summer 1998, accessed October 11, 2011.
- Paul Hampton: Guevara as economist: workers short-changed. In: Worker's Liberty. July 16, 2009, accessed October 11, 2011.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Guevara de la Serna, Ernesto Rafael; Che|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Argentine doctor, Marxist politician, guerrilla leader and author|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 14, 1928 or June 14, 1928|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rosario , Argentina|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 9, 1967|
|Place of death||La Higuera , Bolivia|