Homosexuality ("same-sex"; in the narrower sense also homophilia ) refers to same-sex sexual behavior , erotic and romantic desire for people of the same sex as well as identities based on it , depending on the use .
Homosexual behavior, homosexual desire and sexual identity do not necessarily coincide and are therefore differentiated in research. In everyday language, however, these aspects are often mixed up or equated with one another. Sexual acts between men and between women were treated very differently in different epochs and cultures: partly advocated and tolerated, partly prohibited and persecuted. The three Abrahamic world religions play a special role here , the scribes of which, on the basis of the Bible , Torah and Koran , generally regarded sexual intercourse between men as a sin , even if liberal currents are increasingly breaking with this exegetical tradition today.
Same-sex love and lust can be proven in all societies and historical epochs through appropriate sources. On the other hand, the emergence of sexual identity - in the sense of a clear determination of the individual to a certain sexual orientation - is now considered the result of developments in modern society. These began around the 18th century AD and include aspects such as urban growth , bureaucratization and the capitalist objectification of social relationships. Parallel to the emergence of heterosexist norms in the majority society , demarcated “gay” subcultures gradually emerged in almost all European metropolises , whose members soon became the subject of police surveillance , state persecution , criminal blackmail and, in some cases, violent attacks .
The first sound defense of homosexuality wrote with Eros. The men's love of the Greeks (1st volume 1836, 2nd volume 1838) by the Swiss milliner and cloth merchant Heinrich Hössli . He justified this with his conviction that this predisposition was innate. The term homosexuality was invented in 1869 by the Austro-Hungarian writer Karl Maria Benkert (pseudonym: Karl Maria Kertbeny ). Before that, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (* 1825) had used the terms Uranism (or Urning for male homosexuals, Urninde for female homosexuals) and made them known. Ulrichs first publicly demanded in 1867 - at the German Juristentag in Munich in front of 500 members - the impunity of homosexual acts. There were tumultuous scenes in which his speech was lost.
Towards the end of the 19th century, authors from the field of modern sexology coined our current terms for homo- and heterosexuality , for which, just as for the term sexuality itself, there was no comparable equivalent in any language until then. The international vocabulary on this topic therefore comes almost everywhere from word creations and loan translations from the last and penultimate centuries.
The scientific knowledge that the associated division of people into homo- and heterosexuals does not do justice to the diverse shades of human desire has been tried since 1900 with the residual category of bisexuality . However, this concept has itself become the basis of a self-chosen identity and therefore produces new conceptual ambiguities, such as the existence of people who in surveys do not classify themselves as homosexual or bisexual, but nevertheless feel erotically attracted to their own gender to different degrees .
With the construction of homosexual desire as a deviation from an assumed “heterosexual norm” , the attempt at an etiological (medical / psychological) explanation was linked from the start. After 150 years of research, there is still no consensus among sexologists as to which factors are responsible for the development of sexual preferences. Among other things, genetic , endocrinological (hormonal) and psychoanalytic explanatory models were mentioned, which are usually not compatible with one another and therefore compete with one another. In research today, an interpretation has largely prevailed that is based on the established observation that homosexual behavior in some populations is very widespread in the higher animal world . Such behavior is accordingly assigned a possible evolutionary function for the reduction of aggression and social integration in complex, highly developed vertebrate societies. Homosexual behavior of parts of a population of highly developed living beings is accordingly a phenomenon that has arisen through natural evolution and is widespread in living nature and fulfills meaningful functions.
Etymology and usage
The term "homosexuality" is a hybrid word formation from 1868, coined by the writer Karl Maria Kertbeny (1824–1882, civil: Karl Maria Benkert) from Greek ὁμός homόs "equal" and Latin sexus "gender". At the same time he coined the term " heterosexuality " as an antonym . Richard von Krafft-Ebing ensured that the neoplasms were widespread with his work Psychopathia sexualis from 1886 onwards .
The background for this and other word formations was that there was no traditional term for same-sex sensation in modern times until the mid-19th century . Four years before Kertbeny, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the terms “Uranism”, “Urning” (male) and “Urninde” (female) in 1864. Two years after Kertbeny and before the appearance of Psychopathia sexualis , Carl Westphal coined the term "contrary sexual sensation" in 1870. All three terms were used according to preference. In 1914, Magnus Hirschfeld reported that the term "homosexuality" had established itself.
Hirschfeld found it problematic that under the impression of the ending -sexual, the word is often not recorded and used in the sense of same-sex convention, but in the sense of a sexual act . In fact, this is a polysemy (ambiguity) that still exists today . In 1990 , Ernest Bornemann pointed to public surveys according to which the majority of Germans understood the term to mean that homosexuality was less an orientation than "sexual intercourse between men".
The fact that homo in Latin means “man” (but also “man”) and not, as in Greek, “equal”, in conjunction with the fact that the second part of the word comes from Latin, often leads to one erroneous narrowing of the word meaning to "male homosexuality". This sometimes results in bizarre expressions , such as the redundant formulation “homosexuals and lesbians”.
The narrowing to male-male sexuality applies above all to the noun “homosexual”, whose female counterpart “homosexual” is rarely used. Instead, homosexual women are referred to as lesbians (after the Greek island of Lesbos , home of the woman-loving poet Sappho ) or, outdated, as lesbians . Similarly, there is also the word gay for homosexual men (from sultry - "oppressively hot", in this meaning since the 18th century, "sultry" as a parallel to "cool", or from "gayity" - "difficulty, distress, embarrassing situation ").
Originally used derogatory or only in the context of one's own subculture, the term “gay” was used by the homosexual movement as a fighting term in the 1970s and thus made socially acceptable to such an extent that the term even appears in the language of legislation today. Through its defiant use as a self-designation, the derogatory character of the word should be suppressed and expropriated from homosexual enemies. However, this was only partially successful. In youth language , the word "gay" is still (or even increasingly) used as a swear word and is often used there as a synonym for "boring", "soft" or "annoying". " Fagot " and " Fagot " are often used synonymously .
In order to avoid the misunderstanding that “homosexuality” conceptually refers only to men, the German translation “ same-sex” has been brought into play since 1900 as an alternative , primarily as an adjective (same-sex), less as a noun or even as a person (same-sex) . The term prevents confusion with the term man and puts the semantic focus away from sexuality and towards gender. It has also recently been preferred in draft laws and laws because of its legal clarity. It is also frequently used when describing other cultures, as the word homosexual is mentally linked to many social characteristics and descriptions of identities in the western industrialized world.
The term homosexualism , which was also introduced by Kertbeny, but has always been used only sporadically, is linguistically outdated . In recent times, “homosexualism” has been used in a mostly derogatory way by value-conservative, often devout people. In part it is used as a mere synonym for homosexuality, but also in part to express the conviction that demands going beyond impunity and physical integrity represent an “ideology” that contradicts one's own views. In addition, homotropia is (rarely) used as a term for sexual, erotic and partner-like attraction to one's own gender (see also Antonius MJM Herman van de Spijker ).
English language terms
In the English-speaking world, on the other hand, the lesbian and gay movement has replaced the word gay (in retrospective recourse to its original meaning “happy” and “colorful”, which in the meantime, however, was replaced by the meaning “dissolute, immoral” from the 17th to the 20th century was established) as a self-designation in order to distance oneself from the expression queer ("strange, funny"), which was still used disparagingly at the time .
Originally a gender-neutral term, the term - similar to the German word gay - narrowed to men in the 1970s, while same-sex loving women increasingly referred to themselves as lesbians and dykes in the wake of lesbian- feminist separatism . The term gay has also become common in other languages such as French (gai) and has recently been used increasingly again as a loan word in Germany.
In the early 1990s, more radical political circles reappropriated the word queer as an umbrella term for lesbians and gays, which then mostly includes transgender people. However, this term has not replaced the words gay and lesbian , but only partially replaced them. Through queer theory he experienced a similar internationalization as the term gay before .
Missing terms and other concepts
Since the idea that same-sex love and sexuality are linked to or restricted to a certain type of person is a modern, western-style idea, indigenous expressions for homosexual people are missing in almost all languages. It used to be the same in the West . John Henry Mackay published the books of "nameless love" as early as 1906 under his pseudonym Sagitta . In the first volume, Mackay explains that there is still no adequate name for this love, so he has to call it the "nameless" one. He explains that this love is neither a matter of the church (terms like sodomy , unchastity) nor of the state, nor of medicine (homosexuality), but is solely subject to nature and therefore only subject to the laws of nature.
Even today, for example, there is no fixed term for lesbians and gays in Arabic. The religious term luti (لوطي, DMG lūṭī , derived from the biblical figure Lot ) corresponds roughly to the Christian term sodomite and describes someone who practices the act of anal intercourse prohibited by Islam. However, it is not used in the western sense as a name for a minority with a fixed identity. In Egypt , those involved in the gay scene that emerged in the 1990s are instead referred to by the media as shaddh (شاذ / šāḏḏ , literally "abnormal", "irregular" or "unnatural"; also shaddh dschinsiyyan /شاذ جنسيًا / šāḏḏ ǧinsīyan / 'sexually abnormal') denotes and defamed. However, there are also non-judgmental terms that differ from the Arabic word mithl /مثل / miṯl / derive 'equal' - mithli /متلي / miṯlī for gays and mithliyya /مثلية / miṯlīya for lesbians -, beingمثلية also means "homosexuality" in itself.
In Hungary , the swear word buzi is currently being used as a self-designation by members of the gay scene, although it has no meaning in itself. It's used wherever you want to vent your anger that something has gone wrong. Due to its playful connotations , it is used analogously to the English term queer .
In Zimbabwe , the GALZ (Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe) organization, founded in 1990, uses English terms because the founders at the time, who were mostly white and not very politicized, did not understand the difference between an African concept of same-sex relationships and a Western identity as lesbian or gay and the only alternative in the local Shona language would have been the offensive expression ngochani . The name was retained later, however, as international human rights on the basis of sexual identity seemed easier to enforce.
In the Afro-American population of the USA , the term down-low or DL emerged during the 1990s to distinguish it from a white gay identity . It is derived from the phrase to be on the down low ("don't hang it on the big bell"). In order to reach same-sex loving men without a gay identity through HIV prevention campaigns, AIDS organizations are now using the neutral term “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM). This culture- and context-sensitive strategy has meanwhile also established itself at international conferences.
Behavior, orientation and identity
Estimates of the frequency of homosexuality vary considerably and are further complicated by different, differing definitions of the subject. In addition, it can be assumed that surveys are falsified downwards rather than upwards due to the social stigmatization of homosexuality and the associated tendency to remain silent . In a representative Emnid survey from 2000 , for example, only 1.3 and 0.6 percent of those surveyed living in Germany rated themselves as gay or lesbian and 2.8 and 2.5 percent as bisexual. At the same time, however, 9.4 percent of men and 19.5 percent of women stated that they felt erotically attracted to their own gender. In 2009, researchers from the Robert Koch Institute and the Berlin Science Center estimated the proportion of men in Germany who have sex with men to be 2.5 to 3.4 percent of the population, which would correspond to an average of 600,000 people. In an online survey in Germany in 2016, 7.4 percent of respondents assigned to the LGBT spectrum as a whole.
In a survey conducted in Australia in 2003, 1.6 percent of men identified themselves as homosexual and 0.9 percent as bisexual; 0.8 and 1.4 percent of the women surveyed stated that they were lesbian or bisexual. In Canada, a 2003 survey of men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 found 1.0 percent homosexual and 0.7 percent bisexual. In the UK, a 2011/2012 survey by the Office for National Statistics found that 1.1 percent of all respondents rated themselves as gay or lesbian, 0.4 percent described themselves as bisexual, and another 3.6 percent were related unsure of their orientation. According to a representative study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in March 2011, 1.7 percent of American men between the ages of 15 and 44 describe themselves as homosexual. Gary J. Gates of the University of California examined eleven US and international studies from recent years; thereafter, the proportion of women and men identifying as homosexual and bisexual in the USA rose from 2004–2009. On average, the proportion in 2009 among non-heterosexual women was 3.3% (1.1% homosexual) and 3.6% among men (2.2% homosexual). In absolute terms, this means that approximately 9 million Americans are non-heterosexual. According to the 2013 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 1.6% of the US population described themselves as homosexual and 0.7% as bisexual.
In terms of actual sexual behavior, the 1948 Kinsey Report found that 37 percent of the US male population had "at least some physical homosexual experiences before orgasm" after puberty and a further 13 percent had "erotic reactions to other men" To entertain "without actual homosexual contacts". All in all, therefore, only 50 percent of the male adult population are exclusively heterosexual and only four percent without exception - and throughout their entire life - homosexual.
Even at Kinsey, the proportion of homosexuality in the “overall instinctual pacification” was not a fixed one, but depended to a large extent on the respective class affiliation. During this time, members of the lower classes had far more homosexual contacts than the bourgeoisie and the elite .
More recent studies also show how much these numbers can be subject to historical change. In a study on youth sexuality carried out by the Hamburg Institute for Sexual Research in 1970, 18 percent of the 16- and 17-year-old boys surveyed stated that they had had same-sex sexual experiences. Twenty years later it was only two percent - without this having significantly increased the proportion of boys with heterosexual contacts.
The sexologist Volkmar Sigusch explains this onset of same-sex youth experiences and the like. a. with the growing public discussion of “homosexuality” and the associated fear of boys that “possibly being viewed as 'gay' because of such actions”. However, the proportion of girls with homosexual contacts remained constant at six percent over the same period.
Similarly, the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA) found in its representative repeat survey between 1980 and 1996 that the proportion of 14- to 17-year-old boys who admitted to having had "close physical experiences" with their own gender was halved (out of ten to five percent), while conversely the proportion of girls who reported such experiences increased from eight to 13 percent between 2001 and 2005.
The actual frequency of homosexual experiences cannot be determined over time and uniformly for all social classes. Social and cultural framework conditions influence the self-assessment on the subject of homosexuality determined in surveys, so that a direct reference to the facts is difficult.
Many people who are more attracted to their own gender will come out in the course of their lives. In the meantime, this process is described in two phases: In the first step, the focus is on “becoming aware” or “self-admitting”, i.e. the recognition or the decision that one is open to same-sex love. It is also known as inner coming out . The second phase is called "explaining yourself", i.e. the step outwards, coming out with family, friends and / or colleagues. For some, this process already happens at the age of eleven, others are only aware of their sexual orientation at the age of 40 or more. Most of them come out at school age, around the time of puberty . At this age, many do not dare to seek help from others, especially when they find that their inclinations are not socially accepted. Even one's own parents are sometimes not informed about it. Coming out can sometimes lead to a life crisis that can escalate to suicidal intentions or realized suicide . Advice centers in the larger cities and information sites on the Internet try to help these people to accept their homosexuality. In fact, the suicide rate among pubescent homosexuals is significantly higher than that of heterosexuals of the same age.
Under the sociological concept of situational homosexuality (Engl. Situational Homosexuality ), sometimes referred to more than pseudo homosexuality is meant homosexual acts by persons who do not homosexual by standard definition, or even a bisexual orientation have so heterosexual sexual contact prefer. The basic idea is that the activity would never have happened had it not been for people in an unusual situation. Such men are also the group of heterosexual men who have sex with men : (English Straight Men Who Have Sex with Men, SMSM) attributed.
Situational homosexuality occurs primarily in environments in which only people of the same sex live for a long time. Typical places are prisons , educational institutions, ships at sea, submarines , drilling rigs , barracks , monasteries and convents, boarding schools, sports teams on tour and remote labor camps, for example for mines or major construction projects. Above all there it is also referred to as emergency homosexuality, prison homosexuality and, during National Socialism, camp homosexuality. In science, one sometimes speaks of bisexual sexual behavior, homosexual substitute acts or experimental homosexuality. Male prostitution often falls under situational homosexuality; this is the standard example of pseudo-homosexuality. Adolescent same-sex acts are counted only in segregated-sex settings, sometimes referred to as developmental homosexuality. However, some aspects in this otherwise separate view of young people are very similar to situational homosexuality.
Reverend Louis Dwight reported on the conditions in American prisons in 1826. This is the earliest report on American penal institutions. Josiah Flynt described situational sex among the American hobos with whom he traveled in 1899 . In 1926, Hans Otto Henel described the situation during the First World War in Eros in Barbed Wire , which inspired Karl Plättner to write his work Eros im Zuchthaus , published in 1929 . Many erotic fantasies and stories take place in settings with situational homosexuality.
Since many societies reject homosexual identity and openly homosexual life, it is often difficult to find out what is behind an individual heterosexual identity. Sometimes social pressure and internalized homophobia can also lead to such an identity. Perhaps more people would identify as bisexual if it were more widely accepted by both heterosexual and homosexual societies. The concept of situational homosexuality raises questions about the extent to which active sexual behavior expresses internal desires and is influenced by external circumstances. Sexual orientation is a very complex system with many intermediate stages between two extremes or on two separate scales and, more precisely, even on several emotional levels at the same time. The deprivation of opposite-sex sexual contacts is coped with differently by different people. As early as the late 19th century it was recognized that some individuals never exhibit same-sex activity, no matter how long and how intensively they have been without heterosexual contact. Likewise, many homosexual people do not show heterosexual activity, even if homosexuality is treated repressively and is impractical. Basically, it is assumed that actions that do not correspond to the sexual orientation will not affect the same. Not in contradiction to this, cross-cultural comparisons show that same-sex sexual behavior occurs more often in situations of opposite-sex deprivation, especially among men during their main sexual hours.
In many cultures, situational same-sex life is tolerated. Some social analysts suggest that situational homosexuality is used to reinforce homophobia and biphobia by allowing those who have had homosexual sexual contact in same-sex settings to further define themselves as heterosexual. In such environments, a distinction is often made between “real homosexuals” and those who remain straight. The former are socially stigmatized while their partner is not. This distinction reinforces homophobia, although same-sex activity is tolerated. Even though it is often tacitly expected and to some extent tolerated, it is still expected to remain hidden. If it becomes publicly visible, it will be punished, even if everyone knew about it. The "real homosexual" is often punished more severely than his allegedly heterosexual partner, who allegedly only acts out of the situation. Often, the distinction is also made between who is the “active / male” and who is the “passive / female” partner during sex. These signs were also evident, for example, in southern Europe and especially in the Orient (North Africa to Pakistan) with a strictly segregated society, where many Europeans "fled" from the already prevailing strong rejection and which in some cases had a bad reputation in this country. The attitude there did not change until the 1960s, but sometimes old traditions still exist or flare up again.
Differentiation from transgender
→ Main article: Transgender
If homosexuality is about the gender of the preferred partner, transgender, which can also include transsexuality , is about the perception of one's own gender identity , which is independent of sexual orientation. But both are part of the multi-layered sexual identity .
Relationships with people of the same identity gender are perceived as homosexual, those with people of a different identity gender as heterosexual, whereby the rate of homosexual or bisexual transgender is far higher than that of non-transgender; depending on the estimate, this is at least a third. In older literature is still the use of homo- or heterosexuality is relative to the originally assigned gender, say for example a married to a man would Trans woman described as gay, contrary to their perception, a gay trans man as heterosexual. In the more recent literature, this use is steadily decreasing; it can no longer be found in mainly social science texts.
Because of the original use, which was perceived as derogatory, and because of the difficulty in defining exactly the same and different , many transgender people prefer gay , lesbian , queer etc. as self- names instead of homosexual and heterosexual . The terms gynecophilia and androphilia, which are gender-neutral for the person who desires, are rarely used.
There are several reasons why homosexuality is often associated with transgender, transsexual and sometimes intersexuality :
- In the past there was no clear distinction between homosexuality - transvestism - travesty - transsexuality. Hirschfeld rarely used the term of the third sex , but in brochures and books written for the general public, and spoke generally of sexual intermediate stages. Later, however, he separated from transvestism and was already thinking of separating from transsexuality, which was only further thought through the war in the USA in the 1950s. The idea of the third gender persisted, if not in science, at least socially until at least the 1970s. Today both groups, or all people who do not correspond to the heteronormative pattern, are understood as queer .
- In different individual biographies of transsexuals and intersexuals there are always periods of time of different lengths in which one suspects to be homosexual or transvestite / transgender, until this is rejected again and the real cause emerges. For example, the pseudo-hermaphrodite ski racer Erik Schinegger , who believed he was a lesbian; Chaz Bono , who came out as a lesbian in 1990 and transsexual in 2008; and Christian Schenk .
- Parts of the lesbian-gay subculture were often the only place where transgender people were socially accepted in their perceived gender. Transvestites could also socialize there and there is also a close relationship with artistic travesty .
- Already seldom in Central Europe, but even more often observed among immigrants from the Islamic culture and from the former Eastern Bloc countries, the ego-dystonic sexual orientation , which must be distinguished from transsexuality. By means of socially prescribed scripts (“you cannot love the same sex”) people can be made to feel that they belong to the opposite sex. Today, Iran stands out, in which homosexual acts by men are punished with death, but transsexuality is considered an illness that can be treated by surgery.
Worldwide (as of May 2012) homosexuals are currently being prosecuted in 78 of the 193 member states of the United Nations , for example in Nigeria , Uganda , Tanzania , Zimbabwe , Angola , Jamaica , Belize and in most of the Islamic states, with five of these countries - Iran , Yemen , Sudan , Saudi Arabia and Mauritania - as well as parts of Nigeria and Somalia the death penalty is provided for same-sex intercourse. In India and Iraq, the legal situation is unclear or difficult to understand.
But also in parts of Europe , for example in Russia , Belarus , Albania and even in some of the new EU countries, the situation of human rights is currently questionable: In Poland and Latvia, for example, demonstrations for tolerance towards gays and lesbians are banned or partially by official bodies confronted with massive violence stoked by the churches and right-wing nationalists. In Poland, some leading politicians have recently called for homosexuals to be put in camps or eliminated from Poland. In 2007, a law was discussed that would make even mentioning homosexuality a criminal offense for teachers. It is also forbidden to explain how homosexual men can protect themselves from AIDS. Teachers who violate this can be dismissed from school service. In the UN , the Vatican and the Islamic states are trying to prevent the discussion of the human rights situation for gays and lesbians. The prevention or disruption of gay and lesbian demonstrations, Prides and the handover of petitions in Warsaw , Riga and Moscow by the police in 2005, 2006 and 2007 caused a certain stir , with the parliamentary manager and member of the Bundestag from Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen Volker Beck was arrested on short notice.
Regardless of the discrimination by named social groups or the lack of protection through state interference, gays and lesbians are also often exposed to homophobic attacks that are carried out by people who fear their own latent homosexuality. Scientific studies with what they say were heterosexual men show that those who expressed themselves as homophobic reacted much more strongly to same-sex sexual stimuli than those who did not express themselves homophobic. Other studies suggest that men who become insecure about what they consider typical masculine characteristics to be that they may not correspond to this image themselves want to overcompensate for this with pronounced machism and aggression against homosexuals .
Recognition of partnerships
The extensive legal equality of lesbians and gays with heterosexuals is predominantly welcomed in the lesbian and gay movement, even if it is still controversial whether one would like to approach the classic norms of "civil marriage" in terms of society and relationships, some of which are still believe they are finding remnants of a patriarchal social order, with a strict division of gender roles that would not be applicable to a same-sex relationship.
Legal regulations for same-sex partnerships already exist in a number of countries. Several countries have made marriage possible for same-sex couples: the Netherlands (2001), Belgium (2003), Spain (2005), Canada (2005), South Africa (2006), Norway (2009), Sweden (2009), Portugal (2010), Iceland (2010), Argentina (2010), Denmark (2012), New Zealand (2013), Uruguay (2013), Brazil (2013), France (2013), United Kingdom (2014), Ireland (2015), Luxembourg , homosexuality in the United States (2015, see Recognition of Same-Sex Partnerships in the United States ), Colombia (2016), Finland and Germany (2017). In Austria and Australia , the opening of marriage for same-sex couples was decided in December 2017 and will come into force in Austria on January 1, 2019 at the latest and in Australia on January 1, 2018
In many other countries there are registered partnerships , some of which have the same legal effects as marriage, but some also have lesser rights, such as B. the registered civil partnership in Switzerland .
The legal institute of civil partnerships has existed in Germany since August 1, 2001 . After it was passed by the Bundestag , some politicians expressed doubts about this; the Union-governed states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia even tried to have the law repealed completely before the Federal Constitutional Court . However, this made it clear that nothing stood in the way of full equality with marriage, since the civil partnership does not compete with marriage for the simple reason that it affects another group of people.
The civil partnership corresponds - as far as the civil code is concerned - largely to marriage. Only the joint adoption of non-biological children is not possible. Life partners can, however, adopt their partner's biological child (so-called stepchild adoption ). In this way, two women or two men can become legally joint parents of children. In February 2013, a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court also allowed the successive second adoption of an adopted child. In the statutory health, long-term care and pension insurance (including widow's pension), life partners are treated equally with spouses. They live - like spouses - in the property regime of the community of profits , unless they agree otherwise. After the separation, equal treatment also applies to the law on maintenance. Prejudice rules and the right to refuse to give evidence apply as with married couples. In addition, an engagement for life partners is legally effective in accordance with the engagement for spouses.
In federal civil service law, life partners are treated equally retrospectively from 2001 ( family allowance , survivor's pension , etc.). Here, the equality against the resistance of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group in the Bundestag and the Union-governed states in the Bundesrat took place through a judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, which was then implemented in parliamentary law. The federalism reform has meanwhile transferred responsibility for civil servants' law to the federal government for its civil servants and to the federal states for state civil servants. Bremen was the first federal state to equate its partnered civil servants and judges with its married civil servants and judges; this was followed by Berlin, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Hesse, Baden-Württemberg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony and Bavaria. In the course of the inheritance tax reform in January 2011, registered civil partnerships were treated as equivalent to marriage. In income tax law ( income tax ), life partners have been treated equally since 2013. An adjustment in income tax, as part of the splitting of spouses, took place in the summer of 2013, after a ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court in favor of homosexual, partnered couples.
More radical parts of the lesbian and gay movement reject the civil partnership - frowned upon as marriage light - and the associated special legislation for homosexuals. Instead, they call for the abolition of marriage and advocate so-called “elective affinities” for a period of time.
On June 30, 2017, the Bundestag decided to open up marriage to same-sex couples.
In Switzerland , a PACS was first introduced in the canton of Geneva on May 1, 2001, which made it possible to register homosexual as well as heterosexual partnerships. On September 22, 2002, a registered partnership was approved by the electorate in the canton of Zurich with a 62.7% yes share. This regulation went much further than the Geneva solution and put registered civil partnerships on an equal footing with married couples, as far as this was within the competence of the canton. With the decision of the cantonal parliament on January 27, 2004, the canton of Neuchâtel also introduced registered partnerships for unmarried couples.
On June 5, 2005, the entire Swiss electorate voted on the Partnership Act (PartG) on registered partnerships. It was the first national referendum on this issue anywhere in the world. 58% of the participating voters approved the law. There were fairly homogeneous majorities especially in the Central Plateau from the canton of St. Gallen to the canton of Geneva ; not only cities agreed, but also more rural areas. Rural, rural, Catholic cantons in particular were negative. A total of 16.5 out of 23 cantons have adopted the law. The registered partnership in Switzerland creates equality with marriage in tax matters, social benefits, inheritance law, visiting rights, the right to refuse to testify, etc. However, it expressly prevents access to reproductive medicine and adoption. The registered partnership in Switzerland has an impact on marital status. The marital status is no longer "single", but "in a registered partnership". The law came into force on January 1, 2007.
In Austria - after a perspective group of the coalition party ÖVP and part of the party executive decided in autumn 2007 that there should be a legal institution - the Registered Partnership Act came into force on January 1, 2010 . After an exchange of views with the lawyer Helmut Graupner , many were even in favor of opening up marriage, which was also one of the proposals to the party executive. According to Federal Party Chairman and Vice Chancellor Wilhelm Molterer , Switzerland served as a model.
A counterpoint to the efforts to equate homosexual relationships with marriage can be found in the representatives of the politics of lifestyles .
The growing up of children in same-sex partnerships and the legal issues that arise have recently been discussed under the term “ rainbow family ”. The children mostly come from previous relationships, others are foster or adopted children, were conceived through artificial insemination or heterologous (home) insemination with semen from personally known or anonymous donors, or two couples arrange co-parenting, surrogate mothers already come through the legal Conditions rarely used.
With the adoption of the European directives on anti-discrimination in labor law, dismissals and other discriminatory measures based on the homosexual identity of employees in the private sector as well as employees and civil servants in the public sector are not permitted in the member states of the EU . Exceptions exist for ideological organizations and associations. They can “require those who work for them to behave in a loyal and sincere manner in accordance with the ethos of the organization”. These regulations have found their way into German law with Section 8 (1) and Section 9 of the General Equal Treatment Act .
Accordingly, the ethical positions of the churches and other religious and ideological communities also apply in German labor law. For homosexuals this means that they can be fired from organizations or associations where the rejection of homosexuality or homosexual acts is part of the ethos.
In the Roman Catholic Church , lived homosexuality is viewed as incompatible with the Christian faith. Employees of the Catholic Church who openly acknowledge their homosexuality are therefore usually fired. Such a contradiction is also seen when a same-sex civil partnership is entered into according to the Civil Partnership Act . Comparable to divorced colleagues who remarry, they are usually dismissed for violating their duties of loyalty as an employee.
In 2010, for example, a female cleaner at a Catholic kindergarten in the diocese of Essen was dismissed because she had entered into a registered civil partnership with a woman. In individual church-related Catholic organizations , a chat profile on an internet portal for homosexuals can lead to dismissal without notice if the organization management becomes aware of it (see churches as a tendency company ). Such a termination did not last before the labor court in Frankfurt.
In 2005, the Holy See also published an instruction in which persons with “deep-seated homosexual tendencies” and “supporters of a homosexual culture” are considered unsuitable candidates for ordination such as priests or deacons. Individuals with less “deep-seated homosexual tendencies [who] represent a temporary problem such as incomplete adolescence ” should be excluded “at least three years before ordination” . In May 2015 the German Bishops' Conference repealed the "Declaration on the incompatibility of civil partners according to the Civil Partnership Act" of June 24, 2002.
In contrast, employees, including pastors, in the Evangelical regional churches of the EKD are not threatened by dismissal under labor law or disciplinary measures if they enter into a civil partnership with their partner or if their homosexual identity becomes known in any other way. In some regional churches of the EKD they are even treated as equal to marriage in terms of salary, which is also the case in the Old Catholic Church .
Equality in the military
Overall, the Bundeswehr - not least because of the increasing number of women soldiers - had to develop its awareness of sexuality. This only began late in 2000 with the amendment to the “Management Aid for Superiors”, Vol. 2, A.III.7. However, it is already required here that military superiors with regard to sexual minorities (“tolerance towards other sexual orientations that are not subject to punishment”, including transsexual soldiers) must actively “vigorously oppose any discrimination”.
Discrimination has also been prohibited with the sexual decree “Dealing with Sexuality in the Bundeswehr”, which is of higher legal rank, to the Central Service Regulation (ZDv) 14/3, Annex B 173. With the last change in July 2004, after decades of ostracizing homosexual superiors who, with the approval of the highest court rulings, had to reckon with transfers and even dismissals - as in the Kießling affair , for example - a more liberal approach to sexuality was chosen: "The privacy of soldiers and women Soldiers, as part of their personal rights, cannot be influenced by their employers. ”“ Therefore, outside of work, both heterosexual and homosexual partnerships and activities among soldiers are regularly irrelevant in terms of disciplinary law. ”
Another change came into force with the Soldiers' Equal Treatment Act (SoldGG) in 2006, which prohibits "discrimination on grounds of [...] sexual identity" ( (1) of the Soldiers Act), but additionally from this The standard of non-discrimination also depends on professional success, namely in the case of “establishment, structuring and termination of an employment relationship and […] professional advancement” ( (1) No. 1 of the Soldiers Act). This insertion is purely declaratory due to the validity of the Charter of Fundamental Rights .
In the future, all types of relationships are generally referred to the private sphere. Homosexual relationships can also be maintained outside of duty within military facilities, and the rank of the relationship partner no longer plays a role. Soldiers in registered civil partnerships have their own civil status designation (ELP) and are entitled to receive separation allowance.
The QueerBw association represents the interests of homosexual people in the Bundeswehr.
A younger generation of lesbian-gay sociologists, philosophers and historians such as Mary McIntosh ( The Homosexual Role , 1968), Michel Foucault ( La Volonté de savoir, 1976), Alan Bray ( Homosexuality in Renaissance England, 1982) or, at present, David Halperin ( How to do the History of Homosexuality, 2002) no longer regards homosexuality as a timeless essence, but as an invention of modern European times. This does not mean that women and men have not had same-sex sex in other places and at other times. Rather, the authors mentioned take the position that our current conception of homosexuality as a "way of being" that distinguishes a minority from a majority is a relatively recent construction .
The theological model of sodomy that preceded the modern concept of homosexuality is in stark contrast to it. Sodomy - as "unnatural" ( Plato ) intercourse between men, but also between a man and a woman - was viewed as a general human vice and not assigned to a specific category of people. Foucault accentuated this difference by claiming in a famous sentence : "The sodomite was a stumbled man, the homosexual is a species ." (See also persecution of sodomites ).
Friendship as a way of life
“ Friendship ” could almost always refer to a romantic relationship between two people of the same sex. Kissing, hugging and holding hands , sleeping together in a bed (hence the ancient term "bedfellow") as well as passionate expressions of love and oaths of loyalty were considered completely normal among men well into the early modern era and often even at the beginning of the 20th century perceived. Among women, this is still the case today in some cases, albeit with increasing restrictions since the end of the 19th century. The semantics (meaning content) of friendship and love could therefore hardly be distinguished from one another. The Greek word philos (φίλος), for example, can mean both 'friend' and 'lover'.
In Christianity, such relationships were rarely associated with the “ monstrous ” figure of the sodomite, and when they did, it was mostly in the context of political intrigue (as in the case of Edward II or the medieval Knights Templar ).
Christian mysticism , influenced by Islamic Sufism , even charged the love between friends with a religious meaning. Christianity also adapted the term “ brother ” ( sworn brotherhood ) used in the Gilgamesh epic as well as in the Jewish Bible , but also in the Satyricon for a love affair between two men . To unite them, the Orthodox Church had developed the rite of “making brothers” ( Adelphopoiesis ), which named numerous pairs of saints as role models for the two friends for their love, which was to last until death. However, this did not rule out a parallel marriage to a woman. In the Latin West, where until well into modern times neither married couples nor sworn brothers (fratres iurati) required the blessing of a priest, at least a number of tombs have been preserved in which male and later female couples were buried together. The engravings often contain symbols of immortal love such as the depiction of a kiss or the inscription "United in life, not separated in death". The fact that sworn brotherhoods were legitimized as same-sex partnerships (i.e. including genital acts) accepted by the church in the form of adelphopoiesis is not tenable. The original purpose of Adelphopoiesis was to establish a spiritual relationship (like a baptism sponsorship). The sworn brotherhood must actually also have been used by same-sex lovers, because for this reason this rite was later abolished or prohibited by Eastern Roman law and by the Orthodox Church.
"Invention" of the homosexual
From the institution of the sworn brotherhood (see above) only the term of the warm brother as a synonym for a “gay” remains today. This change in terms reveals the historical rupture caused by the modern concept of homosexuality: gestures of affection, which in the past would have been understood simply as a sign of friendship, are now identified as "homosexual" and thus represent a deviation from the social Norm under suspicion. The consequence is a drastic decline in same-sex sexual experiences from 18 to two percent between 1970 and 1990 alone, which can be documented especially among male adolescents. This development is accompanied by growing homophobia , because many young people are fearful of being “gay” or “lesbian”. to apply, to demarcate oneself demonstratively (and sometimes even violently) from all homosexuals. This tendency towards differentiation is generally much more pronounced among young men than among young women. It is through this active defense that the stigmatizing label of homosexuality reproduces itself as if by itself .
Globalization of a way of thinking
The binary categorization of people as straight and homo or “normal” and “different” has meanwhile become an apparently irrefutable reality almost worldwide. This process, which occurred in some major European cities such as London, Paris and Amsterdam around 1700, did not reach regions such as China until the beginning or middle of the 20th century. Some post-colonial authors such as Hong Kong sociology professor Zhou Huashan criticize homophobia in their countries as a consequence of European imperialism . Due to the strict gender segregation in sport, the spread of binary categorization is linked to the development of sport.
Until the High Middle Ages , anal intercourse was considered a sin in the Christian area, but not yet a crime; consequently, at most a church penance and a temporary exclusion from the Eucharist threatened , but no secular measures. From the 13th century until the Enlightenment , anal intercourse between men was threatened with the stake in almost all of Europe under the designation “ sodomy ” by secular laws , here the persecution of sodomites is still spoken of. There were major persecutions and hundreds of executions each during the late Middle Ages in northern Italy and Spain, and throughout the 18th century in England, France and the Netherlands.
The ideas of the French Revolution led to the abolition of all laws against "unnatural fornication" around 1800 in numerous states that were based on the French Code pénal (for example in the Netherlands, the Rhineland and Bavaria). With the introduction of the General Land Law in 1794, Prussia converted the death penalty into a prison sentence . 1871, the Prussian paragraph was included in the Penal Code included the German Reich and as a § 175 increasingly applied in the following period.
Change from criminal offense to "mental illness"
The German-Austrian psychiatrist and forensic doctor Richard von Krafft-Ebing had a great influence at this time (see here ). His research, gained through criminal cases and in psychiatry, portrayed homosexuals as hereditary perverts who are not responsible for their innate "reversal" of the sex drive and therefore do not belong in the hands of a criminal judge, but in the hands of neurologists . In doing so, he opened up a new “patient population” for forced treatment and research experiments .
In his book Psychopathia Sexualis (1886, the book became a standard work ), he defined homosexuality as a congenital neuropsychopathic disorder, i.e. as a hereditary nervous disease. This diagnosis enabled him to speak out in favor of complete impunity for homosexuality, since homosexuals are not responsible for their "deformity" and homosexuality is not contagious. However, it was only through this that homosexuality was pathologized and homosexual people were declared to be insane. Although Krafft-Ebing was regarded as the authoritative authority in the field of forensic medicine in his time, this theory had no consequences for impunity, since church-conservative circles in particular did not want to forego the moral ostracism of homosexuals.
Until the reform of § 175 in 1969, the police worked with informers in the gay subculture and secret pink lists on which numerous names of homosexual men were recorded. Since homosexuality was persecuted and diagnosed as a mental illness until the 1970s , homosexuals could also be detained in a forensic psychiatry for an indefinite period of time . An example is the "treatment" of the British mathematician and computer pioneer Alan Turing in 1952, who died shortly afterwards, probably by suicide .
Persecution in the time of National Socialism
Estimates of the number of gay men who died in concentration camps during the Nazi era vary considerably. The most reliable figures to this day come from Rüdiger Lautmann . He estimated the number of homosexual men deported to concentration camps at 10,000 to 15,000. About 53% of them were killed. The reason for z. In some cases, estimates that go significantly beyond this are a. that it cannot be determined how many people murdered for other reasons were homosexual.
Some men were tolerated despite their homosexuality, which was known to the Nazi regime. For example, Reich Economics Minister Walther Funk, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1946 for his crimes, and the gay sculptor Arno Breker, who was and was even placed on the God-gifted list of the most important artists from the Nazi point of view by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels was put on the special list of "irreplaceable artists". John C. Fout showed for Hamburg that 90 percent of homosexuals who were sent to concentration camps or sanatoriums were workers; only the remaining 10 percent belonged to the middle class.
In Germany, in contrast to Austria, there was no law against lesbian love, so lesbian women - unlike homosexual men - were not marked with a pink triangle or something similar in concentration camps and were not systematically persecuted. Nonetheless, cases of lesbian women are known whose life plans gave rise to persecution. Most of them were declared "anti-social" and had to wear black triangles in the concentration camp. Individual cases in the access lists of the Ravensbrück concentration camp indicate this with additional remarks next to the reason for detention.
Legal situation in the post-war period
In the Federal Republic of Germany , Section 175 continued to exist until 1969 in the version tightened up by the National Socialists , which was recognized as lawful by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1957. It was not until 1994 that it ceased to exist in the course of legal alignment with the GDR . Gays convicted during that time were symbolically rehabilitated in Germany on May 17, 2002 by the Bundestag. In the German Democratic Republic, consensual, homosexual acts among adults had not been prosecuted since the late 1950s.
In Austria the § 209 existed ÖStGB with similar wording as § 175 of the Criminal Code in Germany until 2002, when he was suspended by the Austrian Constitutional Court, and went on 14 August 2002. Nevertheless, Austria was subsequently condemned several times by the European Court of Human Rights , which also expressly stated that Section 209 was in violation of human rights, because it had failed to rehabilitate those convicted of violating human rights.
The first demands for the urnian marriage were made by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs in 1867 at the German Jurists Conference in Munich in front of 500 members. Even if his lecture was received with derision and rejection, the story of homosexual emancipation begins on this day.
The beginning of the organized homosexual emancipation movement is generally set with the founding of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (WhK) by the Berlin doctor Magnus Hirschfeld in 1897. It was, however, an association of dignitaries that only comprised around 500 members and did not appear to the outside world as a homosexual movement. Instead, it used only scientific arguments to promote the deletion of Section 175.
In terms of numbers, the friendship alliances established after 1919 were far more significant. Her focus was on the planning of social events, but also included political and journalistic activities as well as guaranteeing legal protection for those members who were affected by Section 175. The German Friendship Association (DFB), founded in August 1920, and the Bund für Menschenrechte (BfM), founded in May 1922, competed as umbrella groups. The latter turned out to be by far the more successful model in terms of its size development. As early as 1924 it had over 12,000 members; In 1929, towards the end of the Weimar Republic, there were even more than 48,000. According to the association, there were foreign affiliated groups in Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, New York City, Argentina and Brazil. However, little is known about most of these groups. An exception is a Swiss group around Karl Meier with their magazine Der Kreis , which was the only one in Europe that could not be broken up by the National Socialists. As a result, it became a model for many newly emerging groups after the Second World War.
A new focus of the homosexual movement emerged in the United States. In the spring of 1951 Harry Hay, a member of the CPUSA , founded the Mattachine Society together with Bob Hull, Chuck Rowland, Dale Jennings and Rudi Gernreich . In 1955 the lesbian organization Daughters of Bilitis was founded under the leadership of Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon . Both groups described themselves as homophiles in order to avoid reducing homosexuality to the act of cohabiting. Under the pressure of the McCarthy era , these organizations depoliticized themselves and became debating clubs that did not appear in public. It was not until the mid-1960s that Dick Leitsch (New York) and Frank Kameny ( Washington ) reoriented towards the forms of protest of the black civil rights movement .
On June 28, 1969, a police raid on New York's Stonewall gay bar led to a riot on Christopher Street that lasted three days. This event led to a radicalization of many lesbians and gays. In the style of left movements of the time, mixed groups such as the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance were founded .
On May 1, 1970, the group Radicalesbians finally attracted attention by interrupting the Second Annual Congress for the Union of Women in New York with a planned happening . The manifesto of women-identified women distributed there established the concept of political lesbianism , which turned out to be influential for the women's movement : being lesbian was not seen as a sexual orientation , but as the only possible strategy of resistance against patriarchal tutelage and oppression.
These policies and concepts were invariably carried to Europe in the 1970s.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, after the liberalization of Section 175 in 1969 and after the film was broadcast on television , the first gay groups were founded, not the homosexual is perverse, but the situation in which they live . The open and provocative filmic representation of gays by the director Rosa von Praunheim , who used a political text by the sociologist and sex researcher Martin Dannecker , met with rejection in public, but also among conservative and conformist homosexuals.
Similar to the USA, lesbians in Germany separated from the male-dominated gay groups very early on and instead became involved in the women's movement , where same-sex love was often not only recognized but even preferred.
In the 1980s and 1990s there was a broad diversification, but also a progressive depoliticization of the homosexual emancipation movement. At the same time, there was a rapprochement between lesbians and gays. Since around the mid-1980s, they have jointly organized annual demonstrations to commemorate the Stonewall uprising in almost all European and American cities . In the 1990s, this resulted in huge parades, which, under the name Christopher Street Day or Gay Pride Parade, draw several million people worldwide onto the streets between June and July. However, the participants rarely associate a concrete political statement with their presence. Corresponding counter-drafts to the re-politicization of the CSD in Germany are the Transgeniale CSD in Berlin-Kreuzberg and the Queerrr Street Days in Hamburg .
A new phenomenon is the desire for territorial delimitation from the hetero world, which is often referred to as gay nationalism . For example, on June 14, 2004, a group of Australian activists occupied a tiny coral island called Cato and declared the Gay & Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands . The new state quickly turned out to be one micronation among many, for neither the Emperor Dale Parker Anderson nor anyone else was willing to settle on Cato. The disagreements within the leadership team split the movement into several groups.
The prevalence of HIV is higher among homosexual men or men who have sex with men (MSM) than in the general population. The reason for this is that the probability of transmission of the HIV virus in anal intercourse is around 18 times higher than in vaginal intercourse . Frequent partner changes and changing roles during sex are also mentioned. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for the recipient during anal intercourse.
According to estimates by the Robert Koch Institute and the Berlin Science Center , between 4.9 and 6.7 percent of homosexual men in the age group of 20 to 59 year olds in Germany are HIV-positive. In large cities with a pronounced homosexual culture, it is estimated that between 10 and 12 percent of gays are gay. According to a study by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, the proportion of HIV-positive people with MSM in most Western European countries is around six percent. The researchers found higher values for the Caribbean (25 percent), Africa (18 percent) and North America (15 percent). The comparatively low HIV prevalence in Germany is attributed to the high use of condoms. According to the Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe , 70 percent of gays in Germany always protect themselves with condoms and 20 percent almost always.
Until 2017, MSM in Germany were completely excluded from donating blood due to the higher HIV prevalence. Since 2017, MSM have been allowed to donate blood if they have not had sexual intercourse with a man for 12 months. In Austria there is still a general ban on donating blood.
The psychiatric pathologization of homosexuality began in the mid-19th century. As a rule, homosexuality was viewed as a symptom of an internal reversal of sexual perception (“contrary sexual perception”, “inversion”). Psychoanalysis played a special and at the same time ambivalent role in this - since around 1900 .
Sigmund Freud described homosexuality “as a deviation in sexual functions, caused by a certain stagnation in sexual development” Freud viewed bisexuality as a psychological “normal case” ; Heterosexuality is also based “on a restriction of the choice of objects”. Several times he took a public position against the criminalization and pathologization of homosexuality. In 1903 he emphasized in the magazine Die Zeit that "homosexuals should not be treated as sick". In 1905 he stated: “Psychoanalytic research resolutely opposes the attempt to separate homosexuals as a special group from others.” In 1921 he contradicted Ernest Jones , who did not want to admit a homosexual doctor to analytical training. In 1930 he signed an appeal to the National Council to abolish criminality. And in 1935 he wrote in a letter to a mother that even homosexuals - through an analysis - can achieve “harmony, peace of mind and full performance”.
He sums up his views on the subject in the essay "On the psychogenesis of a case of female homosexuality" from 1920. In it he opposes the idea of "fully developed" homosexuality - with the aim of restoring the "full bisexual function" - psychoanalytically to be able to handle. This is "not much more promising than the opposite" - the healing of "fully developed" heterosexuality - "only that one never tries this for practical reasons". Corresponding therapeutic efforts also very often fail because homosexual patients do not start therapy because of dissatisfaction with their situation, but rather because of external social pressure:
“As a rule, the homosexual is unable to give up his object of pleasure; it does not succeed in convincing him that he would find the pleasure he renounced here in the case of the transformation in the other object. If he goes into treatment at all, then mostly external motives have urged him to do so, the social disadvantages and dangers of his choice of objects, and such components of the instinct for self-preservation prove to be too weak in the fight against the sexual tendencies. One can then soon uncover his secret plan to reassure himself through the blatant failure of this attempt that he had done the best possible against his peculiarity and that he could now abandon himself to it with a clear conscience. "
Nevertheless, it was not until 1973 that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed homosexuality from its catalog of diseases ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , DSM for short, then edition DSM-II) - not least because of the research results of Evelyn Hooker . Previously, homosexuality was considered a mental disorder . However, from then on there was a "sexual orientation disorder " in DSM-II, later called " I-dystonic homosexuality" in DSM-III , with which a state of persistent suffering from one's own homosexuality could be diagnosed. In the new, current DSM-IV-TR there is a diagnostic category “unspecified sexual disorder”, which also includes “persistent and pronounced suffering from sexual orientation” (302.9). The deletion took place in 1973 against the resistance of the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA), which lost considerable reputation and influence as a result, then after a generation change took up a new position and apologized in 1991:
“The American Psychoanalytic Association rejects and deplores any form of discrimination, public or private, against same-sex women and men. It is the position of the American Psychoanalytic Association that our affiliated training institutes select their candidates based on their interest in psychoanalysis, because of their talent, educational background, integrity, willingness to self-analysis and training, and not because of sexual orientation. "
From the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) published by the World Health Organization , homosexuality was only removed with the ICD-10 published in 1992. For this purpose, the disorder of ego-dystonic sexual orientation (F66.1) in the area of personality and behavioral disorders was recorded. In the ICD-8, homosexuality was presented as a controversial clinical picture as early as 1968.
There are still controversial opinions in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Supporters of gay affirmative psychotherapy , who represent the international majority opinion, try to integrate the handling of homosexuality as much as possible into being human. In 2000, two standard works in the German-speaking area expressed themselves clearly: In Mertens / Waldvogel, Udo Rauchfleisch stated that discrimination and pathologization are scientifically incompatible. In Stumm / Pritz, Wolfgang Till demanded "a non-pathologizing, prejudice-free attitude towards homosexuality" from psychotherapy. Johannes Cremerius named (as early as 1992) the pathologization of homosexuality and the refusal to admit homosexuals to analytical training as one of the main reasons for the crisis in psychoanalysis.
On the other hand, there is an ever smaller minority of medical professionals and psychoanalysts who, in contrast to the DSM-IV and the ICD-10, see homosexuality as a "pathological disorder that requires treatment" ( Charles Socarides and Joseph Nicolosi ). Psychotherapist Douglas Haldeman , former chairman of the American Psychological Association , believes that lesbians and gays have a right to change their sexual orientation if they are dissatisfied with their sexual orientations. So far, however, no functioning “therapy” is known that could change sexual orientation in the long term. Haldeman describes the so-called reparative therapy as "pseudoscience". The sexual inclinations as such do not yet determine the psychological identity of a person, since this essentially includes free opinion. In the summer of 2008, the German government declared in the Bundestag that reparative therapy was largely rejected by experts. The German Federal Government does not take the view that homosexuality requires therapy, nor that homosexuality is accessible to therapy. Haldeman is also of the opinion that the so-called "reparative therapy" does not fit into the modern "mental health profession" and has been "discredited for years."
Causes of the formation of sexual orientation
It is unclear which factors lead to the development of a particular sexual orientation in individuals. Basically, two main theses can be distinguished in the development of sexual orientation:
- Sexual orientation is determined before birth.
- The sexual orientation is only developed through certain identification processes in early childhood or special processes in the puberty phase.
In addition, theories are represented that represent a combination of these two theses. The following topics are therefore discussed under biological, evolutionary or psychological aspects:
- Factors that lead to homosexuality in humans
- Is homosexuality caused by innate factors or do these influence the development of homosexuality?
- Is homosexuality also or partly a decision of the will?
Although the vast majority of science agrees that homosexuality is not a disease or paraphilia , it is still sporadically, often by religiously oriented groups, classified as abnormal or pathological and a "cure" is considered sensible and possible; “Therapies” are discussed and also tried out. The highly controversial ex-gay movement that emerged in the context of evangelical Christians in the USA , which propagates and offers so-called conversion therapies for "reversing" from homosexuals to heterosexuals, should be mentioned in particular . These therapies are practically unanimously rejected by the medical, psychological and psychiatric experts and viewed as potentially harmful for those affected (see also below for advice centers ). In the US state of California , such therapies have been banned by law in minors since September 2012 because of their harmful potential.
The scientific dispute about the causes of homosexual behavior is very old. As long as all homosexual behavior was punishable, the arguments in this dispute were often guided by the endeavor to either prove the "inevitability" of homosexual behavior and thus to justify the demand for its impunity or to mark it as a free decision for " moral decline " which must be counteracted with punishment. Current studies also show that people who assume an innate sexual orientation have a more tolerant attitude towards homosexuals than those who see it as a personal decision.
Parts of the lesbian and gay movement distance themselves from root cause research. The experience of the last 150 years shows that scientists, physicians, psychologists and others have been interested in the causes of the development of sexual orientations, primarily homosexual orientation. As part of these studies, many have attempted to identify homosexuals and "cure" them, but the claimed result need not necessarily be heterosexuality. Many homosexual people therefore fear that root cause research should ultimately be used against them in order to view homosexuality as unnatural, abnormal or pathological, or as a symptom of an illness. Especially in people or groups who do not want to tolerate homosexuality out of ideological, religious or personal aversion, such research can arouse the urge to use it to eliminate homosexuality or at least to recognize and isolate homosexuals. Such fears are supported u. a. on experiences that homosexual men had to make during the time of National Socialism , in which homosexuals were recognized by means of psychological experiments and the intention was to "cure" them with cruel medical human experiments. Even people who are sympathetic to gays and lesbians and actively supportive parents of homosexual children usually want straight children, if only out of fear of the potentially negative consequences of heterosexism and homophobia in society. It should also be noted that research results do not remain in the western world , but are available globally. At a university in Singapore, where same-sex acts could be punished with life imprisonment at the time, the psychiatrists were faced with the question of whether a presymptomatic test should be offered without the possibility of treatment. While in the time of Karl Heinrich Ulrich (1825–1895) an innate biological cause had to be accepted, nowadays even a “homosexual gene” could potentially be identified by prenatal diagnosis and one could respond to it with selective abortion or gene therapy. Proponents of a parent's right to selection include Aaron S. Greenberg and J. Michael Bailey . Culturally, the topic was dealt with in the 1993 play The Twilight of the Golds / The Last Gold by Jonathan Tolins , which was filmed in 1997 with an alternative ending.
It is sometimes criticized that research into sexual orientation is too focused on research into homosexuality. Occasionally, research into the causes of homosexuality itself is criticized. These critics see this as an evaluation or pathologization that can be traced back to a heteronormative perspective that is viewed as a socio-cultural construct. Value-neutral research in this area must focus on the entire spectrum of sexual orientations. Biological research into causes, which essentially focuses on same-sex sexual orientation, would include a compulsion to justify certain behaviors and convey moral concepts of "right" or "wrong" sexuality.
Robert Allen Brookey , for example, in 2002 with his volume Reinventing the Male Homosexual , provided a well-founded summary and criticism of the more recent approaches and studies on male homosexuality. The Power and Rhetorics of the Gay Gene .
Personality changes can occur after a stroke . In addition to the usual, sometimes temporary changes that are perceived as a deficit, such as depression, apathy, anxiety, instability and impulsiveness, a supposedly foreign accent can rarely be assumed , the art style can change or an artistic talent can be shown in the first place. A change in sexual orientation should be even rarer - in both directions:
- A man has been aware of same-sex attraction since his youth, had same-sex experiences and had a same-sex partner for a long time. At the age of 53 he had a stroke; six months later he complained for the first time about a change in his personality, interest, mood swings and heterosexual needs. Today the patient describes himself as bisexual. The authors of the case study consider a change to be unlikely solely due to the psychological effect of the illness, as it was accepted in the immediate social environment and in the family despite his homosexual orientation, but at the same time report alcohol problems and depression in the patient.
- The former bank employee and rugby player, who, according to self-disclosure and external perception, is consistently heterosexual, reports the first changes after a stroke. He suddenly developed other interests and was no longer interested in rugby. His friends and lifestyle changed; He found his work boring and learned the trade of hairdresser. He discovered his same-sex feelings and, by his own admission, was no longer interested in women. His problem is that his circle of friends and acquaintances does not believe that the changes are caused by the stroke.
The twin researcher Franz Josef Kallmann surveyed male pairs of twins in the 1950s. In this sample, he found that out of 40 identical and 45 dizygoti male twin pairs, of which at least one brother described himself as gay, in 100 percent of the identical twins the other brother also defined himself as gay, and that in the case of the dizygoti twins this one Point resembled the general male population. Others like Willhart S. Schlegel found similar genetic components of sexual orientation. Later research in the 1960s came to different conclusions: some were able to find a link to zygociety , while others found no difference between identical twins, dizygoti twins, and adoptive siblings.
In 1993, the American researcher Dean Hamer linked a genetic marker on the X chromosome with homosexuality. The assumption was initially confirmed because identical twin brothers who carried this chromosome segment were both gay. Later research by the same research group could not confirm this connection. A study by the research group led by Bailey et al. (1991 and 1993) found that identical twins are more likely to be both homosexual than dizygoti. If an identical twin defined itself as having a homosexual orientation, this coincided about 50 percent with the self-definition of its twin sibling; in the case of dizygoti twins, it was only 20 to 25 percent whose stated sexual orientation matched. This work, like that of Kallmann and Schlegel, was criticized as methodologically flawed - the zygotism of the twins (monozygotic or dizygoti) was not determined by molecular genetics, but based on a questionnaire about similarities and differences in behavior.
In a twin study from Sweden from 2008 3826 born 1959-1985 were twins studied, in which at least one twin had a same-sex sexual partners. By comparing identical and dizygotic twin pairs, it was statistically analyzed which genetic and environmental factors influence the selection of the partner sex. Influencing factors ( confidence interval in brackets):
- genetic influences ♂ 39% (0–59) ♀ 19% (0–49),
- common environmental influences ♂ 0% (0–46) ♀ 17% (0–42),
- individual environmental influences ♂ 61% (41–85) ♀ 64% (51–78)
In all examinations it should be noted that homosexual tendencies cannot always be determined with certainty. Some test subjects withhold a conscious homosexual orientation out of shame, others are not yet aware of it or have not yet admitted it (“inner coming out ”). As a result, the number of test subjects who feel homosexual in the studies regularly appears to be lower than it actually is. To make matters worse, the number of subjects in all studies was only small.
According to a hypothesis by William R. Rice, Urban Friberg and Sergey Gavrilets from 2012, the development of human homosexuality could be caused by epigenetic inheritance . Thus, in some individuals, the mother's sexual preference would be passed on to the son and the father's preference to the daughter. That happens when the epi-marks in the genes that are responsible for sexual orientation are retained in the germ cell. For example, an embryo then develops male genital organs, but the sexual orientation towards the male gender would be the same as that of the mother. According to this hypothesis, human homosexuality is innate without necessarily being recognizable in the DNA sequence. The hypothesis explains why the incidence of homosexuality in humans remains statistically stable over time. According to this hypothesis, the homosexual imprint arises anew with each individual cycle and therefore it does not die out evolutionarily, although most homosexual people do not have their own offspring. The authors of the study state, however, that this is only a hypothesis, whereas there are currently no empirical findings suggesting a connection between homosexuality and epigenetics . A critical analysis of the study by Rice et al. made by Heinz J. Voss.
Earlier studies often lacked statistical selectivity . Ganna et al. a. (2019) carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 477,522 people , in which five loci were identified that are significantly related to same-sex sexual behavior. Overall, all the genetic variants tested accounted for 8 to 25% of the differences in same-sex sexual behavior. They only partially overlapped between men and women. They also do not allow a meaningful prediction of a person's sexual behavior. The genetic influences partially overlapped with those of a large number of other traits, including the willingness to take risks and the personality trait "openness to experience". The overlap with genetic influences on other traits provides insight into the underlying biology of same-sex sexual behavior. Analyzing various aspects of sexual preference underscores its complexity and questions the validity of metrics used to measure a continuum between two poles, such as the Kinsey scale . Overall, the results of Ganna et al. a. Insights into the genetics of same-sex sexual behavior and underscores the complexity of sexuality. The study shows that genetic influences play a role in the development of same-sex sexual behavior, but that the influences are not conclusive enough to be able to determine homosexuality on the basis of genetic tests.
A theory based on research by the German endocrinologist and sexologist Günter Dörner says that stress hormones are responsible for homosexuality during pregnancy . In male fetuses , they prevented their brain , which initially had no differences from a female , from becoming male through certain hormones. These brain-modifying hormones "masculinize" the brain of the male baby normally in three phases during pregnancy, each of which can be disturbed by stress . There is an analogous statement about the lesbian disposition, namely that they are the product of very "relaxed" mothers whose masculinization hormones were less likely to fail due to a lack of stress.
However, critics of this and similar theories object that the assumption that gay men must somehow be “more feminine” than heterosexual, or lesbian women “more masculine”, is merely a heteronormative postulate that has by no means been proven. It also does not explain why gay men should prefer another "feminized" man over a "masculinized" woman as a partner (see also Straight Acting ).
In a publication by the Swedish researchers Ivanka Savic and Per Lindström from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, differences in the brain structure of homosexual and heterosexual people are reported. It describes that the brains of homosexual women and heterosexual men have a similar asymmetry, as the right hemisphere is slightly larger than the left. There were no such differences in size between homosexual men and heterosexual women.
Furthermore , there are reports of nerve cell connections in the amygdala , a part of the limbic system , of varying degrees . The same relationships were found here as with the different brain sizes: In the brains of homosexual women and heterosexual men, the amygdala connections were more pronounced in the right hemisphere than in the left. In homosexual men and heterosexual women, the amygdala connections were more pronounced in the left hemisphere. According to the researchers, these can be detected in babies immediately after birth.
Genetic differences, according to the researchers, are unlikely to be responsible for these differences, nor are perception and learned behavior. It is not known which mechanisms are responsible for the different development and whether these play a role prenatally or immediately after birth. Wilson / Rahman, however, speak out against the assumption implied by this study that homosexual men have “female” brains and homosexual women “male”, which corresponds only to common stereotypes. They postulate that homosexual as well as heterosexual people have a mosaic-like brain structure consisting of male and female parts.
In 1996 Anthony Bogaert and Ray Blanchard of Brock University in Canada published a study that statistically, younger brothers are more likely to become homosexual than older brothers. According to their data, the probability of homosexuality increases by a third for every additional male offspring. In a follow-up study, Bogaert was also able to prove that this effect is not influenced subsequently by family circumstances (e.g. adoption), but is a purely biological effect. Bogaert suspects that carrying the first male child triggers certain unknown biochemical processes in the mother, which intensify in each subsequent male offspring and lead to this effect.
Assuming that homosexuality is genetically predisposed or that training is genetically influenced, the question of evolutionary benefit is posed, since properties that reduce the reproduction of a species are classified as harmful. Since the likely frequency of homosexuality can be seen as a non-negligible quantity, the question is being discussed in science whether homosexuality or homosexual behavior, especially in socially living species, could have an evolutionary advantage or the obvious disadvantages with regard to the reproduction rates could be compensated by other benefits or behaviors.
Various theses and research results are discussed:
- Not having children of their own could serve the clan by selecting relatives , as it ensures that a larger number of people can look after their offspring. This could have the effect that renouncing one's own children also serves to provide for the genetically closely related nephews and nieces and thus also makes it easier for one's own genes to survive (see also the selfish gene ). However, this theory does not explain the evolutionary benefit of homosexuality, since asexual behavior or predisposition would have the same effect.
- Female relatives of homosexual men appear to be more fertile. A study by the University of Padua came to the conclusion that female relatives on the maternal side have more offspring than the average. Provided that genes, which also contribute to the development of homosexuality, are inherited on the mother's side and are also responsible for higher fertility, this could compensate for the disadvantage or even overcompensate it.
Homosexual behavior in animals
Homosexual behavior also occurs in animals and can be described as "an almost universal phenomenon" in the animal kingdom. Same-sex behavior was found in around 1500 animal species, with around a third of these cases being well documented. Homosexual behavior can be, for example, in bonobos observed that about one for apes unusual matriarchal have organizational structure. In addition, one can verifiably consider bonobos as basically bisexual animal species. More than male homosexuality, bonobos are best known for their lesbianism .
Some Australian Black Swans form sexually active male pairs who either steal nests or enter into temporary threesomes with females for egg possession. Once the eggs are laid, the female is driven away. The offspring raised by homosexual couples reach adulthood more often than those raised by mixed-sex couples.
Around 2006, three homosexual pairs of penguins lived in the Bremerhaven Zoo , and they continue their relationship even after several Swedish female penguins have been imported. The announcement of the attempt caused a worldwide sensation and protests, especially because of the insensitive choice of words. In 2009, one of the couples also raised a chick.
There are many forms of homosexual behavior among many species of dolphins . These behaviors occur, among other things, for reasons of strengthening relationships in a dolphin school as well as in the fight for dominance between males, so they show up in different social situations.
In October 2006, the journal Nature reported on the first scientific exhibition on homosexuality in animals at the Natural History Museum in Oslo. There is z. For example, reading of two male whales ( southern right whales ) with erect penises “ engaged in sexual games ” and of two male giraffes successfully attempting anal penetration with ejaculation. In a field study among male giraffes, it was even observed that homosexuality accounted for 94 percent of all observed sexual activity (the proportion is never below 30%) - a value that was not observed in any other species.
Service, help and lobbying for homosexual people
- ILGA - International Lesbian and Gay Association
- United States
- National Gay Pilots Association (NGPA)
- PFLAG - Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays
- Lesbian and Gay Association in Germany - largest civil rights, self-help and welfare organization for lesbians and gays in Germany
- Lambda - Germany's gay and lesbian youth association
- BEFAH - Federal Association of Parents, Friends and Relatives of Homosexuals
- Maneo - gay attack phone and victim support Berlin
- HOSI - Austria's homosexual initiatives - Vienna, Linz, Salzburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg
- Rosalila Panthers Graz  / Styria
- identity queer - LesBiSchwule group at the universities in Vienna
- Vienna Anti-Discrimination Agency - Information from the City of Vienna for lesbians, gays and transgender people
- Lambda Legal Committee - lobby group to improve the legal situation
- Courage counseling - partner, family and sexual counseling (Vienna)
- HoMed - homosexuals in healthcare
- Rosa Lila Villa - Lesbian and Gay House Vienna
- Aqueerium youth group / Styria
- Youth project Liebeist./Steiermark
- Pink Cross - National umbrella organization for homosexual men in Switzerland
- LOS - Lesbian Organization Switzerland
- ediagonal - National umbrella organization for lesbian and gay youth organizations
- Rosa Letzebuerg
- Cigale: Center d'Information GAy et LEsbien
- Italy (South Tyrol)
- Advice centers
There are pink telephones in many cities to advise affected people and their families. Advice is given anonymously. Most of them have the national number 19446. In some cities there are also so-called hold-up telephones for victims of antihomosexual violence. Most of them have the national number 19228.
Furthermore, there are often coming-out groups, especially for young people.
Online advice is now of great importance . It is offered by various providers.
Advice centers and organizations that, contrary to the scientific opinion widely accepted in sexology and psychology , believe in a variability of sexual orientation and want to promote it, are rather rare. They mostly belong to the so-called ex-gay movement , which was founded by Christian fundamentalists in the United States as part of a “ culture war ” against the “spread of homosexuality”, but is now also represented in Germany by the lay pastoral care organization Wuestenstrom . Because of their "potential to cause harm" (American Psychological Association) , many major psychological and medical associations warn against participating in such programs. Some participants in such programs publicly say that they have experienced changes in their sexual orientation. Critics regard these changes as unlikely: Jeremy Marks, one of the spokesmen for the Christian ex-gay movement in Great Britain for 14 years, has revised his views on the "curability" of homosexuality. Marks has stated that he has never been able to change his sexual orientation or that of other people. “None of the people I looked after changed their sexual orientation, no matter how much effort and prayers they invested” . The honest way brings greater benefit. - Even the most well-known proponent of change theory in Germany, Markus Hoffmann, head of the lay pastoral care organization Wüstenstrom, admits that he still has homoerotic feelings even after lengthy and considerable change efforts. - Günter Baum, Markus Hoffmann's predecessor as head of Wüstenstrom, says today: “In all the years at Wüstenstrom, nothing about my gay feelings has changed. I really tried hard ” . The therapies are like a hair tint: "You can smear as much blonde into your hair as you want - the actual hair color always comes through" .
From a scientific point of view, many of these groups refer to a much-criticized study by Robert L. Spitzer from 2001. Spitzer himself withdrew the study in 2012 and largely confirmed the criticism expressed. Professor Gunter Schmidt , sexologist, social psychologist and psychotherapist from Hamburg, who is often quoted in their spirit by the ex-gay movement , commented on the corresponding use of one of his articles as follows:
“… To deduce [from my essay] that homosexuals should be reversed therapeutically is a brazen or stupid, in any case manipulative misunderstanding of my essay. I consider such (by the way: hopeless) attempts, be they psychotherapeutic or somatic or whatever, to be deeply inhumane and accordingly unchristian. "
- Financial help for groups and initiatives
- History of the LGBT
- Laws on homosexuality
- Girlfag and Guydyke
- Homosexuality and religion
- Lesbian and Gay Association in Germany
- List of films with homosexual content
- List of magazines for gay men
- Homosexuality and society
- BR Burg (Ed.): Gay Warriors: A Documentary History from the Ancient World to the Present . New York 2002, ISBN 0-8147-9886-1 .
- Martin Dannecker , Reimut Reiche : The ordinary homosexual: a sociological study of male homosexuals in the Federal Republic . Frankfurt am Main 1974, ISBN 3-10-014801-0 .
- Axel Krämer: Limits of Longing. A homeland gay lore . Querverlag 2005, ISBN 3-89656-115-4 .
- Stephen O. Murray: Homosexualities . Chicago / London 2000, ISBN 0-226-55195-4 . (Socio-ethnic overview of different cultures)
- Norbert Zillich: Homosexual men in working life . Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1988, ISBN 3-593-33992-7 .
- Thomas Grossmann: A love like any other . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 1981, ISBN 3-499-18451-6 .
- Bettina v. Kleist: My husband loves a man. How women cope with their partner's coming out . Case studies. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-86153-306-5 .
- Rüdiger Lautmann: Seminar Society and Homosexuality . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1977, ISBN 978-3-518-07800-6
- Rüdiger Lautmann (Ed.): Homosexuality. Manual of the history of theory and research . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 978-3-593-34747-9
- Rüdiger Lautmann: Sociology of sexuality: erotic body, intimate action and sexual culture (basic sociology texts) . Beltz Juventa 2002, ISBN 978-3-7799-1472-3 .
- Jody Daniel Skinner: Designations for the homosexual in German , 2 volumes, Die Blaue Eule, Essen 1999, Volume 1: A lexicological analysis and a lexicographical task . ISBN 3-89206-902-6 , Volume 2: A dictionary , ISBN 3-89206-903-4 (also dissertation from the University of Koblenz-Landau 1998).
- R. Werner: homosexuality. Berlin 1987.
- Homosexuality and economics
- Thomas Köllen: Remarkable diversity: homosexuality and diversity management - economic and socio-psychological aspects of the diversity dimension “sexual orientation” . Hampp Verlag, Munich / Mering. 2010, ISBN 978-3-86618-435-0 .
- Norbert Zillich: Homosexual men in working life . Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1988, ISBN 3-593-33992-7 .
- Thomas Köllen: Part of the Whole? Homosexuality in Companies' Diversity Policies and in Business Research: Focus on Germany . In: The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations . Volume 7 (5), 2007, pp. 315-322.
- European ethnology
- Alan Bray: Homosexuality in Renaissance England . New York 1982, ISBN 0-231-10289-5 .
- Andrew Calimach: Lovers' Legends. The Gay Greek Myths . Haiduk Press, New Rochelle 2002, ISBN 0-9714686-0-5 .
- Kenneth J. Dover: Homosexuality in Ancient Greece ., Translated by Susan Worcester. CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-07374-3 (first English: 1978)
- Lillian Faderman : Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present . New York 1998, ISBN 0-688-13330-4 .
- Michel Foucault : The Will to Know: Sexuality and Truth. Volume 1. Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-518-28316-2 . French Orig. La Volonté de savoir , 1976
- John C. Hawley (Ed.): Post-colonial, Queer: Theoretical Intersections . Albany (NY) 2001, ISBN 0-7914-5092-9 .
- Jonathan Ned Katz : Love Stories: Sex between Men before Homosexuality . Chicago / London 2001, ISBN 0-226-42615-7 .
- Mary McIntosh: The Homosexual Role . In: Steven Seidman (Ed.): Queer Theory / Sociology . Cambridge (Mass) / Oxford 1996, ISBN 1-55786-740-2 .
- Michael Rocke: Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence . New York / Oxford 1996, ISBN 0-19-512292-5 .
- History and homosexuality
- Robert Aldrich (Ed.): Same and different. A global history of homosexuality . Murmann-Verlag, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-938017-81-3 .
- John Boswell : Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century . University of Chicago Press, 2005, ISBN 0-226-06711-4 . (English)
- Albrecht Diem: Teaching Sodomy in a Carolingian Monastery: A Study of Walahfrid Strabo's and Heito's Visio Wettini. In: German History. Volume 34, 2016, pp. 67-99.
- Lutz van Dijk: Homosexuals: Between the Death Penalty and Emancipation . Munich 2001, ISBN 3-570-14612-X .
- Lillian Faderman: Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present . Harper Paperbacks, 1998 reissue, ISBN 0-688-13330-4 . (English)
- Bernd-Ulrich Hergemöller : Introduction to the historiography of homosexualities . edition diskord, Tübingen 1999, ISBN 3-89295-678-2 .
- Burkhard Jellonnek: homosexuals under the swastika. The persecution of homosexuals in the Third Reich . Verlag F. Schöningh, Paderborn 1990, ISBN 3-506-77482-4 .
- Georg Klauda: The expulsion from the Seraglio. Europe and the hetero normalization of the Islamic world. Männerschwarm Verlag, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-939542-34-6 . review
- Friedrich Koch : Sexual denunciation . Sexuality in the political debate. 2nd edition, Hamburg 1995, ISBN 3-434-46229-5 .
- Martin Lücke: Masculinity in disorder. Homosexuality and male prostitution in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. (= History and gender; vol. 58) Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-593-38751-2 ( review )
- Jan-Henrik Peters: Persecuted and Forgotten: Homosexuals in Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the Third Reich . Published by Falk Koop on behalf of the state association of lesbians and gays Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania “Gaymeinsam e. V. “Ingo Koch Verlag, Rostock 2004, ISBN 3-937179-95-X .
- Andreas Pretzel , Gabriele Roßbach: Because of the high penalty to be expected. Persecution of homosexuals in Berlin 1933–1945 . Published by the Kulturring in Berlin e. V., Verlag rosa Winkel, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-86149-095-1 .
- Christoph Schlatter: "Strangely enough, I got a taste for boys". Self-images and external images of homosexual men in Schaffhausen 1867 to 1970 . Zurich 2002, ISBN 3-0340-0524-5 .
- Schwules Museum * (Hrsg.), Akademie der Künste (Hrsg.): Goodbye to Berlin? 100 years of the gay movement; an exhibition by the Schwules Museum and the Akademie der Künste, May 17 to August 17, 1997 . Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-86149-062-5 .
- Hans-Georg Stümke : Homosexuals in Germany: a political story . Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33130-0 .
- Joachim S. Hohmann : The secret sex: Homosexual fiction in Germany from 1900 to today . Foerster-Verlag, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-922257-42-9 .
- Wolfgang Harthauser (pseudonym for Reimar Lenz ): The mass murder of homosexuals in the Third Reich . In: Willhart S. Schlegel: The great taboo. Testimonials and documents on the problem of homosexuality . Rütten and Loening Verlag, 1967, .
- Homosexuality and psychology
- Sigmund Freud : About the psychogenesis of a case of female homosexuality , 1920. In: Sigmund Freud: Study edition , Volume VII. Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-10-822727-0 .
- Monika Gsell : What is different on the “other bank”? On Judith Le Soldat's “Reason for Homosexuality” . In: Journal for Psychoanalysis . tape 57 , 2016, p. 27–47 , doi : 10.18754 / jfp.57.3 ( psychoanalyse-journal.ch [PDF; 3 kB ; accessed on August 3, 2020]).
Richard A. Isay : Being homosexual. Gay men and their development . Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York 1989.
- German edition: Being gay. The psychological development of the homosexual . Piper, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-492-11683-3 .
- Judith Le Soldat : Reason for Homosexuality. Lectures on a new psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality . Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, Bad Cannstatt 2015, ISBN 978-3-7728-2681-8 .
- Udo Rauchfleisch : gays, lesbians, bisexuals. Lifestyles, prejudices, insights . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-01425-2 .
- Kurt Wiesendanger : Gays and Lesbians in Psychotherapy, Pastoral Care and Counseling , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000, ISBN 3-525-45878-9 .
- Charlotte Wolff : Love Between Women. Duckworth, London 1971, ISBN 0-7156-0579-8 .
- Homosexuality and biology
- Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. New York 2000, ISBN 0-312-25377-X .
- Robert Alan Brookey: Reinventing the Male Homosexual. The Rhetoric and Power of the Gay Gene . Bloomington 2002, ISBN 0-253-21512-9 .
- Simon LeVay : Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality . Cambridge (MA) / London 1997, ISBN 0-262-62119-3 .
- Florian Mildenberger : … spoiled in the direction of homosexuality: Psychiatrists, criminal psychologists and coroners on male homosexuality 1850–1970 . Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-935596-15-4 .
- Aldo Poiani: Animal Homosexuality: A Biosocial Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010, ISBN 978-0-521-14514-5 ( table of contents )
- Vernon A. Rosario (Ed.): Science and Homosexualities . London 1997, ISBN 0-415-91502-3 .
- Newsletter of the Research Group on Homosexuality
- Andreas Zimmermann: Homosexuality and Illness. On the genesis of a cultural context . (PDF; 381 kB) In: Wolfgang Eirund, Joachim Heil (Ed.): International Journal of Philosophy and Psychosomatics (IZPP) 2/2012, , pp. 1–22.
- Heinz-Jürgen Voß : Biology & Homosexuality: Theory and Application in a Social Context . Unrast, Münster 2013, ISBN 978-3-89771-122-8
- Heinz-Jürgen Voss: Epigenetics and Homosexuality . http://heinzjuergenvoss.de/Voss_2013_Epigenetik_und_Homosexualitaet__.pdf
- Volker Weiß: Innate, Natural, Normal? Biological theories between discrimination against homosexuality and homosexual emancipation. In: S. Ebeling, V. Weiß (Ed.): Homosexual from birth? Biological theories about gays and lesbians. Waldschlösschen Verlag, Reinhausen bei Göttingen 2004, pp. 9–69.
- Ulrich Gooßb, Herbert Geschwind (ed.): Homosexuality and health. Berlin 1989.
- Homosexuality and literature
- Forum homosexuality and literature. A periodical from the research focus on homosexuality and literature in the Department of Linguistics and Literature at the University - GH Siegen. Edited by Wolfgang Popp and Gerhard Härle with Marita Keilson-Lauritz , Dirck Linck and Wolfram Setz. Volumes 1-50. The Blue Owl, Essen 1987-2007.
- Heinrich Detering : The Open Secret. On the literary productivity of a taboo from Winckelmann to Thomas Mann. Wallstein, Göttingen 1994, ISBN 3-89244-070-0 . [Study edition reviewed and given a comment, ibid. 2002.]
- Wolfgang Popp : Male love. Homosexuality and literature. J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-476-00828-2 .
- Axel Schock : The Library of Sodom. The book of gay books. Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 1997.
- Gregory Woods: A history of gay literature. The male tradition. Yale University Press, New Haven and London 1999.
- Homosexuality and BDSM
- Samois : What Color is Your Handkerchief: A Lesbian S / M Sexuality Reader . SAMOIS, Berkeley 1979.
- Samois: Coming to Power. Writings and Graphics on Lesbian S / M . 3rd edition, Alyson Publications, Boston 1987, ISBN 0-932870-28-7 .
- Larry Townsend : The Leatherman's Handbook: Silver Jubilee Edition . Extended reprint, LT Publications, 2000, ISBN 1-881684-19-9 .
- Gayle Rubin: Sites, Settlements, and Urban Sex: Archeology And The Study of Gay Leathermen in San Francisco 1955–1995 . In: Robert Schmidt, Barbara Voss (eds.): Archaeologies of Sexuality . Routledge, London 2000, ISBN 0-415-22365-2 .
- Pat Califia : Speaking Sex to Power: The Politics of Queer Sex . Essays. Cleis Press, 2001, ISBN 1-57344-132-5 .
- Gayle Rubin: Studying Sexual Subcultures: the Ethnography of Gay Communities in Urban North America . In: Ellen Lewin, William Leap (Eds.): Out in Theory: The Emergence of Lesbian and Gay Anthropology . University of Illinois Press, Urbana 2002, ISBN 0-252-07076-3 .
- Gayle Rubin: Samois . In: Marc Stein (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America . Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. PDF download
- Gayle Rubin : Leather Times . Samois, 2004. Online at leatherarchives.org (PDF; 1.3 MB)
- Comprehensive information on almost all relevant topics
- Dedicated Tenderness - Online Gay and Lesbian Guide to Homosexuality
- Largest German-language lesbian portal with links to all possible lesbian sites
- Very comprehensive link in English
- Link catalog on the subject of homosexuality at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Entry in Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Christoph Landolt : Having sex like a Florentine or like a Winterthur, in: Wortgeschichte from June 7, 2013, ed. from the editors of the Swiss Idiotikon - a small linguistic excursus on earlier terms
- See David Greenberg: The Construction of Homosexuality. Part II: The Construction of Modern Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1988, pp. 301-454.
- Jody Daniel Skinner: Designations for the homosexual in German - Volume II, a dictionary. Die Blaue Eule, Essen 1999, ISBN 3-89206-903-4 (also dissertation University Koblenz-Landau, 1998).
- Magnus Hirschfeld: The homosexuality of man and woman . Louis Marcus Verlag, Berlin 1914, p. 10.
- Ernest Bornemann: Ullstein Enzyklopädie der Sexualität , Frankfurt am Main / Berlin 1990.
- Duden: Tag homotropy .
- See Oxford English Dictionary and Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (ed. By C. T. Onions ), je s. v.
- Cf. TNS Emnid: Press documents Eurogay study "Schwules Leben in Deutschland". Hamburg 2001.
- Holger Wicht: Berlin researchers develop estimation methods: 10 percent of gay city dwellers are HIV-positive. magazin.hiv, July 11, 2009, accessed on July 17, 2020 .
- Charlotte Haunhorst: Germany is really that queer. Now, October 19, 2016, accessed July 13, 2020 .
- AM Smith, CE Rissel, J. Richters, AE Grulich, RO de Visser: Sex in Australia: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience among a representative sample of adults. In: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health. Volume 27, Number 2, 2003, pp. 138-145, PMID 14696704 . .
- Canadian Community Health Survey. Statistics Canada, June 15, 2004, accessed April 12, 2011 .
- Integrated household survey April 2011 to March 2012: Experimental Statistics. (PDF; 123 kB) Office for National Statistics, September 28, 2011, p. 3 , accessed on October 4, 2012 (English).
- Anjani Chandra et al: Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Identity in the United States: Data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. (PDF; 617 kB) US Department of Health and Human Services, March 2011, accessed March 15, 2011 .
- Gary J. Gates: How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? (PDF; 683 kB) The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, April 2011, p. 3 , accessed on October 9, 2012 (English).
- Sexual Orientation and Health Among US Adults. (PDF) National Health Statistics Reports, July 15, 2014, accessed July 16, 2014 .
- Alfred C. Kinsey: The sexual behavior of men. S. Fischer, Berlin 1964, p. 600 f.
- Alfred C. Kinsey: The sexual behavior of men. S. Fischer, Berlin 1964, p. 605.
- Alfred C. Kinsey: The sexual behavior of men. S. Fischer, Berlin 1964, p. 327.
- Gunter Schmidt (Ed.): Youth sexuality: social change, group differences, areas of conflict. Enke, Stuttgart 1993, p. 35.
- Volkmar Sigusch: Youth Sexuality - Changes in the Last Decades. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt. 95, issue 20 (May 15, 1998), p. A-1240. (online at: bvvp.de ) ( Memento from December 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Schmidt (Ed.): Jugendsexualität , p. 35.
- Federal Center for Health Education (Ed.): Jugendsexualität: Representative repeat survey of 14 to 17 year olds and their parents: Results of a representative survey from 2005. Cologne 2006, p. 84.
- Tina Gianoulis: Situational Homosexuality ( Memento from November 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), in: Claude J. Summers (Ed.): Glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture (3 March 2004).
- Brigitte Vetter: Psychiatry: A systematic textbook. Schattauer Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-7945-2566-9 .
- Joe Kort: Straight Men who have Sex with Men (SMSM) ( Memento of December 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), April 24, 2008. In: Claude J. Summers (Ed.): Glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian , Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture.
- 6.2.2 The sexual behavior of young people. In: Erwin J. Haeberle: The sexuality of humans - manual and atlas. 2nd, expanded edition, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1985.
- Situational Homosexuality. (PDF; 121 kB) In: Wayne R. Dynes (Ed.): The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality (Garland Reference Library of Social Science) . Taylor & Francis, 1990, ISBN 0-8240-6544-1 .
- Globalizing Homophobia on: gigi.x-berg.de , first published in Phase 2 No. 10, December 2003. ( Memento from February 17, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Lucas Paoli Itaborahy: State-Sponsored Homophobia - A world survey of laws criminalizing same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults. (PDF; 0.6 MB) (No longer available online.) May 2012, pp. 11–13 , archived from the original on October 17, 2012 ; accessed on January 10, 2013 .
- Military and police at Romanian Gay Pride ( Memento from May 23, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) ( Rik No. 274, vol. 24, July 2008, p. 23)
- Tagesschau : Poland wants to ban “homosexual agitation” (tagesschau.de archive) . March 14, 2007.
- Felicitas Wilke: That changes for homosexual couples. Süddeutsche Zeitung from June 30, 2017
- EU Anti-Discrimination Directive, Art. 4, in particular Paragraph 2 ( online (PDF) )
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