Queer theory

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The queer theory (English queer theory ) is a cultural theory developed in the USA since the early 1990s , which critically examines the relationship between biological sex (English sex ), social sex (English gender ) and sexual desire (English desire ).


Queer theory assumes that gender and sexual identity are created through actions ( doing gender / undoing gender ). Using the methods and findings of deconstruction , post-structuralism , discourse analysis and gender studies , queer theory tries to analyze and deconstruct sexual identities, forms of power and norms. Important theorists and thought leaders are u. a. Michel Foucault , Judith Butler , Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Michael Warner . The application of queer theory in individual academic disciplines is called queer studies .

The more recent queer theory deals not only with the deconstruction of sexuality, but also with all aspects of culture in relation to genders and gender roles and the exploitation relationships that may result from them. As one of the most important points is then the radical openness of the term queer called, which must be re-appropriated repeatedly by groups in numerous debates included . Want to z (as black lesbians who come from the rural proletariat; heterosexual sympathizers queer settings etc.). This definition of queer as “radical openness through recurring reinterpretation of the term” is only one possible definition of queer. This definition is inherent in the fact that it can be abused; for example by political groups that try to limit his openness (e.g. queer as a synonym for lesbian, gay and transgender people, etc.), or by apolitical groups that use them as “fun names”.

One of the central themes of queer theory is the philosophy of language and speech act theory , the "queer theory" has been playing in designating a role, namely in the reappropriation of the originally pejorative name queer , and trying them in a new context to put .


An important thought leader, ignored by many English-speaking authors, is Magnus Hirschfeld , who around 1900 was still trying to refute the dichotomy , i.e. the strict duality of the sexes, from a biological / medical point of view . From 1931 onwards, the anthropologist Margaret Mead shows the cultural variability of gender roles. In his History of Sexuality ( Sexuality and Truth , Vol. 1–3), the philosopher Michel Foucault later argues that bisexual thinking, and in particular the conceptions of sexuality and homosexuality, are not based on natural facts, but emerged from social and historical circumstances.

The history of queer movement is central to the development of the queer theory . As already demonstrated in the fighting around the Stonewall Inn in the 1960s that in the bar Stonewall Inn those wrong who were excluded from the bars of the middle-class gays and -Lesben: homeless youth, transgender -People, especially of Color . It was they who carried the fights with the police (keyword: Stonewall). On the other hand, in gay (and lesbian) struggles it has been important since the 1970s that people clearly identify themselves by gender. B. excluded from the Gay Activists Alliance in 1973 because mainstream gays and lesbians felt that, clearly identified as gender and sexually, they would have a better chance of enforcing anti-discrimination law. In the 1980s, the queer movement gathered people who were excluded from the lesbian and gay mainstream, which focused on lobbying and wanted to integrate lesbians and gays as quasi “ethnic entities” into American distribution policy. Those who no longer felt represented by these movements called themselves “queers”, as opposed to white middle-class gays and [-] lesbians, long before their academic descendants appropriated this identity ”.

Deconstruction and self-definition

The preferred methodological tool within queer theory is the deconstruction of objectified categories, the dissolution of the fixation on power asymmetrical binaries such as white / black or male / female. The openness of the term queer is rooted in the deconstructivist practice of asking about what is excluded and expanding oneself by including the outsider. Nevertheless, there are limits to the universalist claim of queers. Queer theories assume that people should define themselves and that this self-definition is the only valid "declaration of identity". This means that every person can apply the term queer to their sexual orientation in order to include themselves. With this, the queer theory continues to evolve and remains endless.

Main topics of queer theory

Identity politics

One of the roots of modern queer theories lies in the AIDS campaigns of the 1980s. The politics of identity that had been advocated by gay and lesbian organizations (e.g. the Gay Liberation Front ) turned out to be inadequate in the course of the spread of the disease: not “the gay” and “the lesbian” (provided that they were involved in AIDS campaigns Gays and lesbians can be summarized at all) are at risk from AIDS, but also other, marginalized sexualities, such as B. MSM (men who have sex with men). An AIDS awareness campaign on identity politics would not reach these heterogeneous groups that often do not (yet) even refer to themselves as “groups”.

In the course of the essentialism - constructivism- dispute of the 1980s and early 1990s, the point of view of seeing identity politics as obsolete was expanded by the fact that constructivism also received support from the scientific (neurological) side: When there is no essence, no essence of subjects , then there is no such thing as the typical lesbian or the typical gay. This development within the homogeneous group of gays and lesbians (or even homosexuals) can be explained by the fact that other factors, such as ethnicity , class or religion, were added as confusing or expanding their identity, and people joined together Thanks to the new situation of a friendlier environment (more social tolerance, incipient equality before the law) no longer had to come together in (supposedly) uniform groups. The contradicting views, worldviews and attitudes within the lesbian and gay movement came to light and destabilized them - a new concept was needed.

Michel Foucault and David Halperin , among others , who pursued a historicization of gender, gender roles and sexuality, provided a further approach for criticizing conventional identity politics . (Homo-) sexual identity was not always what one imagines it to be today, and it was dependent on the respective social framework and thinking: Without the idea of ​​oppression or a theory of sexual orientation, "homosexuals" felt before Karl Heinrich Ulrichs maybe inappropriate, criminal, abnormal or simply unpleasant, but not suppressed. The historicization, i.e. the "historicalization" of supposedly fixed and natural starting ideas and cultural anthropological investigations, shows that the European, modern conception of bisexuality and love is only one of many equally justified and equally original conceptions of sexuality, and makes it - on the basis of the construction concept - vulnerable. One of the first authors to recognize and explicitly address this issue is Judith Butler , who speaks of subversive performance in order to undermine classic role models. Butler is of the opinion that while identity is socially constructed , it cannot be anything, so it cannot be changed every day like clothes.

Criticism of the identity politics of non-queer homosexual organizations did not only come from theory. Triple and multiple discriminated fringe groups (black lesbians - discriminated on the basis of race , sexual orientation and gender) criticized the established order within the organizations, whose front men were mostly white men without disabilities, and pushed them to the fore . In feminist circles, too, the supremacy of the white, possessive woman could now be questioned, and role models within the feminist and queer movement (s) were and are being expanded. From a queer, non-identity-political point of view, it is possible for a cleaning lady as well as a prostitute to demand women's rights within the women's movement , even if they do not correspond to the image of an emancipated, modern woman.

Queers of color indicate a connection between race and gender , two concepts that cannot be analyzed independently of one another. Fatima El-Tayeb shows how closely sexuality is linked to the concept of race . According to Ann Stoler, sexuality was modeled on the concept of race in Western thought . Against this background, a white queer identity is also critically examined here when in queer theory “despite the inclusive, border-crossing claim ... whiteness is too often set as an unquestioned norm”, “instead of a 'copy without an original'” (Fatima El- Tayeb).

Materiality discussion

A reproach that is often made against the queer theory is that there is “materiality”, for example in the form of binary genders - and the queer theory does not deal with it sufficiently. With reference to Butler, the reply is that “scientific findings” (including scientific findings) are socially produced. It is based on the fact that material bodies only acquire their meaning in social contexts. Their categorization into the sex body is already social practice itself, so it cannot be found in the body as an essence and is therefore pre-social “natural”. It is important to work out this for a queer theory and not to fall into such biological arguments yourself (cf. Voss, 2008; Voss, 2011).

Unambiguous binary gender characters are dependent on a variety of factors. For example, the effects of 19 different genes on several chromosomes were described for the expression of the human genital tract. So there are not "sex chromosomes" X and Y, but also chromosomes 1, 9, 11 ..., which are described as being involved in the development of the "genital tract" (cf. Schmitz, 2006; Voss, 2011). This can also be described for other features. The sex hormones estrogen , often also referred to as "female sex hormone ", and testosterone , often also referred to as "male sex hormone ", occur in different concentrations in female and male individuals and are more likely to be assigned to growth hormones by some scientists (cf. Ebeling, 2006) . It is countered that these are - depending on their ratio - essential for the androgenizing effect.

Anne Fausto-Sterling takes the view that the expression “material body” is socially produced. Early training options, nutrition and exercise would also have an effect on muscles, fat deposits and bone structure. Fausto-Sterling claims that given equal opportunities for girls and boys to move, fight, etc., the material bodies would also be the same (cf. Fausto-Sterling, 1988; Fausto-Sterling, 2005). It has been criticized that this example suppresses the muscle building effect of testosterone, which leads to men building more muscle mass with the same training.

Queer criticism of capitalism

Especially in German-speaking countries, theorists and activists of classical feminism were very hesitant to take up the suggestions of queer theorists. In the 1990s, feminist studies were and are, among other things, major actors in rejecting queer debates . a. Barbara Duden , Gudrun-Axeli Knapp , Tove Soiland , Roswitha Scholz , Andrea Trumann . They referred to a neo-liberal development of society, which also goes well with a multiplication of ways of life. Queer is more of a "form of training" of neoliberal ideology. Queer theorists such as Antke Engel , Fatima El-Tayeb , Jin Haritaworn , Volker Woltersdorff and Nancy Peter Wagenknecht, on the other hand, pointed to the potential of queer theory , exclusions in which the gay, lesbian and feminist mainstream clearly gendered and sexually identified white people also participate is to make visible. Feminist peace and conflict research indicates that queer can not only be integrated into modes of rule and is partially integrated, but that this also applies to “classical feminism”. Women's rights and the rights of sexual minorities are increasingly being used to enforce imperial power claims. Current publications that address the intersections of gender (and gender norms), racism and class relations in capitalism and - different - proposals for what is critical of domination show that queer contains potential critical of domination from the beginning of the history of movement, enables emancipatory practices and turns against capitalism Submit elaborate arguing to capitalism.

Important representatives

In her essay “The Straight Mind” Monique Wittig takes up these thoughts and criticizes traditional and feminist models of thought about the gender relationship in equal measure, since they were both based on the heterosexual assumption ( straight mind means “heterosexual spirit”) that there are two clearly distinguishable from each other Genders give; Rather, gender boundaries should be blurred because they are only constructed ( heteronormativity ). This view, which Judith Butler took up and developed, explains the visualization of the female sex, which can also be observed in Germany, as an idea that arose from the straight mind . However, this criticism is countered by saying that it is not the biological sexes that should be made visible, but the existing categories that lead to unequal treatment.

Other important representatives are David Halperin , who studies the history of homosexuality, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick , who studies the phenomenon of homophobia , and Teresa de Lauretis and Gayle Rubin .

Queer theory in German-speaking countries

In the German-speaking countries, the queer theory leads rather a shadowy existence compared to the USA . Many of the basic English language texts have not yet been translated. In 2001 the AG LesBiSchwule Studien / Queer Studies of the AStA of the University of Hamburg published the first German-language collection of essays on queer theory under the title Beyond Gender Boundaries .

The interdisciplinary study program Gender and Queer Studies has existed in Hamburg since 2003 . The substitute professorship for queer theory (linked to sociology) was held for three semesters by Antke Engel . In the summer semester of 2005, Engel was the first of a total of three guest professors to teach queer theory in Hamburg. In 2006 Engel founded the Institute for Queer Theory based in Hamburg and Berlin . “It is dedicated to gender and sexuality research and its communication in public and in practice. The institute's concern is to critically question and change rigid bisexual and normative heterosexual gender relations ”. In 2008 the “Gender Studies” course in Hamburg was abolished. There are a handful of other universities in Germany that offer the degree program.

The publications by Sabine Hark on the deconstruction of lesbian-feminist identities (especially deviant subjects ) and the publication of some basic American basic texts by Andreas Kraß in 2003 (Que e r Denk) are also significant .

Significant are the philosophical-political debates on queer by Gudrun Perko , who in her book "Queer-Theory, 2005" and her numerous other articles (including 2006) focuses on the plural variant of queer studies and explicitly puts queer in an intersectional context ( intersectionality ) represents. The textbook on gender and queer by Leah Carola Czollek , Gudrun Perko and Heike Weinbach (2009), which connects the topic with the Social Justice project, is also written in this context .

Finally, another representative of the (critical) queer theory can be found in Innsbruck with Christine Klapeer . Unlike Antke Engel, Klapeer comes from the ideological branch of political science .


Leading gay civil rights activists such as B. LSVD representative Jörg Steinert , reject the queer approach. They tie in with those in the USA a. a. to the criticism presented by Cathy J. Cohen , according to which queer research is exposed to an under-complex sexualized concept of power due to the dichotomy "hetero - queer". Cohen criticizes the displacement of lesbian and gay research by gender and queer research: This leads into a political vacuum and is not compatible with collective political movements that are still necessary. The queer approach as a form of radical deconstructivism reduces social categories to power-based discourses and questions the existence of collectively shared experience and identity. The endeavor to destabilize categories goes so far that people who see themselves as gays and lesbians are rejected as reactionary with the argument that their identities are too narrow.

From a methodological point of view, the objection is that the concern approach popular in queer activism (“only those who are affected should speak”) cannot produce any gain in knowledge through discourse; he gets stuck in the narrative. The required deconstruction of the concepts of identity leads to the subject and its meaning always only being seen as provisional and unfinished, which contradicts the experience that individual or group identities cannot be permanently reflected or even changed.

From a Marxist point of view, the queer theory, with its assumption that gender identities are individual constructions, appears as a variety of subjective idealism and is brought closer to Fichte's philosophy . Between this extreme position and that of a complete naturalization of gender identities, it must be worked out how sexual identities change historically in the process of production and reproduction.

Judith Butler criticizes the distinction allegedly made by orthodox Marxists between material way of life and culture, between (primary) distributional injustice and (secondary) lack of recognition for queers (a distinction that is less related to Marx than to Max Weber's dualism of "class" and " Status “reminded). Behind this are the controversial questions as to whether the discrimination of queers is material (according to Butler) or “only” cultural, i.e. due to a lack of recognition, and whether the heteronormative regulation of sexuality and the traditional family structure are to be regarded as capitalism-specific (also Butler). Nancy Fraser points out that the heteronormative regulations are deeply embedded in the institutions of capitalist society; However, they are not hardwired (hardwired) with the material production conditions. She rejects Butler's functionalist thesis, according to which heteronormal family structures are still determined today by the mode of production and are functionally necessary for their existence. The struggle of lesbians, gays and queers - according to Fraser - does not question the system, since in late capitalist society the relationship between private life and production is becoming increasingly complex and current capitalism does not necessarily need heterosexual people. With reference to Marcel Mauss and Claude Levi-Strauss , it rather calls for the deconstruction of the quasi- ontological distinction between economy and culture through their “historicization”.  

From a practical-political point of view, it is criticized that an approach which tries to translate injuries directly into politics and to derive the claim to moral superiority from one's own powerlessness leads to a competition for victims that distracts from the institutionalized power relations. Roswitha Scholz sees the queer theory as a “trivialization” and “denial” of the fact that the gender category is still a central social problem and a basis for social structures.

Harriet Malinowitz criticizes the technical jargon of academic queer research, which, with the privilege of (re) naming social phenomena, which it claims, leads to the renewed exclusion of entire groups. Gloria Anzaldúa criticizes that the predominantly white queer research generates abstractions about the colored queers and thus controls the production of knowledge.

See also


  • AG Queer Studies (Hrsg.): Verqueerte conditions. Intersectional, economically critical and strategic interventions. Männerschwarm Verlag, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-939542-40-7 .
  • Bruce Bawer (Ed.): Beyond Queer. Challenging Gay Left Orthodoxy. New York 1996, ISBN 0-684-82766-2 .
  • Judith Butler : Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. Routledge, 1993.
  • Judith Coffey, Katrin Köppert, LCavaliero MANN *, Juliette Emerson, Roman * a Klarfeld, Daniela Müller, Jamie Huber, VD Emde: Living Queer - Queer Labeling? (Science) critical head massages. fwpf Verlag, Freiburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-939348-14-6 .
  • Ján Demčišák: Queer as theory and reception aesthetic approach. In: J. Demčišák: Queer Reading from Brecht's early work. Tectum Verlag, Marburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8288-2995-4
  • Ján Demčišák: When desire reads ... In: Slovak magazine for German studies. ISSN  1338-0796 , Roč. 4, č. 1 (2012), pp. 90-96 ( online: PDF ).
  • S. Ebeling: If I take my hormones, I become an animal. On the history of sex hormones. In: S. Ebeling, S. Schmitz (Ed.): Gender research and natural sciences - introduction to a complex interplay. VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-14912-1 , pp. 235–246.
  • Fatima El-Tayeb : Limited Horizons. Queer Identity in Fortress Europe. In: Hito Steyerl, Encarnatión Gutiérrez Rodríguez (ed.): Does the subaltern speak German? Migration and Post-Colonial Criticism. Münster 2003, ISBN 3-89771-425-6 .
  • Michel Foucault : Histoire de la sexualité (3 volumes, 1970s). Gallimard, Paris 1994, ISBN 2-07-074070-6 , ISBN 2-07-074673-9 , ISBN 2-07-074674-7 .
  • A. Fausto-Sterling: Prisoners of Sex? What biological theories say about men and women. Piper, Munich 1988 (Engl. 1985), ISBN 3-492-03129-3 .
  • A. Fausto-Sterling: The Bare Bones of Sex: Part 1 - Sex and Gender. In: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Volume 30, 2005, pp. 1491-1527.
  • Melanie Groß , Gabriele Winker (ed.): Queer - Feminist criticism of neoliberal conditions. Münster 2007. ISBN 978-3-89771-302-4 .
  • Matthias Haase , Marc Siegel, Michaela Wünsch (eds.): Outside - The politics of queer spaces. b-books Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-933557-25-9 .
  • Judith Halberstam , David Eng, José Esteban Muñoz: What's Queer about Queer Studies Now? Duke University Press, Durham 2005, ISBN 0-8223-6621-5 .
  • Elahe Haschemi Yekani, Beatrice Michaelis (ed.): Across the humanities. Perspectives of Queer Theory. Querverlag GmbH, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-89656-118-9 .
  • Marty Huber: Queering Gay Pride: Between Assimilation and Resistance. Zaglossus, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-902902-06-1 , p. 16 f., 113 ff.
  • Andreas Kraß (ed.): Que e r thinking: Against the order of sexuality. Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-518-12248-7 .
  • U. Heidel, S. Micheler, E. Tuider (Eds.): Beyond the gender boundaries. MännerschwarmSkript, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-935596-00-6 .
  • Annamarie Jagose : Queer Theory. An Introduction. New York University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8147-4234-3 .
    • German translation: Annamarie Jagose: Queer Theory. An introduction. Querverlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89656-062-X .
  • Gudrun Perko: Queer Theories. About ethical, political and logical dimensions of plural-queer thinking. Papy Rossa, Cologne 2005.
  • Gudrun Perko: Queer theories as thinking of plurality: criticisms - backgrounds - alternatives - meanings. In: Quer. Reading think writing, Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences, No. 12/06, Berlin 2006, pp. 4–12 (online: PDF ).
  • Leah Carola Czollek, Gudrun Perko, Heike Weinbach: Textbook: Gender and Queer. Social work module. Juventa, Berlin 2009.
  • Heike Raab : “Queer meets gender” - precarious relationship or successful coalition? On the relationship between queer theory and gender research. In: Hella Hertzfeldt, Katrin Schäfgen, Silke Veth (eds.): Gender relations - analyzes from science, politics and practice. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-320-02055-2 , pp. 56–65 ( full text , PDF file, 1.2 MB; accessed on June 7, 2017).
  • S. Schmitz: Gender boundaries. Gender development, intersex and transsex in the field of tension between biological determination and cultural construction. In: S. Ebeling, S. Schmitz (Ed.): Gender research and natural sciences - introduction to a complex interplay. VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-14912-1 , pp. 33-56.
  • Heinz-Jürgen Voss : Queer between critical theory and practical relevance. In: Hella Hertzfeldt, Katrin Schäfgen, Silke Veth (eds.): Gender relations - analyzes from science, politics and practice. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-320-02055-2 , pp. 66–76 ( full text , PDF file, 1.2 MB; accessed on June 7, 2017).
  • Heinz-Jürgen Voß: Made for you: the social production of biological sex. In: J. Coffey, K. Köppert, L. mAnN *, J. Emerson, R. Klarfeld, D. Müller, J. Huber, V. D. Emde (Eds.): Queer Leben - queer labeling? (Science) critical head massages. fwpf Verlag, Freiburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-939348-14-6 , pp. 153-167.
  • Heinz-Jürgen Voss: Gender - Against naturalness. Theorie.org series. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 3-89657-663-1 .
  • Heinz-Jürgen Voss, Salih Alexander Wolter: Queer and (anti) capitalism. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-668-2 .
  • Monique Wittig : The straight mind and other essays. Beacon Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8070-7917-0 .
  • Salih Alexander Wolter: Stonewall revisited: a little history of movement. In: Heinz-Jürgen Voss, Salih Alexander Wolter: Queer and (anti) capitalism. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-668-2 , p. 28 ff.
  • Salih Alexander Wolter: Marx's Ghosts. In: Heinz-Jürgen Voss, Salih Alexander Wolter: Queer and (anti) capitalism. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-668-2 , p. 45 ff.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Jin Haritaworn: In the beginning there was Audre Lorde. Whiteness and avoidance of power in the queer origin story. In: Femina politica 2005, 14 (1), pp. 23–36.
  2. ^ A b c Salih Alexander Wolter: Stonewall revisited: A small history of movement. In: Heinz-Jürgen Voss, Salih Alexander Wolter: Queer and (anti) capitalism. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-668-2 , p. 28 ff.
  3. ^ Steven Epstein: Gay Politics, Ethnic Identity: The Limits of Social Constructionism. In: Socialist Review 17 (1987) 3/4, pp. 9-54.
  4. ^ Salih Alexander Wolter: Marx's ghosts. In: Heinz-Jürgen Voss, Salih Alexander Wolter: Queer and (anti) capitalism. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-668-2 , p. 45 ff.
  5. a b Fatima El-Tayeb: Limited Horizons. Queer Identity in Fortress Europe. In: Hito Steyerl, Encarnatión Gutiérrez Rodríguez (ed.): Does the subaltern speak German? Migration and Post-Colonial Criticism. Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2003 ( excerpt online ).
  6. ^ A b Heinz-Jürgen Voss, Salih Alexander Wolter: Queer and (anti) capitalism. Butterfly Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-668-2 .
  7. Bettina Engels, Corinna Gayer (ed.): Gender relations, peace and conflict: Feminist food for thought for peace and conflict research. Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden 2011.
  8. Marty Huber: Queering Gay Pride: Between Assimilation and Resistance. Zaglossus, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-902902-06-1 , p. 16 f., 113 ff.
  9. Self-description of the Institute for Queer Theory , accessed on October 8, 2018.
  10. »the daily newspaper« from May 15, 2012, accessed on June 7, 2012
  11. ^ Cathy J. Cohen: Punks, Bulldaggers, and Welfare Queens: The Radical Potential of Queer Politics. In: GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 3 (1997) 4, pp. 437-465.
  12. So z. B. Esther Hutfless: Psychoanalysis and Identity - To the Critique of an Illusion. In: Research Group on Bodies and Sexualities , 2017.
  13. Axel Honneth, Nancy Fraser: Redistribution or Recognition? A political and philosophical controversy. Frankfurt / M. 2003.
  14. ^ Nacy Fraser: Heterosexism, Misrecognition, and Capitalism: a response to Judith Butler. Social Text, issue 52/53, 1997, pp. 279-289.
  15. Queer has lived itself out. Interview with Roswitha Scholz in: Der Standard , January 23, 2011.
  16. ^ Harriet Malinowitz: Lesbian Studies and Postmodern Queer Theory. In: Bonnie Zimmerman, Toni AH McNaron (Eds.): The New Lesbian Studies: Into the Twenty-First Century. New York: City University 1996, pp. 262-268.
  17. Gloria Anzaldúa: To (o) Queer the Writer: Loca, escritora, y chicana. In: Betsy Warland (Ed.): InVersions: Writing by Dykes, Queers & Lesbians. Vancouver 1991, pp. 249-263.
  18. online: PDF