Gender Studies , according to Duden Gender Studies (of English gender "social gender"), gender studies , gender studies or gender studies referred to a multidisciplinary field that gender relations analyzed and differentiated gender knowledge and gender competence wants to create. The research perspective has developed in the cultural , social and human sciences and has since been applied in more and more scientific disciplines - for example in medicine , law , biology or theology . The construction of the term “gender” (gender) in the various contexts, its meaning and its effects on the distribution of political power , on social structures and on the production of knowledge, culture and art are examined. For the English word gender in its sociocultural meaning - in contrast to biological gender (sex) - there is no equivalent in German usage. The definitions and implicit definitions of “ masculinity ” and “ femininity ” in everyday life and in the sciences are themselves the subject of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary gender studies. The focus is on questions of hierarchy, difference, roles and stereotypes of, between and about genders.
The various research directions in gender studies can be traced back to feminist approaches of the third wave of the women's movement , many of which have a socio-political origin. However, there are differences in terms of the requirements, the research priorities and the research objectives. Women’s and gender studies and gender studies cannot be clearly distinguished from one another. In the first case primarily research contexts are addressed, in the second training contexts. What the various approaches have in common is that they do not regard gender exclusively as a scientifically explained biological phenomenon, but also as a socio-cultural phenomenon.
The historical forerunner of gender studies was women's studies .
Pioneering work and driving force: The opposite sex
The two-volume study The Other Sex by Simone de Beauvoir , published in France in 1949, is considered a pioneering work in gender studies . This was the first social science study that focused on the category “gender” and consistently differentiated between biological gender and cultural or social characteristics of gender. The study thus laid the foundations for later women's and gender research or gender studies.
The focus of the reception was initially in the USA , where the work stimulated social science engagement with the gender category . In retrospect, Kate Millett referred to it as a "revelation" rather than a regular source. However, since the work was often not cited, the scientific multiplier effect remained implicit for a long time. As a result, it was often overlooked as the basis of women's and gender studies that arose in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. The intense reception in the USA, in turn, had an impact on France and, with some delay, on other countries such as Germany . In Germany, too, the pioneering effect of the work was not noticed for a long time.
The work was the source of ideas and a benchmark for a number of aspects of later women's and gender studies:
- gender-related opposition of self and other or subject and object,
- Pluri- and transdisciplinarity,
- Body concept,
- Intersectionality ,
- Postmodern theorem ,
- Scientific and sober analysis of taboo topics relating to gender relations such as sexuality , abortion , homosexuality , prostitution ,
- First person politics ("The private is political").
By removing the taboo from a scientific and sober point of view, the book exposed hidden problems, made them discourse-capable and thus negotiable.
A congress on the 50th anniversary of the publication of the work confirmed it as a source of ideas and a benchmark in central aspects of women and gender studies. In terms of content, it was shown that the work that was created in just eleven months can be significantly expanded today and that several points have to be corrected.
Development in the USA
After the English translation in 1953, Simone de Beauvoir's opposite sex acted primarily as a source of inspiration and inspiration in the USA. In the 1960s and 70s, this led to a profound social and scientific surge in development. American women's studies and the second wave of feminism emerged. In particular the attack Beauvoir psychoanalysis inspired many authors to further criticism: Betty Friedan 's The Feminine Mystique (German The Feminine Mystique ) from 1963, Kate Millett's Sexual Politics (German Sexual Politics ) from 1969 and Germaine Greer 's The Female Eunuch ( “The Female Eunuch”) from 1970. The Women's Studies dealt with the scientific examination of women in a male-dominated society, this for the first time from a feminist point of view.
Development in the German-speaking area
In the 1970s, women researchers in German-speaking countries began to look more closely and systematically into gender relations. The pioneers of German women's research included, for example, Helga Bilden , Christina Thürmer-Rohr , Karin Hausen , Ute Gerhard , Regina Becker-Schmidt , Sigrid Metz-Göckel , Ilse Dröge-Modelmog , Irene Dölling , Gudrun-Axeli Knapp , Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim , Ilona Ostner , Ilse Lenz , Karin Flaake , Helga Krüger and Carol Hagemann-White . One of the first men in German women's studies was Hans D. Mummendey . From the mid-1980s onwards, US women's research was also increasingly received and women's research spread in German-speaking countries as a research perspective in more and more scientific disciplines.
From women's to gender research
As early as 1972, Rosemarie Nave-Herz advocated the term gender sociology and opposed the reduction to the term women's research. With her essay Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis from 1986 Joan Wallach Scott contributed to the fact that gender as a critical analysis category became a central concept in the scientific research of the 20th century. With the introduction of the gender category into the scientific discourse, women's research changed to gender research, which now also includes men. It examines the central importance of gender in science and society in an interdisciplinary manner, as there is hardly an area in which gender does not play a role. First of all, the differences and relationships between biological and socio-cultural sex should be examined. Gender was not primarily viewed as an individual property, but as a social relationship in a politically and historically grown social structure . The focus was therefore on the gender ratio.
Development from the 1990s
The German debate in the 1990s was most strongly influenced by Judith Butler's book Das Unbehagen der Geschlechts (1991), in which gender is seen primarily as a result of discourse. From the mid-1990s, the theorists Evelyn Fox Keller , Sandra Harding , Nancy Fraser , Anne Fausto-Sterling and Donna Haraway helped shape the gender debate in Germany. Gender Studies explore gender roles in society and especially in academic research (see ideological criticism and critical theory ). The Suhrkamp-Verlag introduced the Gender Studies series in 1991 , in which Butler's book appeared as the second.
One of the first courses in gender studies was set up in the winter semester (WS) 1997/98 at the Humboldt University in Berlin (see also Susanne Baer and Helga Hörz ), at the same time two courses in women and gender studies opened at the Carl von Ossietzky University in Oldenburg : Gender studies in cultural studies as a postgraduate course and women and gender studies as a Magister minor. This later developed into the doctoral program “Cultural Studies Gender Studies”, the Bachelor’s degree in Gender Studies (two-subject Bachelor) and the Master’s degree in Cultural Analysis: Representation, Performativity , Gender (subject master). A diverse research culture in gender studies has emerged at various universities in Germany; The Marburg study guide provides an overview of this.
In individual federal states there are special coordination offices whose task it is to bundle research activities in the field of women and gender studies and to encourage cross-university cooperation. These include the working group of the women's and gender research institutions in Berlin universities , the network women and gender research NRW , the state working group of the institutions for women and gender research in Lower Saxony , the gender and women's research center in Hesse, the coordinating office for gender research and equal opportunities in Saxony-Anhalt ( KGC) and the Center for Gender Knowledge in Hamburg.
In Austria , the University of Vienna has been offering a master’s or meanwhile master’s degree in Gender Studies since the winter semester 2006/07, as has the University of Graz since the winter semester 2007/08. The University of Linz obliges its students to attend courses on gender studies in almost all curricula. These courses vary in content depending on the field of study. For example, in the case of law courses, in addition to an overview of gender studies, specialist knowledge about the relevant legal sources of gender studies is conveyed.
About the Austrian Higher Education Act of 2005 that are teacher training colleges encouraged that the strategy of gender mainstreaming be applied and the results in the field of gender studies and gender-sensitive teaching to be considered.
The aim of gender studies or gender research is to gain knowledge about gender relations and thus to create more differentiated gender knowledge.
In Gender Studies, various scientific approaches, theories and terms have been developed in order to gain scientifically well-founded differentiated gender knowledge.
- Postulate of gender as "central focus of theory formation"
- Postulate of the problem of current gender relations
- Postulate that these current gender relations are neither "natural nor [...] immutable".
According to this, the various research directions in gender studies are based on a common feminist approach in theory formation.
The Germanist and gender researcher Franziska Schößler (2009) also explains in Introduction to Gender Studies that gender studies "continue the project that feminist approaches have been pursuing since the 1970s: the analysis and criticism of asymmetrical gender relations." With reference to a study by Luise Angerer and Johanna Dorer from 1994 on the comparison of women's studies and gender studies, pointing to “striking differences” between feminist theories on the one hand and gender studies on the other in terms of premises, focus of research and research goals.
The limitation to those parts of gender understanding that cannot be traced back to biological factors alone, which was felt to be necessary, was not investigated in an independent university discipline before gender research was established. Traditional notions of universal "gender difference" assessed as "natural" had not been scientifically analyzed or only unsystematically or interdisciplinary analyzed. Gender Studies emerged from the historical consequence of the idea (or ideology) of a gender difference that was politically criticized by the Second Women's Movement .
Subject of the investigation by gender studies are
- gender allocation through culture and other forms of social organization
- the balance of power that results from the distinction between “male” and “female”
- the process of differentiating between the sexes as well as its background and effects
- social inequality between the sexes (systematic disadvantage at work and in social policy, etc. because of sex), particularly through androcentrism
- social position of the sexes within society ( patriarchy , matriarchy , women's suffrage )
- gendered division of labor as a social structure (e.g. by distinguishing between production and reproduction in capitalist societies)
- Practices of creating gender difference ("doing gender")
- Media presentations and representations of gender, for example in film, literature, art, advertising, etc.
- Entanglement of the difference axes gender, class (or class, milieu), ethnicity / skin color, sexuality
- Gender education
- Queer theory
- Women and men research together and separately.
The Gender Studies treat sex and gender relations rather than inherent, rather than primarily social phenomena through social and cultural practices and structures designed to be. They do not see a deterministic connection between biological sex and the role of the sexes in society. While the biological gender is usually fixed, gender is accordingly variable and changeable.
The variety of meanings of “male” and “female” is emphasized in Gender Studies; At the same time, certain ideas of the natural nature of the sexes, of ideals of masculinity and femininity, are questioned. As a result of these considerations, the relationship between the sexes is viewed as changeable. Since the gender relationship cannot be viewed as a natural or static order, it is interpreted as a representation of cultural systems of rules . The aspect of gender evaluation is important; the value that is assigned to a gender within a culture also has an impact on the understanding of socio-cultural gender within the social system.
One focus of Gender Studies is the uncovering of the mechanisms that are behind these revaluations or revaluations of the sexes. In contrast to women's studies , it is also possible to consider differences that distinguish women from one another, especially from the point of view of social minorities.
Centers for Gender Studies and Professorships
From the end of the 1990s, the chairs for women's studies and centers for the promotion of women's and gender studies became interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary centers for gender studies with courses in gender studies.
One of the oldest institutions of this kind exists at Bielefeld University , the "Interdisciplinary Center for Women and Gender Studies " IFF, a central scientific institution of the university. At the Freie Universität Berlin (FU) there is the Margherita von Brentano Center, which was created at the beginning of 2016 from the “Central Institution for the Promotion of Women and Gender Studies” and the “Interdisciplinary Center for Gender Studies”. The Humboldt University in Berlin has the center for transdisciplinary gender studies ; at the University of Kassel since 1987 the "Interdisciplinary Working Group on Women and Gender Studies" , at the University of Greifswald the Interdisciplinary Center for Gender Studies , at the University of Bremen the "Center for Feminist Studies - Gender Studies" (ZfG), in Hildesheim the "Center for Interdisciplinary Women's and Gender Research "(ZIF) as a joint institution of the university and the University of Applied Sciences ( Hochschule Hildesheim / Holzminden / Göttingen , HAWK), at the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg the" Center for Interdisciplinary Women's and Gender Research "(ZFG) and at of the Philipps University of Marburg the “Center for Gender Studies and Feminist Future Research”. In 1997, on the initiative of Ute Gerhard, the “Center for Women's Studies and Research into Gender Relations” was founded in Frankfurt am Main , which in 2000 was named Cornelia Goethe Centrum .
The interdisciplinary center for gender research in medicine (GIM) was founded at the Charité Berlin in 2003, which was converted into an institute under the direction of Vera Regitz-Zagrosek in 2007 with the aim of systematically investigating gender differences in medicine and introducing them into teaching . In special research projects, it is dedicated to the question of why numerous diseases occur differently in men and women, develop differently or show significantly different symptoms. In 2011, the first and, until then, only textbook on gender medicine was published under the title Sex and Gender Aspects in Clinical Medicine . It provides an overview of gender issues in major clinical disciplines and pharmacology.
In 2017, there were 200 professorships for gender research at German-speaking universities. These were almost exclusively denominations in over 30 specialist areas from literary studies to sociology to medicine and sports. Many of these positions are temporary, 17.6 percent are professorships in salary group W3 .
At the end of 2017, the Gender Studies Unit at the Justus Liebig University was closed for the time being after an evaluation by Sabine Hark , Kerstin Palm, Norbert Ricken and Paula-Irene Villa Braslavsky . The reviewers criticized the fact that the research performance could not be increased noticeably in the immediate future and that the AGS was "hardly noticeable as an organizational unit from the outside", which is why a new start was recommended. An article in the left-wing political weekly newspaper Jungle World critically noted in May 2019 that political reasons in the conflict between women's studies and gender studies cannot be ruled out.
The Nordic Council of Ministers in 1995 founded the Nordic Gender Institute ( Nordic Gender Institute. NIKK), which in Norway at the University of Oslo was located. It was closed as an independent institute on December 31, 2011. In autumn 2012 NIKK was reorganized as "Nordic Information for Gender Knowledge" and incorporated into the Swedish Secretariat for Gender Research at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. NIKK initiates, coordinates and carries out central projects and studies in which the status of gender equality in the Nordic countries is examined. In 2008, for example, a large-scale study on the subject of prostitution was presented for the “Ministries for Gender Equality” of the Northern European countries .
Internal criticism of gender studies
Criticism of the gender concept
In gender research, very fundamental criticism of the gender concept is increasingly being made. It is about the lack of additional scientific benefit compared to previous knowledge and gender terms, as well as the misleading translation of the term into other languages. In addition, the historical forgetfulness of the concept, the renewed invisibility of women and the development of anti-feminist effects are criticized.
Criticism of the politicization of the scientific gender concept
After the scientific gender concept was transferred to international gender policy in the 1990s - primarily through the strategic approach of gender mainstreaming - it also became a gender policy concept. Within gender research, this has met with some criticism.
In 2017, Stefan Hirschauer attested the subject an excess of politicization and ideological blinkers. Gender research should not be instrumentalized “as a vehicle for the advancement of women”. If gender studies make themselves part of a political emancipatory project, one dodges the scientific answer to the question “why gender studies?” And arouses “chronically the suspicion of not having the intellectual substance to answer it”.
Criticism from science and the public
Gender studies are discussed by some natural scientists and in public, sometimes controversial and sometimes polemical. The author and historian Vojin Saša Vukadinović said in the NZZ : “Gender studies are in a crisis of legitimation: The public regards the subject with rejection, biologists challenge its scientific nature, and political groups mobilize either against a“ delusion ”or one "Ideology". Everyone complains about the meaning and purpose of a subject that is still relatively young at the age of twenty, but has nevertheless gone through a large number of controversies. "
In an interview with the RBB in 2015, the evolutionary biologist Ulrich Kutschera described gender studies as “unscientific nonsense”. Academic gender studies are a “fundamentalist feminist ideology that proceeded from a complete social construction of biological sex”. The feminist journalist Catherine Newmark arranged in the time his comments to the "anti-feminist rhetoric, the so-called ' Backlash ' 'and sees them in a row with the Internet" circulating masculinist (s) conspiracy by the feminist world domination ". With his book Gender-Paradoxon, which appeared in 2016, Kutschera wanted to “drive the last nails into the coffin of gender ideology”. Axel Meyer , also an evolutionary biologist, describes gender studies in his book Adams Apfel und Evas Erbe, together with subjects such as anthroposophy and homeopathy, as "unfortunately widespread anti-scientific hocus-pocus". In his review of the book in the FAZ , Thomas Weber Meyers criticized “distorting attacks on almost everything that has 'gender' in the name”. In the Weltwoche, Philipp Gut quoted the neuroscientist and psychiatrist Raphael M. Bonelli , who sees “a hidden sexism at work” in “gender theory”. According to journalist Jan Fleischhauer , gender studies generate hypotheses that they do not lead to confirmation or falsification. Attempts are made to give them strength of truth through repetition and circulation alone.
According to Antje Schrupp , right-wing populists and masculinists assume that the subject is “pursuing a feminist agenda, that is, not being scientifically objective, but following an ideology”. Gender studies have nothing to do with feminism, but rather investigate "what we all do all the time: depicting gender, constructing or undermining gender images". According to the gender researchers Sabine Hark and Paula-Irene Villa Braslavsky, the allegations against academic gender studies, which are fueled by the media, testify to status fears. The sociologists draw a historical analogy to German natural scientists, who at the beginning of the 20th century “objected to the right of women to study by recourse to nature” and who feared “an irreversible interference with the laws of nature” should women move into the academy as equals.
- Rita Casale , Barbara Rendtorff (ed.): What comes after gender research? On the future of feminist theory formation. Transcript, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-89942-748-6 .
- Ulrich Kutschera : The Gender Paradox. Man and woman as evolved types of people. LIT, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-643-13297-0 .
- Sabine Hark , Paula-Irene Villa (ed.): Anti-Genderism: Sexuality and gender as arenas of current political disputes. Transcript, Bielefeld 2015, ISBN 978-3-8376-3144-9 .
- Jasmin Siri : Battle Zone Gender. About the politicization of scientific expertise. Nicolai Publishing & Intelligence, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-96476-003-6 ( review note in Perlentaucher )
- Therese Frey Steffen: Gender. Reclam, Leipzig, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-15-020307-4 .
- Christina von Braun , Inge Stephan: Gender studies: an introduction . 2nd Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-476-01636-6 .
- Franziska Schößler: Introduction to Gender Studies. Academy, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-05-004404-0 .
- Beate Kortendiek, Birgit Riegraf , Katja Sabisch (eds.): Handbook Interdisciplinary Gender Research . Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2019, ISBN 978-3-658-12495-3 .
- Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendiek (Hrsg.): Handbook women and gender studies: theory, methods, empiricism . 3. Edition. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2010, ISBN 978-3-531-17170-8 .
- Martina Löw , Bettina Mathes (Ed.): Key works in gender research . Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-13886-3 .
- Nina Degele : Gender / Queer Studies: An Introduction. Wilhelm Fink Verlag , Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-2986-3
- Ulla Bock : pioneering work. The first female professors for women's and gender studies at German-speaking universities 1984–2014 (= series Politics of Gender Relations, Volume 55). Campus, Frankfurt a. M./New York 2015, ISBN 978-3-593-50301-1
Gender studies in individual disciplines (selection)
- Dörte Kuhlmann: Space, Power & Difference: Gender Studies in Architecture . Edition Selene, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-902373-73-3 .
- Robin Bauer, Helene Götschel (ed.): Gender in natural sciences. A curriculum at the interface of scientific cultures. Talheimer, Mössingen-Talheim 2006, ISBN 978-3-89376-119-7 (= Talheim Collection of Critical Knowledge. Volume 53).
- Ursula Hennigfeld / Fernand Hörner / Ursula Link-Heer (Ed.): Literary gender theory. Eros and society in Proust and Colette. Transcript, Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 978-3-89942-557-4 .
- Bettina Engels: Gender and Conflict. The gender category in peace and conflict research. VDM, Saarbrücken 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-6527-4 .
- Corinna Schlicht (Ed.): Gender studies in the humanities: contributions from literature, film and language studies . Universitätsverlag Rhein-Ruhr, Duisburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-940251-70-1 .
- Mechthild Koreuber (Ed.): Gender research in mathematics and computer science. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2010, ISBN 978-3-8329-4537-4 .
- Sabine Oertelt-Prigione, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek (Ed.): Sex and Gender Aspects in Clinical Medicine. (Textbook). Springer, London 2011, ISBN 978-0-85729-831-7 (English).
- Meike Sophia Baader, Johannes Bilstein, Toni Tholen (eds.): Upbringing, education and gender. Masculinity in the focus of gender studies. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-531-18552-1 ( review on querelles-net.de )
- Hilge Landweer, Catherine Newmark , Christine Kley, Simone Miller (Eds.): Philosophy and the Potentials of Gender Studies. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2012, ISBN 978-3-8376-2152-5 .
- Ricarda Drüeke , Elisabeth Klaus , Martina Thiele, Julia Elena Goldmann (eds.): Gender Studies in Communication Studies. On the topicality of critical social analysis. transcript, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-8376-3837-0 .
- Stefan Fragner, Jan Hemming, Beate Kutschke: Gender Studies & Music. Gender roles and their importance for musicology. ConBrio, Regensburg 1998, ISBN 978-3-932581-04-5 .
- Querelles: Yearbook for Women and Gender Studies (QJB: from 1996)
- GENDER. Journal for Gender, Culture and Society (from 2009)
- Society for Gender Studies (Gender Studies Association: Gender e.V.)
- Annotated Bibliography of Political Science : Gender Studies . In: pw-portal.de 2020 (literature on gender studies).
- Brigitte Ratzer, TU Vienna, interviewed by Martin Stepanek: “Good housemaid robots don't get us any further”. In: Futurezone.at . April 6, 2020 ("Technology is developed according to male ideas; this will not only be a problem for women, women researchers warn").
- Sophie Aschenbrenner: What “Gender Studies” students have to listen to. In: Jetzt.de . April 24, 2019 (“no real science, all lesbian and ideologically dirty”, protocols).
- Vojin Saša Vukadinović : Butler makes "racism" accusations. In: Emma . June 28, 2017 (was one of the first gender studies students in Germany).
- Kirsten Heinsohn, Claudia Kemper: Gender history . Version 1.0. In: Docupedia contemporary history . December 4, 2012 (“what is meant by gender is an ongoing negotiation process”).
- Gender studies, the. In: Duden online . Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- Inge Stephan, Christina von Braun: Introduction. In: Christina von Braun, Inge Stephan (Ed.): Gender Studies: An Introduction. 2nd Edition. Metzler, 2006, ISBN 978-3-476-02143-4 , p. 3.
- Ingrid Galster: Relire Beauvoir. The opposite sex sixty years later. In: Ingrid Galster: Simone Beauvoir and feminism. Hamburg 2015, pp. 56–78.
- Birgit Regraf: Construction of gender . In: Brigitte Aulenbacher , Michael Meuser , Birgit Riegraf (eds.): Sociological gender research: An introduction . Wiesbaden 2010, p. 55-77 .
- Lieselotte Steinbrügge: A myth will be visited: Le deuxième sexe by Simone de Beauvoir under the microscope of gender research. In: Querelles: Yearbook for Women and Gender Studies . No. 17, 2005 ( online at querelles-net.de).
- Ingrid Galster: Relire Beauvoir. The opposite sex sixty years later. In: Ingrid Galster: Simone Beauvoir and feminism. Hamburg 2015, pp. 56–78.
- Ingrid Galster: Relire Beauvoir. The opposite sex sixty years later. In: Ingrid Galster: Simone Beauvoir and feminism. Hamburg 2015, pp. 56–78.
- Ingrid Galster; Elisabeth Badinter (Ed.): Simone de Beauvoir: Le deuxième sexe: le livre fondateur du féminisme moderne en situation (… issu d'un colloque organisé par Ingrid Galster qui s'est tenu du 10 au 13 novembre 1999 à l'Université Catholique d'Eichstätt, en Bavière) . Paris 2004.
- Hans-Dieter Schmidt, Christiane Schmerl, Astrid Krameyer, Angelika Wagner, Dieter Steinbach, Amélie Schmidt-Mummendey: Misogyny: Social-psychological aspects of misogyny . Munich 1973.
- Rosemarie Nave-Herz: The dilemma of women in our society: The anachronism in role expectations. Texts and statistical data for an introduction to a “gender sociology” . Berlin-Spandau 1972.
- Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky: Gender - an epistemic thing? in: Rita Casale, Barbara Rendtorff (eds.): What comes after gender research? On the future of feminist theory formation. Transcript, Bielefeld 2008, ISBN 978-3-89942-748-6 , p. 185
- Katrin Hönig: Historical reconstruction. In: Therese Steffen (ed.): Gender Studies: Theories of Science and Social Criticism. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2739-6 , pp. 45-46 (conference publication 2003).
- Therese Steffen (Ed.): Gender Studies: Theories of Science and Social Criticism. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2739-6 , pp. 10-11 (conference publication 2003).
- ulrike baureithel: confusion in the sex game . In: The daily newspaper: taz . October 31, 1992, ISSN 0931-9085 , p. 13 ( taz.de [accessed July 1, 2020]).
- Study Guide Gender - Philipps-Universität Marburg, Center for Gender Studies and Feminist Future Research ( Memento of May 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Gender studies uni-graz.at
- Paragraph 8 of the 2005 Higher Education Act
- Nina Degele : Gender / Queer Studies: An Introduction . Fink Verlag , Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-2986-3 , p. 21 ( reading sample [PDF; 683 kB ; accessed on January 6, 2017]).
- Franziska Schößler: Introduction to Gender Studies. Berlin 2009, p. 9.
- Stefan Hirschauer: Why “Gender Studies”? Research on gender differentiation between political populism and scientific competition . In: social world . No. 54 , 2003, p. 474 .
- Therese Frey Steffen, Caroline Rosenthal, Anke Väth: Gender Studies: Theories of Science and Social Criticism . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2739-6 , p. 9 .
- Richard J. Utz: Typically stereotypical: For the representation of men and women in English textbooks. In: Fremdsprachunterricht 4/92, 233–236.
- Therese Steffen (Ed.): Gender Studies: Theories of Science and Social Criticism. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2739-6 , p. 11 ff. (Conference publication 2003).
- phil.uni-greifswald.de ( Memento from January 18, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Institute of Gender in Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin
- Maximiliane Brand, Katja Sabisch: Gender Studies: History, Establishment and Practical Perspectives of the Subject. In: Beate Kortendiek, Birgit Riegraf , Katja Sabisch (eds.): Handbook Interdisciplinary Gender Research . Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2019, ISBN 978-3-658-12495-3 , p. 1047.
- Anna-Lena Scholz: About the beginnings of women's research. The gender rebels. Der Tagesspiegel, January 22, 2016
- Eva Pfeiffer: “Gender Studies” before a new start . In: Gießener Anzeiger . January 6, 2018, p. 36 ( online [accessed January 6, 2018]).
- Ali Tonguç Ertuğrul, Sabri Deniz Martin: Feminism vs. Gender Studies: Notable Verdict . In: Jungle World . No. 17 . Jungle World, April 25, 2019 ( jungle.world ).
- NIKK moves to Sweden. ( Memento of January 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Message from the Nordic Council of Ministers (English).
- Evaluation of the Swedish Secretariat for Gender Research NIKK , September 2014
- Nordic Co-operation Program for Gender Equality 2011. Nordic Council of Ministers. 2012, ISBN 978-92-893-2337-6 , pp. 12f.
- NIKK Assignment, as of October 1, 2012
- Fact finder Tagesschau
- Vojin Saša Vukadinović: The struggle for gender. NZZ, September 7, 2017
- Catherine Newmark: Gender Studies. For fear of another life. Zeit Online, July 17, 2015
- Armin Himmelrath: Professor against gender research: "Young, attractive, must be able to cook well". Spiegel Online, September 24, 2015
- Axel Meyer : Adam's apple and Eva's legacy. How genes determine our lives and why women are different from men . With a foreword by Harald Martenstein . 1st edition. Bertelsmann , Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-570-10204-6 , pp. PT11 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Thomas Weber: Reproductive Biology. We shouldn't be compared to voles. FAZ, November 8, 2015
- Philipp Gut: Gender. Ideal addition. Die Weltwoche Nr. 8, February 25, 2016, pp. 14-17 ( online [accessed January 2, 2018]).
- FOCUS Online: What it says about you if you believe your gender is a matter of biology. Retrieved January 5, 2020 .
- Antje Schrupp: Gender Studies: Are you gender or what? Zeit Online, September 11, 2017
- Sabine Hark, Paula Villa: Attacks on gender research. The dubious gender. Guest article in Der Tagesspiegel, December 17, 2014
- Review by Martin Spetsmann-Kunkel: An Introduction to Gender Studies. In: Querelles: Yearbook for Women and Gender Studies . No. 23, 2007 ( online at querelles-net.de).
- Review by Heike Kahlert, in: Querelles: Yearbook for women and gender research. Volume 10, No. 1, 2009 ( online at querelles-net.de).
- Short review by Andreas Eis. In: The Annotated Bibliography - Portal for Political Science