University of Vienna
|University of Vienna|
|founding||March 12, 1365|
|Rector and spokesman for the Rectorate||Heinz Engl|
|Students||89,716 (winter semester 2018/19)|
|Employee||9,793 (as of December 31, 2018)|
|Annual budget||around EUR 624 million (2018)|
The University of Vienna ( Latin: Alma Mater Rudolphina Vindobonensis ) with around 90,000 students and around 9,800 employees is the largest university in Austria and in the German-speaking countries and one of the largest in Europe . Founded in Vienna in 1365 , it is the oldest university in today's German-speaking area and the third oldest in Central Europe after the former German-speaking Charles University in Prague and the Jagiellonian University in Krakow . It currently offers 178 studies. It is regarded as the leading university in Austria and enjoys a high international reputation.
Colloquially, both the University of Vienna and its main building are referred to as the main university in order to distinguish them from the other universities in the city ( technical university , business university , medical university, etc.).
Locations in the Stubenviertel
The medieval university was in various buildings in Stubenviertel of Vienna's city center housed. Her first house was the Herzogskolleg, opened in 1385, at today's Postgasse 7-9. After the incorporation of the Jesuit College in the University in 1623, the early Baroque Jesuit college was built at the same place, which, together with the University Church and some additions today as Old University is preserved and for example, the archive of the University of Vienna contains. In 1753/55 Maria Theresa had a new main building, the New Aula , built right next to the Jesuit College . The auditorium was a central meeting place during the revolution of 1848 . After the violent suppression of the revolt, the university was occupied by the military and the students were expelled; the building was given to the Academy of Sciences in 1857 . The studies took place in temporary alternative quarters.
From 1854, a space was initially provided behind the choir of the Votive Church for the construction of a main building for the university . In 1868, however, an area on the Ringstrasse became available and the university was built there. Construction began in 1877. Architect Heinrich Ferstel chose the style of the Italian High Renaissance for the building , with the universities of Padua and Genoa as inspiration. The eye-catcher on the Ringstraße is the prominently protruding columned hall. In the gable, a relief depicts the birth of Minerva , the goddess of wisdom. In 1884 the university was completed. The area of the university covers 21,412 m², of which 14,530 m² are built-up. The cost was 7.7 million guilders (approx. 68 million euros).
Today, this main building at Universitätsring 1 houses the rector's office, most of the dean's offices, the central service facilities, the main library, a few institutes with their specialist libraries and numerous lecture halls.
Important secondary locations of the university are the new institute building (NIG) built in 1962 and the university campus , opened in 1998 , which was created through the renovation of the old general hospital and houses a large number of institutes and specialist libraries. The University Center Althanstrasse (UZA 1-4), built in several parts from 1978–1995, is located above the former freight yard of the Franz-Josefs-Bahnhof in Althangrund (9th district of Vienna). The Juridicum in the 1st district, Schottenbastei 10-16, completed in 1984 , is one of the most important postmodern buildings in Vienna. The other scientific facilities of the institutes are spread over 60 locations in Vienna and other federal states.
Faculties and Centers
The University of Vienna has 15 faculties and five centers:
- Catholic Theological Faculty
- Evangelical Theological Faculty
- Faculty of Law
- Faculty of Economics
- Faculty of Computer Science
- Faculty of History and Cultural Studies
- Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies
- Faculty of Philosophy and Education
- Faculty of Psychology
- Faculty of Social Sciences
- Faculty of Mathematics
- Faculty of Physics
- Faculty of Chemistry
- Faculty of Earth Sciences , Geography and Astronomy
- Faculty of Life Sciences
- Center for Translation Studies
- Center for Sports Science and University Sports
- Center for Molecular Biology
- Center for teacher training
- Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science
- The University Library of the University of Vienna includes the holdings of the main library and of over 40 departmental and institute libraries at university locations throughout Vienna. It is freely accessible. It goes back to the holdings of the Habsburg court library , into which the original university archive was incorporated in the 18th century. Today the Vienna University Library is the largest book collection in Austria and, in addition to contemporary scientific literature, has an exceptionally good inventory of historical works.
- Organizationally, the university library is linked to the archive of the University of Vienna , the actual university archive that administers the documents of the university. It is located at the old location of the university library on the area of the main building.
- The Vienna University Observatory is located in the Observatory Park , an astronomical branch is the Leopold Figl Observatory in the Vienna Woods.
- The Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna in the 3rd district of Landstrasse goes back to a medicinal plant garden laid out in 1754, and today has the appearance of an English garden. With the exception of the scientific test areas, it is also freely accessible.
Even after the establishment of the Medical University of Vienna in 2004, there is still a cooperation between the Medical University and subjects at the University of Vienna: for example, Max F. Perutz Laboratories GmbH was jointly founded.
Late Middle Ages
The founding deed, now kept in the archive , was signed on March 12, 1365 by Duke Rudolf IV and his brothers Albrecht III. and Leopold III. signed. Hence the name of the university Alma Mater Rudolphina . The charter of founding contains in a programmatic way the guiding principle of the university that “common good, right courts, human reason and humility receive and grow [...] and at the same time a possibly wise person who is sensible and ain unwise to human reason in right understanding with divine learning and will be withdrawn. "
After Charles University in Prague, the University of Vienna is the second oldest university in the then Holy Roman Empire north of the Alps and the oldest existing university in the German-speaking area. However, almost twenty years would pass before regular teaching and learning operations began; 1383 used Duke Albrecht III. a dispute at the Sorbonne to call numerous professors from Paris to Vienna, and after the papal reservation, still expressed in 1365, to set up a theological faculty, Albrecht III issued. In 1384 a second letter from which the continuous development began.
Up until the end of the Middle Ages, the university grew steadily and had over 6,000 students during the humanist era (around 1500), making it the largest university in the empire. In the 1520s, the plague epidemics, the threat from the Turkish army and the Reformation led to a sharp decline in student numbers; in the 16th century the university temporarily had only 30 students. On October 13, 1623, the university was merged with the Jesuit College , founded in 1551 , and the entire theological and philosophical faculty was handed over to the Jesuits (the Society of Jesus ). After this reform, the university took off again.
Time of enlightenment
Far-reaching reforms were then carried out under Maria Theresa and Joseph II from 1749, with which the influence of the Jesuits was pushed back and finally eliminated and the university was converted into a state institution, which was associated with an almost complete loss of university autonomy. Little emphasis was placed on research and teaching was tightly organized.
1848 to 1938
The 1848 revolution was directed not least against these restrictions on freedom of teaching and learning, which then became the principles of the university reform of Education Minister Leo Thun-Hohenstein in 1849 . In this context, the Faculty of Philosophy was upgraded and put on an equal footing with the three “higher” faculties (theology, law, medicine).
The Evangelical Theological Faculty was founded in 1850 , but was not incorporated into the university until 1922. With the university reform in 1975, the university was reorganized into eight faculties: Catholic theology, Protestant theology, law, social and economic sciences, medicine, basic and integrative sciences, humanities, and formal and natural sciences.
In 1897 women were admitted as full listeners for the first time, albeit initially only in the philosophical faculty . The remaining faculties followed, some at a considerable distance: the medical one in 1900, the legal one in 1919, and the evangelical theological one in 1923. In 1945 the Catholic theological faculty finally admitted women as regular students. Eight years after starting women's studies at the University of Vienna, the Romance philologist Elise Richter was the first woman to complete her habilitation in 1905; she also became the first associate professor in 1921. The first Ordinaria was only appointed at the University of Vienna in 1956: the physicist Berta Karlik .
Long before the “Anschluss” of 1938, anti-democratic and anti-Semitic students, benevolently tolerated by some professors, were active at the university. The Institute for the Care of German Knowledge was founded in 1924, in 1928 there were university riots, in 1932 there were also student riots that were combined with demonstrations in front of the main entrance to the university. In June 1936 the physicist and philosopher Moritz Schlick , founder of the Vienna Circle , was shot dead by one of his former students on the Philosophenstiege in the main building of the university; the murderer was released from prison two years later by the Nazi regime.
time of the nationalsocialism
After Austria's annexation to the German Reich, the university was “brought into line” under Rector Fritz Knoll in 1938 according to National Socialist criteria and a large number of teachers and students were expelled for racist and political reasons, with a third of the teaching staff the largest such measure worldwide. In 1943 he was followed by the anatomist Eduard Pernkopf .
post war period
In April 1945 Kurt Schubert , then only 22 years old and later recognized doyen for Jewish studies at the University of Vienna, obtained permission from the Soviet occupying forces to resume university operations, which is why he is the unofficial first "rector" of the university after the war. On April 25, 1945, however, the constitutional lawyer Ludwig Adamovich senior was elected full rector of the University of Vienna.
The co-determination of students and mid-level staff that was realized with the university reform in 1975 was largely reversed with the university reform 1993 (in Vienna in force since 2000) and the university reform 2002 (in force since 2004). As a result of the last-mentioned reforms, the university regained its legal capacity after more than 250 years as a state or semi-state institution, the number of faculties and centers was increased to 18 (see below), and the medical faculty was spun off as the Medical University of Vienna .
On October 22, 2009, after a solidarity rally for the squatters of the Academy of Fine Arts, the Audimax, the largest auditorium in Austria (opened in 1936), was occupied (see Student Protests in Austria 2009 ). The protests were directed against (among other things) the implementation of the Bologna Process in Austria, against the reintroduction of tuition fees, against access restrictions and against precarious working conditions at universities. Demand was raised to increase the university budget to 2% of GDP in order to expand human and spatial capacities as well as to better equip universities and an education and curriculum that was independent of private-sector interests.
With regard to the implementation of the new teacher training , regional development associations have been formed in Austria. The University of Vienna and other universities in Vienna and Lower Austria are part of the North-East Association . The new teacher training for the secondary level began in 2016.
In THE ranking it occupied in 2020 the world's No. 134 in the QS ranking 2021 Rank 150. The Shanghai ranking it among the best 200. THE World Reputation Ranking she saw in 2011 among the 30 most prestigious universities in Europe and among the most prestigious 100 Universities worldwide.
In spite of the largely unrestricted university entrance, these results are exceeded in some individual evaluations: In the THE ranking, the University of Vienna ranks 14th in Europe and 30th worldwide in the humanities category. In 2019, she was ranked 32nd in Europe and 73rd worldwide in law. In 2018, in the QS World University Ranking , it was ranked 33rd in Europe in law and among the top 100 universities worldwide.
Nobel Prize Winner
- Róbert Bárány (Medicine 1913)
- Julius Wagner-Jauregg (medicine 1927)
- Hans Fischer (chemistry 1930)
- Karl Landsteiner (Medicine 1930)
- Erwin Schrödinger (Physics 1933)
- Victor Franz Hess (Physics 1936)
- Otto Loewi (medicine 1936)
- Konrad Lorenz (Medicine 1973)
- Friedrich August von Hayek (Economics 1974)
- Elfriede Jelinek (Literature 2004)
Other important scientists
Ferdinand von Arlt , Theodor Billroth , Marietta Blau , Ludwig Boltzmann , Franz Brentano , Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke , Charlotte Bühler , Karl Bühler , Rudolf Carnap , Conrad Celtis , Viktor Frankl , Sigmund Freud , Kurt Gödel , Olga Hahn-Neurath , Berthold Hatschek , Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra , Moriz Hoernes , Josef Hyrtl , Marie Jahoda , Moritz Kaposi , Berta Karlik , Hans Kelsen , Alfred Kohler , Helmut Koziol , Richard von Krafft-Ebing , Florian Kratschmer von Forstburg , Mihály Ignác von Lenhossék , Johann Josef Loschmidt , Carl Ludwig , Ernst Mach , Lise Meitner , Oskar Morgenstern , Otto Neurath , Johann Palisa , Richard Pittioni , Pius II. , Johann Puluj , Elise Richter , Erwin Ringel , Karl Freiherr von Rokitansky , August Schleicher , Moritz Schlick , Wendelin Schmidt-Dengler , Joseph von Sonnenfels , Josef Stefan , Nikolai Sergejewitsch Trubetzkoy , Gustav Tschermak , Carl Auer von Welsbach
Victor Adler , Franz Alt , Peter Apian , Franz Ballner , Max Wladimir von Beck , Richard Belcredi , Bruno Bettelheim , Nicetas Budka , Karl Buresch , Manfred von Clary and Aldringen , Anton von Doblhoff-Dier , Engelbert Dollfuß , Andreas Dorschel , Paul Ehrenfest , Paul Feyerabend , Hertha Firnberg , Heinz Fischer , OW Fischer , Iwan Franko , Alcide De Gasperi , Cajetan von Felder , Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn , Arno Geiger , Kurt Gödel , Alfred Gusenbauer , Jörg Haider , Theodor Herzl , Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Konrad zu Hohenlohe -Schillingsfürst , Ludwig von Holzgethan , Max Hussarek von Heinlein , Edmund Husserl , Heinrich von Huyssen , Elfriede Jelinek , Karl Kautsky , Erich von Kielmansegg , Rudolf Kirchschläger , Josef Klaus , Viktor Klima , Edith Kneifl , Ernest von Koerber , Karl Kraus , Bruno Kreisky , Hans Kudlich , Hryhory Lakota , Heinrich Lammasch , Paul Felix Lazarsfeld , Käthe Leichter , Peter Luder , Karl Lueger , Ernst Mach , Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk , Michael Mayr , El mar Mayer-Baldasseroni , Gregor Mendel , Alois Mock , Grete Mostny , Thomas Nader , Pope Pius III. , Nada Ina Pauer , Paul Pella , Franz von Pillersdorf , Ignaz von Plener , Karl Popper , Peter Porsch , Rudolf Ramek , Karl Renner , Henning Röhl , Manfred Rumpl , Fritz Schajowicz , Anton von Schmerling , Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg , Ignaz Seipel , Ignaz Semmelweis , Fred Sinowatz , Pavao Skalić , Arthur Schnitzler , Johann Schober , Klaus Schönherr , Wolfgang Schüssel , Arthur Seyß-Inquart , Joseph von Sonnenfels , Hilde Spiel , Adalbert Stifter , Ferdinand Strobel , Eduard Taaffe , Julius Tandler , Olga Taussky-Todd , Franz von Thun and Hohenstein , Mutius von Tommasini , Kurt Waldheim , Heinrich von Wittek , Stefan Zweig , Huldrych Zwingli
Graduates in mathematics (dissertation; selection )
- 1887: Wilhelm Wirtinger (1865–1945)
- 1900: Ernst Fanta (1878–1939)
- 1907: Eduard Helly (1884–1943)
- 1908: Wilhelm Blaschke (1885–1962)
- 1910: Johann Radon (1887–1956)
- 1917: Hilda Geiringer (1893–1973)
- 1920: Leopold Vietoris (1891-2002)
- 1923: Otto Schreier (1901–1929)
- 1924: Karl Menger (1902–1985)
- 1927: Nikolaus Hofreiter (1904–1990)
- 1928: Karl Strubecker (1904–1991)
- 1929: Hans Hornich (1906–1979)
- 1930: Kurt Gödel (1906–1978)
- 1930: Olga Taussky-Todd (1906–1995)
- 1932: Franz Alt (1910–2011)
- 1938: Edmund Hlawka (1916–2009)
- 1941: Leopold Butterer (1919-2004)
- 1947: Karl Prachar (1925–1994)
- 1948: Walter Knödel (1926-2018)
- 1950: Wilfried Nöbauer (1928–1988)
- 1955: Wolfgang Schmidt (* 1933)
- 1960: Johann Cigler (* 1937)
- 1960: Walter Philipp (1936-2006)
- 1965: Martin Aigner (* 1942)
- 1966: Peter Gruber (1941–2017)
- 1967: Günter Pilz (* 1945)
- 1968: Klaus Schmidt (* 1943)
- 1968: Karl Sigmund (* 1945)
- 1968: Peter Zinterhof (* 1944)
- 1969: Harald Niederreiter (* 1944)
- 1969: Hans-Christian Reichel (1945–2002)
- 1971: Ron Sommer (* 1949)
- 1972: Harald Rindler (* 1948)
- 1973: Peter W. Michor (* 1949)
- 1974: Hans Georg Feichtinger (* 1951)
- 1976: Walter Schachermayer (* 1950)
- 1976: Rudolf Taschner (* 1953)
- 1978: Josef Hofbauer (* 1956)
- 1979: Robert Tichy (* 1957)
- 1983: Peter Paule (* 1958)
- 1985: Karlheinz Gröchenig (* 1959)
- 1989: Martin A. Nowak (* 1965)
- 1994: Norbert Mauser (* 1964)
- 1998: Ulrich Berger (* 1970)
- 1999: Josef Teichmann (* 1972)
- 1999: Manfred Einsiedler (* 1973)
- 2002: Georg Schneider (* 1980)
- 2005: Peter Balazs (* 1970)
Graduates in mathematics (graduation, Mag .; selection)
- Thomas Janeschitz (* 1966)
Graduates in chemistry (dissertation, Dr .; selection)
- 1880: Josef Herzig (1853–1924)
- 1910: Ernst Späth (1886–1946)
- 1921: Hermann F. Mark (1895–1992)
- 1928: Friedrich Hecht (1903–1980)
- 1930: Alfred Zeller (1908–1976)
- 1937: Johann Wolfgang Breitenbach (1908–1978)
- 1950: Thomas Schönfeld (1923-2008)
- 1950: Karl Schlögl (chemist) (1924-2007)
- 1959: Oskar Polansky (1919–1989)
- 1966: Heinz Falk (* 1939)
- 1974: Thomas Hoffmann-Ostenhof (* 1945)
Roll of honor
Monuments in the arcade courtyard
- Vienna Astronomical School
- List of universities in Austria
- University piglet
- Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Human Rights
- Kurt Mühlberger (Ed.): The University of Vienna. Brief glimpses of a long story. Holzhausen, Vienna 1996, ISBN 3-900518-45-9 .
- Kurt Mühlberger, Meta Niederkorn -Bruck (Hrsg.): The University of Vienna in the concert of European educational centers. 14.-16. Century. In: Publications of the Institute for Austrian Historical Research, Volume 56, Böhlau / Oldenbourg, Vienna / Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-486-59224-5 / ISBN 978-3-205-78490-6 ( table of contents ).
- Kurt Mühlberger, University of Vienna (ed.): Palace of Science. A historical walk through the main building of the Alma Mater Rudolphina Vindobonensis [University of Vienna]. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-205-77619-2 , parallel edition in English: Palace of Knowledge. A historical stroll through the main building of the Alma Mater Rudolphina Vindobonensis. Translated by Camilla R. Nielsen and J. Roderick O'Donovan, ISBN 978-3-205-77807-3 .
- Rector Heinz W. Engl. In: univie.ac.at . Retrieved March 23, 2020.
- Numbers and dates on the official website of the University of Vienna
- Performanceand intellectualstatement 2018. (PDF) p. 154 , accessed on July 8, 2019 .
- University of Vienna. February 5, 2018, accessed February 9, 2019 .
- University of Vienna. July 16, 2015, accessed February 9, 2019 .
- Barbara Dmytrasz: The Ringstrasse - A European building idea. Amalthea Signum Verlag, Vienna 2008. ISBN 978-3-85002-588-1 . P. 96ff.
- Spatial expansion | University buildings since the end of the 19th century. In: univie.ac.at . Retrieved March 28, 2020.
- History of the campus of the University of Vienna ( Memento from May 7, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) campus.univie.ac.at; Walk through the campus of the University of Vienna medienportal.univie.ac.at, accessed on April 20, 2011
- Locations of the University of Vienna. In: univie.ac.at . Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna
- Center for Teacher Education. Retrieved December 19, 2017 .
- Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science. University of Vienna
- Women at the University of Vienna. In: geschichte.univie.ac.at. Retrieved July 5, 2020 .
- Bundespolizeidirektion Wien (Ed.): 80 Years of the Vienna Security Guard , Verlag für Jugend und Volk, Vienna 1949, p. 57, picture p. 63
- Catherine Kniefacz: The murder of Professor Moritz Schlick. In: geschichte.univie.ac.at. Retrieved February 13, 2020 .
- Memorial book for the victims of National Socialism at the University of Vienna in 1938. In: gedenkbuch.univie.ac.at . Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- Klaus Taschwer: The deep fall of a world-famous faculty. In: derstandard.at . March 9, 2018, accessed May 19, 2020.
- Opening of the auditorium maximum. In: Neue Freie Presse , Monday edition (No. 25957 A), December 14, 1936, p. 6, bottom left. (Online at ANNO ).
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