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Ernst Mach (1900)
Ernst Mach (1905)
photograph by Charles Scolik

Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (born February 18, 1838 in Chirlitz near Brno , Austrian Empire ; †  February 19, 1916 in Vaterstetten , Kingdom of Bavaria ) was an Austrian physicist , sensory physiologist , philosopher and theorist of science and a pioneer of the emerging history of science . The Mach number , which describes the speed in relation to the speed of sound , is named after Ernst Mach .

In addition to problems in physics and their solutions, he also dealt with questions of philosophy . He is considered to be one of the most influential representatives or co-founders of empirical criticism . In sensory physiology he made important experiments on the human sense of balance , on stimulus thresholds and on optical illusions ( Mach stripes ). In psychology he was a pioneer of Gestalt psychology or Gestalt theory .

life and work

Monument in the Vienna Rathauspark

Origin and education

Ernst Mach, born in Chirlitz near Brno in 1838 and baptized in Turas ( Tuřany ), belonged to a family of the German-speaking minority in Moravia . His mother Josepha Lanhaus (1813–1869) and his sister Octavia also came from Chirlitz. His father Johann Mach (1805–1879) was a private tutor and, after purchasing an estate in Untersiebenbrunn, earned the family's income as a farmer. Further ancestors of the paternal line were smallholders and weavers, presumably in inheritance until 1848 . The mother's line consisted of church officials, doctors, lawyers, and officers.

Ernst Mach's schooling consisted mainly of lessons from his parents until he was 15. For the first ten years of his life, Mach was tutored exclusively by his father. After attending the Stiftsgymnasium Seitenstetten for a year in 1848 , he went to school again with his father, who at the same time instructed him in agricultural work. At this time he also completed an apprenticeship as a cabinet maker. Mach wanted to prepare for a planned emigration to North America. However, he never practiced this craft. In self-study he acquired scientific knowledge. In 1853 he went back to Moravia and entered the 6th grade of the Piarist high school in Kremsier . There he obtained his Matura after two years . From 1855 he studied mathematics and natural sciences at the University of Vienna and graduated in 1859/60 with a dissertation "On electrical charges and induction" with Andreas von Ettingshausen as a doctor of philosophy.


On August 1, 1867, Ernst Mach married the orphan Ludovica Marussig, who was seven years his junior and with whom he had five children: Ludwig Mach (* 1868 in Prague, † 1951 in Vaterstetten near Munich, as Dr. med. And physicist, long-time employee of his Father); Caroline Mach (1873–1965) moved to live with her son in the USA; Heinrich Mach (1874–1894, studied chemistry); Felix Johann Mach (* 1879 in Prague, † 1933 in Pietzing, Rosenheim district, academic painter) and Viktor Mach (* 1881 in Prague, † 1940 in Kirchseeon, Ebersberg district, precision mechanic).

academic career

In 1861 Ernst Mach completed his habilitation at the University of Vienna and then taught there as a private lecturer without salary. When he applied for the professorship of his sick doctoral supervisor in Vienna, it was not awarded to him. Thereupon Mach accepted a position as mathematics professor at the University of Graz in 1864 , while he stayed again and again at the manor of the parents, who meanwhile moved to Veliki Slatnik near Novo Mesto in Lower Carniola in what is now Slovenia , where his father ran a silkworm farm. He taught in Graz until the summer of 1867; from 1866 as full professor of physics.

In the winter semester of 1867/68 Ernst Mach received the call of Karl Ferdinand University in Prague , where he also became director of the physical institute. In 1872/73 he became dean of the philosophy faculty and in 1879/80 and 1883/84 rector of the university. During this time the linguistic division of the Charles University in Prague (1882) fell, in whose environment Mach took a liberal stance, although he belonged to the German-speaking minority in Bohemia and Moravia . His classical work in the field of physics, sense psychology, historically critical work and the formulation of a theory of knowledge were created in Prague. He is often referred to as a co-founder of modern positivism and a pioneer of empirio-criticism . Ernst Mach worked at the University of Prague until 1895.

He maintained a friendly correspondence with the Czech physicist August Seydler (1849-1891). Mach's political attitude and character mentality delayed his appointment to the University of Vienna to the newly created professorship for “ Philosophy , especially the history of inductive sciences” by a few years. Mach took up this professorship in 1895. He worked there until his stroke in 1898, and in 1901 he retired.

Political attitude

As already became apparent in the dispute over the division of Charles University in Prague into a Czech and German language branch, Mach had adopted a deeply liberal and humanistic attitude from his parents' house . In view of this conflict, Mach stated "a regrettable narrow-mindedness and a terrible step backwards through the idea of ​​nationality". Later, unusual for his class as a university teacher, he turned to social democracy . It is possible that his liberal childhood home contributed to this. His work, especially epistemology, was not received impartially in Russia because some of Mach's supporters were political opponents of Lenin .

Ernst Mach was friends with Victor Adler , the chairman of the Austrian Social Democrats . He commented on the outcome of the Austrian parliamentary elections in 1897 : “The Viennese voted like fools. Everywhere the priests have won against the Social Democrats. ”He was also said to have an attitude of mind tending towards atheism or agnosticism .


After a stroke in the summer of 1898, Mach's strength gradually waned. In 1913 he moved to Vaterstetten near Munich to live with his eldest son, the inventor Ludwig Mach . There he died on February 19, 1916. In an obituary in 1916 , Albert Einstein summarized Mach's meaning in the physical journal :

"According to his intellectual development, Mach was not a philosopher who chose the natural sciences as the object of his speculations, but a versatile, diligent natural scientist who visibly enjoyed exploring detailed questions away from the focus of general interest."

At the request of the bereaved, Ernst Mach's urn was buried in a collective grave in Munich's north cemetery. In his memorial stone between the southern and northern arcades, at burial ground 94, is the ashes of his son Ludwig.

Scientific achievements

As early as 1872, Mach dealt with all the important topics that made up his scientific program in his early work The History and the Roots of the Law of the Preservation of Labor :

  • Meaning and function of scientific theories
  • Epistemological significance of physiology and sensory psychology for the natural sciences
  • Principle of thought economy
  • Deficiencies in Newtonian mechanics
  • Critique of atomic theory, classical causality, a physical reductionism, especially the mechanism
  • Criticism of materialism
  • Criticism of "metaphysical speculations"
  • Method of historical analysis

Most of his works were written during his time in Prague, including his most important works on physics and sensory physiology . He also began there to deal with questions of epistemology and the history of physics. Mach's important research areas were:

Doppler effect

Immediately after his studies, Mach confirmed the Doppler effect experimentally in 1860 , thus ending the debate about the correctness of the theory. In this way, Mach laid the foundations for the detection of the optical Doppler effect . In this context, he proposed in a letter to the co-founder of spectral analysis, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff , that the relative motion of fixed stars should also be determined spectroscopically. He turned to Kirchhoff in this way because it seemed impossible to him to “find support for this idea in Vienna to carry it out himself”. However, these efforts perished and were only implemented decades later by Edward Charles Pickering and Hermann Carl Vogel .

"Working on phenomena on flying projectiles"

Schlieren photo of an airplane model at Mach 1.2 in the wind tunnel

In the summer of 1886, Ernst Mach, together with Peter Salcher, succeeded for the first time in using the streak photography and moment photography developed by August Toepler to make cones of air condensation visible in front of projectiles. With this, Mach experimentally confirmed theories of the ballistician Louis Melsens , who could not validate his hypotheses. He then experimented with cannon calibres, but no longer in his institute, but on August 18, 1888 in Meppen on the shooting range of the Friedrich Krupp AG company and in the imperial and royal naval academy of Fiume (today Rijeka ).

To improve the measurement, he developed the Mach-Zehnder interferometer together with his son Ludwig Mach , who served as his assistant . From the data obtained in this way, Mach was able to show that the shock wave is compressed up to 50 times. He also demonstrated the existence of a tail wave behind the projectile next to the head wave in front of the projectile.

At the latest with the "reversal" of the attempt in 1889/90, i. H. With the idea of ​​blowing air onto a stationary projectile, Mach created the basis of gas dynamics , which was then further developed by Ludwig Prandtl . The military aspects of this research worried Mach, as he pointed out in many lectures.

Critique of Newtonian Mechanics

Mach intensively questioned the foundations of Newtonian mechanics from a positivistic and empirical standpoint and came across questions that he tried to solve using Mach's principle . In the course of this, many well-known books were created, including a. the most famous book "Mechanics in their Development" (1883), the 7th edition of which was published in 1912. Here, contrary to the zeitgeist, he denies the universal validity of mechanics and tries to trace mechanics back to observations. This is how he reformulated the law of inertia in his Mach principle:

“Instead of referring a moving body K to space (to a coordinate system), we want to look directly at its behavior to the bodies of space, through which that coordinate system alone can be determined. Bodies very distant from one another, which move with constant direction and speed in relation to other distant fixed bodies, change their mutual distance proportionally to time [...] The considerations just made show that we do not need to apply the law of inertia to a particular absolute space to acquire. Rather, we recognize that both those masses which, according to the usual terminology, exert forces on one another, and those who do not exert any, are in quite similar acceleration relations to one another, and that all masses can be regarded as being related to one another. [...] Although I also expect that astronomical observations will initially only require very inconspicuous corrections, I still consider it possible that the law of inertia in its simple Newtonian form has only spatial and temporal significance for us humans. "

Mach's statements led some to see him as a pioneer of general relativity . In 1872 he discovered that the inertia of a body can only be determined if there are other masses in the universe as a reference variable for measuring acceleration. Only the presence of other masses creates inertia ( Mach's principle ). Albert Einstein himself initially described himself as a “student” of Mach, but later distanced himself from his philosophical views.

Mach always pursued the goal of developing new research methods. It is thanks to his great influence in science and the public that many important research projects have been carried out in Vienna and Austria. The electron and the quantum were ideal for Mach, as they were measurable and dimensioned objects of physical research that fully met Mach's descriptive and reductionist demands on physics.

Sensory Psychology and Philosophy

Illustration from:
Ernst Mach: Antimetaphysical Preliminary Remarks.
Published in:
The Analysis of Sensations and the Relationship of the Physical to the Psychic.

As an ardent supporter of the Enlightenment and a staunch opponent of every form of metaphysics , Mach pleaded for a methodical economy of thought , which he understands as the greatest possible frugality in conceptual and speculative terms. Knowledge of nature has its foundation in experience - conveyed either directly via sensory impressions or via measuring instruments. He is therefore to be regarded as an empiricist . Furthermore, Mach is seen as a representative of positivism . For Mach, positivism essentially meant:

  1. The source of all human knowledge is the "given".
  2. There is only a multiplicity of sensory impressions (sensations).
  3. Everything that constitutes the “world” in addition to the content of sensory perception is not given.
  4. The distinction between the self and the world is unfounded.
  5. There is no metaphysical knowledge about extrasensory reality.

Mach made a name for himself in psychology with the thesis that humans always select the most economical perceptual process .

“All human actions and aspirations are determined by the desire for self-preservation. The development of the higher intellectual functions replaces those innate properties and reflexes that enable the lower organisms to exist. "

In the philosophy of science, he understood the sciences as a means of describing the world and people's feelings as simply and neutrally as possible. In addition, he demanded a reductionism without compromise as the leading culture of science . For this reason he saw physics and psychology as the actual basis of an enlightened understanding of the world . Physical theories, like psychological ones, are only mathematically organized descriptions of nature. Discussions about the truth of theories are therefore superfluous. Only the benefit is relevant. Truth does not exist in itself, but as a temporary discussion truth that comes about according to evolutionary laws: Only the strongest, i.e. the most economical and empirically clearest, ideas prevail.

Effect and aftermath


The discussion of these ideas, which were popular at the beginning of the 20th century and were often discussed, took place in different circles. Max Planck, for example, criticized his evolutionary theory of ideas as metaphysical speculation.

Mach was studied by Marxists like Lenin, who in his work Materialism and Empirio- Criticism subjected Mach's philosophical ideas to a fundamental critique by, among other things, a. claimed solipsistic implications of Mach's theory.

The book of Lenin is also a criticism of Alexander Bogdanov , Pavel Yushkewitsch , Vladimir Basarov and Nikolai Walentinov, as well as of their philosophical teachers Richard Avenarius and Mach, who, according to Lenin, tried to elaborate a refined idealism in their works as a counterweight to dialectical materialism. In his book Lenin comes to the following conclusions against what he believes is the philosophical-theoretical revisionism of Avenarius and Mach:

  1. "An ever more refined falsification of Marxism, more and more refined slippages of anti-materialist doctrines under Marxism - that characterizes modern revisionism both in political economy and in questions of tactics and in philosophy in general."
  2. "The whole school of Mach and Avenarius is marching towards idealism."
  3. "Our machists are all deeply rooted in idealism."
  4. "One cannot help but see behind the epistemological scholasticism of empirio-criticism the party struggle in philosophy, a struggle that ultimately expresses the tendencies and ideology of the hostile classes of modern society."
  5. "The objective, the class role of empirical criticism boils down to serving the fideists (reactionaries who prefer faith over science), in their struggle against materialism in general and against historical materialism in particular."
  6. "Philosophical idealism is ... a way to clergy."

The reception of Mach's contributions to the analysis of sensations by Christian von Ehrenfels led to the formulation of the Gestalt theory . The Vienna Circle (formerly Ernst Mach Society) with u. a. Rudolf Carnap , Kurt Gödel relied not only on Ludwig Wittgenstein but also on Mach. Hermann Bahr popularized Mach in his essay “The Unrettbaren Ich” and writers such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Arthur Schnitzler and Robert Musil - who even did a doctorate on Mach - as well as Albert Einstein recognized his importance.

Memberships in academies

Mach had been a member of the Leopoldina and the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen since 1873 . In 1890 he was accepted as a corresponding member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences .


In 1919 the Machplatz in Vienna- Leopoldstadt (2nd district) was named after him; In 1960 the traffic area was renamed Machstrasse .

Between 1938 and 1988, a memorial plaque was affixed several times to his birthplace, a former bishop's palace.

The Ernst-Mach-Gymnasium in Haar , which opened in 1972, near the place where he died in Bavaria, bears his name, as has the Ernst-Mach-Gymnasium Hürth, founded in 1961, and the Fraunhofer Institute for Short-Term Dynamics , Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI ), Freiburg and Efringen churches .

In 1970 a moon crater was named after Ernst Mach ( crater Mach ) and on August 28, 1996 the asteroid (3949) Mach, discovered on October 20, 1985 .

The Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW, IKT) has been organizing the “ernst mach forum” since 2003. science in dialogue ”. The Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts has been awarding the Ernst Mach Medal of Honor in Physics since 1996 .

Honorary memberships

Ernst Mach had been an honorary member of the Prague University Choirs "Barden" (now part of Munich), the former house corporation of the Prague University, since 1885.

See also

Publications (selection)

  • Introduction to Helmholtz's music theory. 1866.
  • Optical-acoustic experiments. 1872.
  • Mechanics in their development presented historically and critically. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1883. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )
  • The analysis of sensations and the relationship between the physical and the psychological. 1886.
  • Outline of the doctrine of nature for the lower classes of middle schools. Prague 1887.
  • Outline of the study of nature for the upper grades of middle school. Vienna / Prague / Leipzig 1891.
  • The principles of thermodynamics. 1896, reprint: Salzwasser-Verlag 2012, ISBN 978-3-86444-540-8 .
  • Popular scientific lectures. 1896.
  • About the relative educational value of the philological and mathematical and scientific subjects in higher schools. In: Popular Scientific Lectures. Leipzig 1897.
  • About appearances on flying projectiles. 1898.
  • Knowledge and error. Sketches for the psychology of research. Vienna 1905 ( online from Zeno ).
  • Culture and mechanics. W. Spermann, Stuttgart 1915; New print Westhafen, Frankfurt am Main 2015, ISBN 978-3-942836-07-4 .
  • The principles of physical optics. 1921.

Complete directory of Ernst Mach's works in: Joachim Thiele: Ernst Mach — Bibliography (= Centaurus, Volume 8). Munksgaard, Copenhagen 1963, OCLC 174202468 , pp. 189-237.


  • 2016/2017: light and shadow. Ernst Mach - Ludwig Mach. Deutsches Museum , Munich, catalog.


  • Erik C. Banks: Ernst Mach's World Elements. A Study in Natural Philosophy. Springer Netherland, Berlin 2003, ISBN 1-4020-1662-X .
  • Bernhard Kleeberg (Introduction): Special Issue: Ernst Mach and the thought experiment around 1900. In: Reports on the History of Science , March 2015, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp. 1–101. doi: 10.1002 / bewi.v38.1 / issuetoc
  • John T. Blackmore: Ernst Mach - His Life, Work, and Influence. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles 1972.
  • John T. Blackmore, Klaus Hentschel (eds.): Ernst Mach as an outsider: Mach's correspondence on philosophy and the theory of relativity with personalities of his time. Excerpt from the last notebook (facsimile) by Ernst Mach (= Philosophica. Volume 3). Braumüller, Vienna 1985, ISBN 3-7003-0612-1 .
  • John T. Blackmore (Ed.): Seriously Mach a Deeper Look. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1992.
  • John T. Blackmore, Ryoichi Itagaki, Setsuko Tanaka (eds.): Ernst Mach's Vienna 1895–1930. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2001.
  • John T. Blackmore, Ryoichi Itagaki, Setsuko Tanaka (eds.): Ernst Mach's Science. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa 2006.
  • John T. Blackmore, Ryoichi Itagaki, Setsuko Tanaka (eds.) Ernst Mach's Prague 1867–1895: As a Human Adventure. Sentinel Open Press 2011.
  • Milič Čapek: Ernst Mach's Biological Theory of Knowledge. In: Synthesis. 18, pp. 171-191 (1968). doi : 10.1007 / BF00413774
  • Robert S. Cohen (Ed.): Ernst Mach. Physicist and Philosopher. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1975, ISBN 90-277-0016-8 .
  • Anna-Katharina Gisbertz: Mood - Body - Language. A configuration in Viennese modernism. Fink, Munich 2009. ISBN 978-3-7705-4855-2 .
  • Rudolf Haller, Friedrich Stadler (ed.): Ernst Mach - work and effect. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-209-00768-3 .
  • Karl Daniel Heller: Ernst Mach: pioneer of modern physics. With selected chapters from his work. Biography. Springer, Vienna 1964, OCLC 863918536 ; 2013, ISBN 3-7091-8113-5 .
  • Klaus Hentschel : On Paul Feyerabend ’s version of Mach's theory of research and its relation to Albert Einstein . In: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. 16: 387-394 (1985).
  • Klaus Hentschel:  Take it seriously. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6 , pp. 605-609 ( digitized version ).
  • Klaus Hentschel: The Duhem-Mach correspondence: On the 'model-ladenness' of the history of science. In: Annals of Science. 45: 73-91 (1988).
  • Klaus Hentschel: Seriously Mach. In: Arne Hessenbruch (Ed.): Reader's Guide to the History of Science. Routledge, London 2013: 427-428.
  • Erwin N. Hiebert : Take it seriously . In: Charles Coulston Gillispie (Ed.): Dictionary of Scientific Biography . tape 8 : Jonathan Homer Lane - Pierre Joseph Macquer . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1973, p. 595-607 .
  • Béla JuhosGet serious, physicist and philosopher. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1972, p. 388 f. (Direct links on p. 388 , p. 389 ). (wrong place of death).
  • Vladimir Lenin : From the Philosophical Legacy . Dietz , Berlin 1954.
  • Karl von Meÿenn: The great physicists. From Maxwell to Gell-Mann. Beck, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-41149-5 .
  • Robert Musil : Contribution to the assessment of the teachings of Mach and studies on technology and psychotechnology. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-498-04271-8 ; contains, among other things, Robert Musil's dissertation at the University of Berlin, Philosophical Faculty, 1908, under the title Contribution to the assessment of Mach's teachings.
  • Ulrich Schmitz: The problematic self: Mach's egology compared to Husserl (= epistemata - philosophy series, volume 362). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2700-0 (Dissertation University of Koblenz 2002, 246 pages).
  • Heribert Sturm : Biographical lexicon on the history of the Bohemian countries. Published on behalf of the Collegium Carolinum (Institute) , Volume II, Oldenbourg, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-486-52551-4 . Seriously do. P. 528 f .; his son Ludwig Ernst Mach, p. 529 f., with further references.
  • Joachim Thiele: Scientific communication. Ernst Mach's correspondence. Henn, Kastellaun 1978, ISBN 3-450-21902-2 .
  • Jiří Procházka: Seriously Mach. 1838-1916. Genealogy Volume I. Item, Brno 2007. ISBN 80-903476-3-0 .
  • Jiří Procházka: Seriously Mach. 1838-1916. Genealogy. Volume II. Item. Brno 2009. ISBN 80-903476-7-3 .
  • Jiří Procházka: Seriously Mach. 1838-1916. Curriculum vitae. Item, Brno, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-80-903476-7-0 .

Web links

Commons : Ernst Mach  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Ernst Mach  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Peter Salcher and Ernst Mach. (PDF; 1 MB), accessed on March 13, 2009.
  2. ^ The unveiling of the Ernst Mach monument in the Rathauspark. In:  Neue Freie Presse , Abendblatt, June 12, 1926, p. 3 middle. (Online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nfp
  3. ^ A b Karl-Eugen Kurrer : On the 175th birthday of Ernst Mach. In: momentum magazine. February 18, 2013, accessed August 26, 2015 .
  4. a b c d e Klaus Hentschel:  Mach, Ernst. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6 , pp. 605-609 ( digitized version ).
  5. ^ A b Thomas Eckert: Ernst Mach - curriculum vitae. (PDF) University of Marburg, accessed on August 26, 2015 .
  6. Take it seriously. In: Austria Forum. Graz University of Technology, accessed on February 19, 2016 .
  7. ^ Gradovi v Slovenji - Veliki Slatnik. , accessed on July 30, 2020.
  8. Marjan Mušič: Iz življenja in dela Machovih. In: Kronika. (Ljubljana) volume 3. issue 3 (1955) pp. 165-170.
  9. a b Paul Pojman: Ernst Mach. In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. May 21, 2008, accessed February 19, 2016 .
  10. Carsten Voigt: Lost Preziosen. In: Der Spiegel. January 25, 2011, accessed August 26, 2015 .
  11. Gereon Wolters, preface: Ernst Mach - knowledge and error. 1991, accessed February 19, 2016 .
  12. Martin Koch: Inner and outer world. In: New Germany. February 16, 2013, accessed August 26, 2015 .
  13. Judith Brehmer: The many talents of Ernst Mach. In: Landeszeitung - magazine of the Germans in the Czech Republic. August 4, 2014, archived from the original on January 30, 2016 ; accessed on August 26, 2015 .
  14. ^ Part of the Ernst Mach collection. In: Philosophical Archive of the University of Konstanz. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on August 26, 2015 .
  15. Albert Einstein: Einstein's obituary for Ernst Mach. In: Physikalische Zeitschrift. April 1, 1916, accessed August 27, 2015 .
  16. ^ Karl von Meÿenn: The great physicists. From Maxwell to Gell-Mann. CH Beck, 1997, ISBN 3-406-41149-5 .
  17. ^ Ernst Mach - Munich, North Cemetery. Retrieved February 19, 2016 .
  18. ^ Grave of Ludwig Mach - Munich, Nordfriedhof. Retrieved February 19, 2016 .
  19. ^ Forum Contemporary History - Ernst Mach. (PDF) University of Vienna, accessed on February 19, 2016 .
  20. Wilfried Fischer: The Austrian natural scientist Christian Andreas Doppler was born 200 years ago: He created the basis of the Big Bang theory. November 28, 2003, accessed August 27, 2015 .
  21. Dieter Hoffmann : Ernst Mach - pioneer of modern physics: On the 75th anniversary of the death of the physicist, physiologist and philosopher. In: Physics Journal. 47, 1991, p. 373, doi: 10.1002 / phbl.19910470505 .
  22. appearances on flying projectiles. Retrieved August 27, 2015 .
  23. ^ W. Gerhard Pohl: Peter Salcher and Ernst Mach - Schlieren photography of supersonic projectiles. (PDF) In: Plus Lucis 2/2002 - 1/2003. 2003, accessed August 27, 2015 .
  24. Hans Henning: Ernst Mach as a philosopher, physicist and psychologist. In: Monograph: Die Spezialuntersuchungen .61. 1915, accessed August 27, 2015 .
  25. Ernst Mach: Mechanics in their development - historically presented critically. (PDF) 1912, accessed on August 27, 2015 .
  26. Ernst Mach: The mechanics in their development. FA Brockhaus, 1921, pp. 227-235.
  27. ^ Gerhard Schurz: History of Positivism and Neopositivism in Austria of the 19th and 20th Century. (PDF) p. 26, 2000, accessed on August 27, 2015 .
  28. U. Straumann: Theory of Relativity. (PDF) March 19, 2013, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved February 19, 2016 .
  29. ^ Professor Ernst Mach - The institute is named after the institute. Fraunhofer Institute for Short Term Dynamics - Ernst Mach Institute EMI, archived from the original on November 28, 2014 ; accessed on August 26, 2015 .
  30. C. Beisbart: The logical positivism and the logical empiricism. (PDF) TU Dortmund, April 29, 2008, accessed on August 26, 2015 .
  31. Frieder Otto Wolf: The bourgeois unease in culture, the repressed crises and the philosophers of the belle èpoque. ( Memento from June 11, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
  32. Ernst Mach: The analysis of sensations and the relationship between the physical and the psychological. 1906, accessed August 26, 2015 .
  33. ^ Allan Janik, Stephen Toulmin: Ernst Mach and the metaphysical speculation. Retrieved August 27, 2015 .
  34. ^ Lenin, p. 321.
  35. ^ Lenin, p. 348.
  36. Lenin, p. 337.
  37. a b Lenin, p. 349.
  38. ^ Lenin, p. 289.
  39. ^ Scientific world view - The Vienna Circle. (PDF) Ernst Mach Association, 1929, accessed on August 27, 2015 .
  40. Hermann Bahr: The unsaved me . In: Neues Wiener Tagblatt . Vienna April 10, 1903, p. 1-4 ( ).
  41. ^ Silvia Bonacchi: Carl Stumpf: Life, Work and Effect. (PDF) In: Gestalt Theory 2009. Footnote p. 111, archived from the original on February 25, 2016 ; accessed on August 27, 2015 .
  42. I am so afraid of the word of men. DEUTSCHLANDFUNK, September 16, 2012, accessed on August 27, 2015 .
  43. Member entry by Ernst Mach at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on August 10, 2015.
  44. ^ Ernst Mach obituary by Arnold Sommerfeld in the 1917 yearbook of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (PDF file).
  45. Martin Černohorský: The Ernst Mach memorial plaque was affixed three times in Brünn-Chirlitz. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 22, 2003, pp. 345-371.
  46. ↑ get serious forum. ( Memento of January 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  47. Culture and Technology - The Magazine from the Deutsches Museum, No. 1/2017, Volume 41, ISSN  0344-5690 , pp. 54–56
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on March 5, 2006 .