The son of the bookseller and publisher Eduard Habermann studied philosophy , philology and psychology at the universities of Zurich , Leipzig and Berlin from 1865 to 1868 . When he latinized his family name to “Avenarius”, he linked it to an ancestor in the paternal line who had also translated “Habermann” (from “oats”, Latin: “avena”) into Latin. He received his doctorate in Leipzig in 1868 and qualified as a professor in 1876. In 1877 he accepted a call as a full professor of philosophy, psychology and education at the University of Zurich.
In the core of his philosophy he wants to eliminate everything that is not pure experience, that is, everything that does not correspond to the content of the statement (E-value) is conditioned by the environment itself, so there is no difference between the inner and outer experience of an individual gives. He justifies his statements with the fact that the individual found is represented in system C (= cerebrum). According to this, philosophy is "the striving that has become scientific ... to think the totality of what is given in experience with the least amount of effort". Avenarius has analyzed the importance of the economic principle for psychic life and cognition.
Effect and reception
Numerous thinkers and poets were influenced by Avenarius, including Friedrich Carstanjen , Joseph Petzoldt , Richard Wahle , Rudolf Willy , Carl Hauptmann , Rudolf Wlassak , Alf Nyman , Franz Blei , Ernst Mach , Rudolf Maria Holzapfel , Alexander Alexandrowitsch Bogdanow , Ber Borochov and Heinrich Gomperz . Vladimir Ilyich Lenin , who read Avenarius work in Zurich, wrote his most important work on philosophy, Materialism and Empirio-Criticism (1908), dealing with A's basic concept. In addition, he exerted a considerable influence on Edmund Husserl and Theodor Draw . Erwin Schrödinger also dealt extensively with the work of Avenarius during his participation in the war. Richard Avenarius inspired the character of Professor Avenarius in the novel Immortality by Milan Kundera .
- About the first two phases of the Spinozian pantheism and the relationship between the second and the third phase (PDF; 3.1 MB). Eduard Avenarius, Leipzig 1868.
- Philosophy as thinking of the world according to the principle of the smallest measure of force. Prolegomena on a Critique of Pure Experience (PDF; 2.9 MB). Fues, Leipzig 1876; 2nd edition 1903.
- Critique of the pure experience (PDF; 4.8 MB). 2 volumes. Fues, Leipzig 1888/1890; 2nd edition 1907/1908.
- The human concept of the world (PDF; 8.2 MB). Reisland, Leipzig 1891; 2nd edition 1905; 3rd edition 1912.
- Wendell T. Bush: Avenarius and the standpoint of pure experience (PDF; 5.1 MB). The Science Press, New York 1905.
- Friedrich Carstanjen : Richard Avenarius' biomechanical foundation of the new general epistemology. An introduction to the “Critique of Pure Experience” (PDF; 2.6 MB). Ackermann, Munich 1894.
- Oskar Ewald : Richard Avenarius as the founder of empirical criticism (PDF; 5.9 MB). Ernst Hofmann, Berlin 1905.
- Max Heinze : Avenarius, Richard . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 46, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1902, pp. 147-149.
- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin : Materialism and Empirio-Criticism. Critical remarks on a reactionary philosophy . 1909 and so on
- Wolf Strobl: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , p. 468 ( ). In:
- Literature by and about Richard Avenarius in the catalog of the German National Library
- Simone Zurbuchen: Avenarius, Richard. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Overview of Richard Avenarius lectures at the University of Zurich (winter semester 1877 to winter semester 1896)
- Manfred Sommer : Husserl and early positivism. Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt 1985, p. 18 ff.
- Uwe Jens Gerhardt, Bernhard Blanz: Theodor pull, MD, Ph.D., 1862-1950. In: The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 161, 2004, p. 1369.
- Walter J. Moore: Schrödinger: Life and Thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992, p. 43 f.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Habermann, Richard (real name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German philosopher and advocate of empirical criticism|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 19, 1843|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 18, 1896|
|Place of death||Zurich|