The Moscow Metro ( Russian Московский метрополитен / Transkription Moskowski metropoliten , colloquially Московское метро / Moskowskoje metro ), opened in 1935, is the underground railway of the Russian capital Moscow . It is one of the underground systems with the deepest tunnels and stations in the world and, with almost 2.4 billion passengers annually (as of 2011), is also one of the most heavily used underground railways in the world. The stations of the Moscow Metro are known as underground palaces due to their sometimes very sophisticated architecture .
The Moscow Metro (full name: State Unitary Enterprise "Moscow Metro" , Russian Государственное унитарное предприятие "Московский метрополитен» / transcription Gossudarstwennoje unitarnoje predprijatije Moskovsky metropolitans ) has a 381 km long route network with 222 stations, which is constantly expanding. The numbering of the lines essentially follows chronologically the time of the opening of the respective first line section or, for lines 4 and 11 / 11a, the time of the outsourcing as an independent line. Line 3 Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya is the longest with a distance of 45.1 kilometers, line 11 Kachowskaya is the shortest with 3.3 kilometers.
The metro is used by up to nine million passengers every day. Trains run between 5:30 a.m. and 2:00 a.m. The station entrances and the transfer tunnels are usually open between 5:30 and 5:40 a.m. and closed at 1:00 a.m. the exits stay open a little longer because the last trains, depending on the line and the location of the station, are still occupied with passengers. During rush hour (7:00 am to 10:00 am and 5:00 pm to 8:00 pm), trains on most lines run every 1.5 to 3 minutes, otherwise every 2 to 4 minutes, and after midnight only every 5 to 10 minutes.
|number||Line name||route||Opening year||length||Travel time|
|Sokolnicheskaya||Bulwar Rokossowskowo ↔ Kommunarka||1935||44.1 km||67 min|
|Samoskvorezkaya||Khovrino ↔ Alma-Atinskaya||1938||42.8 km||60 min|
|Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya||Pyatnitskoye Schosse ↔ Shcholkovskaya||1938||45.1 km||64 min|
|Filevskaya||Alexandrowski Sad ↔ Kunzewskaja / Meschdunarodnaja||1935 *||14.9 km||20 or 14 min|
|Kolzewaya||(Ring line) Kurskaja - Park Kultury - Kurskaja||1950||19.3 km||29 min|
|Kalushsko-Rishskaya||Medvedkowo ↔ Novoyassenevskaya||1958||37.6 km||56 min|
|Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya||Planernaja ↔ Kotelniki||1966||42.2 km||60 min|
|Kalininsko-Solnzewskaya||Tretyakovskaya ↔ Novokossino||1979||16.5 km||20 min|
|Kalininsko-Solnzewskaya||Rasskasowka ↔ Zavyolovskaya||2014||10.7 km||17 min|
|Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya||Altufjewo ↔ Bulwar Dmitrija Donskowo||1983||41.2 km||58 min|
|Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya||Seligerskaya ↔ Sjablikowo||1995||38.3 km||60 min|
|Kachowskaja / Great Ring Line||
Kashirskaja ↔ Kachowskaja
Sawjolowskaja ↔ Delovoi Centr
|1969 ***||3.3 km or 10.5 km||5 or 11 min|
|Butovskaya||Bitzewski Park ↔ Buninskaja Alleja||2003||10.0 km||16 min|
|Nekrasovskaya||Lefortowo ↔ Nekrasovka||2019||22.3 km||27 min|
* Line 4 was 1935-1938 part (branch) line 1 and from 1938 to 1953 part of the line 3. Then shut down in 1958 re-opened and with the commissioning of the section to the station Kutusowskaja as a separate line (Filjowskaja) continued
* * Both routes will become the planned Great Ring Line once they have been expanded into a complete ring. At the moment the Kachowskaja line still exists as a separate line and the traffic between Petrowski Park and Delowoi Zentr or Ramenki is provisionally operated on partly the same route alternating with trains of line 8A (which will in turn be combined with line 8 in the future)
* ** From 1969 to 1995, line 11 was part (1984–1995 branch) of line 2
On official metro line plans, the Moscow Monorail and the Ring-S-Bahn ( Little Moscow Railway Ring ) are also referred to as lines 13 and 14, respectively. Since these two transport systems are not subways despite the same tariff system and they have a completely different technical infrastructure, they should not be considered as part of the Moscow Metro in the following.
The Moscow metro system boasts of having underground palaces for the people . Numerous stations are lavishly furnished due to their influence from socialist classicism during the time of Stalin . Some of these train stations are rich in detail and are classified as particularly worth seeing in various travel guides. However, most of the stations, especially those outside the center, are kept in a very simple, functional style.
Komsomolskaya station on the ring line is often considered the most beautiful station in the entire metro network. The stop, which was opened in 1952, is located below Komsomolskaya Square , directly on Leningrad , Yaroslavl and Kazan train stations . The 72 octagonal pillars in the platform area, all of which are clad with light marble, have the character of a decorative medium in addition to their supporting function. On the capitals there are round arches, which give the subway user the impression of passing a round gate when walking to the tracks. The ceiling area is decorated with several large chandeliers. Between these eight monumental mosaics, each consisting of 300,000 individual parts and framed by stucco, depict scenes from Russian history. This creates an almost baroque appearance. The metro station also includes several above-ground passages.
The Kyivskaya subway station on the ring line, which is also a transfer station to lines 3 and 4 below the eponymous Kiev train station , depicts the friendship between Russia and Ukraine in mosaics. Among other things, the connection between Ukraine and Russia and the liberation of Kiev in Second world war . In addition to the chandeliers, the carved arcades are particularly worth seeing.
After Vladimir Mayakovsky named metro station Mayakovskaya theme in their artistic implementation by more than 30 vault mosaics aviation of the Soviet Union. The mosaics, which are provided with fluorescent materials and indirectly illuminated, are intended to create an impressive spatial effect. This subway station received the Grand Prix for Architecture in New York. This station also has a whispering arch, thanks to the optimal acoustics of which quietly spoken words can also be heard clearly on the other side of the station.
The shortest distance is 500 meters between the Vystavotschnaja and Meschdunarodnaja stations on line 4, and the longest by far is 6.625 kilometers between the Krylatskoje and Strogino stations on line 3. On average, the stations are 1,800 meters apart. This comparatively low station density in connection with the high speed of the trains (almost 100 km / h) makes it possible to cover large distances in the city without competition. The Moscow metro is considered to be the fastest in the world.
Since many stations are very deep, long, particularly fast moving escalators were installed. The Park Pobedy station (line 3) is 84 meters below the surface and, according to the Metro, had the world's longest escalators (126 m, 740 steps; exceeded in 2011 by the 137 m long escalators of the Admiralteiskaya station of the Saint Petersburg Metro ). In some stations it takes up to three minutes to reach surface or platform level. Since the construction of the metro in 1935, it was planned to use the metro system as an air raid shelter, which explains the great depth. During the Cold War , the metro was equipped with hermetically lockable gates so that it could be used as a safe shelter in the event of a nuclear strike.
Access to the platforms is regulated by access barriers , which only allow people to pass through after putting on a smart card with a built-in chip. The special feature of older models of these barriers is that a barrier does not open - as is usual in other underground trains with access barriers - but the open access is blocked if you try to pass without a ticket. However, new or renovated stations are equipped with modern barriers (see photo) that open after a valid ticket has been created. Access barriers were installed at all stations in the Moscow Metro from 1958 and replaced the conductors on the trains that had been common up until then.
Fares have developed very differently in the history of the Moscow Metro: the original fare of 50 kopeks was reduced to 30 kopeks in 1935 and rose again to 40 kopeks in 1942 and 50 kopeks in 1948. After the currency reform from 1961 to 1991, you paid for the trip with a five-kopeck piece, which you put into one of the blocking machines instead of the previous tokens . The large diameter of this coin was unusual in contrast to the other pieces of value. With the inflation of the ruble, the price rose to 15 kopecks in 1991. In 1992 there was a return to tokens (initially made of metal, then made of plastic), and in 1999 the company switched to magnetic cards, which in turn were replaced by smart cards for all types of tickets by 2008. Universal tickets have been available since February 2, 2013, with which one can use both the metro and above-ground means of transport such as buses. A universal ticket costs 57 rubles (as of 2020), the equivalent of around 0.79 euros. You can also buy tickets with 2, 5, 11, 20, 40 or 60 journeys, with the price per journey becoming increasingly cheaper. In 2018, the 60 card costs 1765 rubles, so a trip is a good 29 rubles (approx. 0.41 euros). With a smart card (Russian: Смарт-карта) you can use all means of transport for 24 hours. Children under 7 years of age travel free of charge, bicycles are not allowed, with the exception of folding / folding and children's bicycles.
In addition to the platforms, all train stations also have first aid rooms and a police station. In the mid-2000s, all stations of the Moscow Metro were also equipped with surveillance cameras, the recordings of which are transferred to the respective police stations; In addition, information and emergency telephones were set up on station platforms. In order to better prevent terrorist attacks , all rubbish baskets were removed from the platforms and station halls in the early 1990s, and in the 2010s metal detectors and X-ray machines were installed at station entrances for checking people and luggage, although this has only been used on a random basis so far.
At almost all stations, in the middle area of the tracks, there are channels about 30 cm deep, in which you can get to the safety of an approaching train in the event of a fall on the tracks. This escape option is also expressly pointed out in the official rules of use and conduct for the Moscow Metro. In such a situation, however, it is life-threatening to try to hide under the platform, as the high-voltage busbar runs in this area . The channels on the tracks are only missing at certain above-ground train stations where other escape routes exist.
So far, the use of the Moscow metro is only possible to a limited extent for wheelchair users . Of the more than 200 stations, only a few dozen have barrier-free access options, and for most of the underground stations, retrofitting would prove extremely costly due to their comparatively low location. Exceptions are new stations. Newly built stations with elevators have been completed since the mid-2000s, although deep-level stations have so far been excluded.
First drafts and plans for a metro
The first thoughts about an underground railway in Moscow based on the model of the then newly created London Underground came up in the 1870s. However, the first concrete design for a subway system was only presented at the beginning of the 20th century. At that time Moscow already had over a million inhabitants and public transport with horse-drawn cabs , horse-drawn trams and trams (opened in 1899) was already overloaded.
In 1902, the two engineers Pyotr Balinski and Jewgeni Knorre presented their concept for an electric city railway. The first draft included a north-south line, starting from the Belarusian train station to the City Duma . The route should only be laid underground in some places in the city center, such as under Red Square and other large squares; the remaining sections should run on viaducts . The track system covered 54 kilometers, the proposed cost of the project was 155 million rubles. But the Duma deputies rejected this urban rail connection in September 1902 for various reasons. On the one hand the costs were too high, on the other hand the interests of the citizens would not have been taken into account. Because of the planned route, the demolition of private houses would have been inevitable. The Russian Orthodox Church also had considerable influence on the decision of the City Duma, as it did not want to allow the excavation of holy earth under the churches and cathedrals. In the same year, the City Duma received another offer for a metro from the US bank Werner & Co. After about ten years - in the meantime the population of Moscow had grown to almost two million - the concepts were revised and accepted in principle by the city government. With the beginning of the First World War, however, the plans had to be put on hold, and in 1917 the October Revolution finally destroyed all previous construction projects.
The new subway is taking shape
Only with the relocation of the Russian capital from Petrograd to Moscow in 1918 did the project of an underground railway network become topical again. However, even after the end of the civil war , the process of concretization made only slow progress. On behalf of the new city administration, only a department of the Moscow City Railroad was founded, which dealt with the planning and implementation of a metro.
In 1923 the city awarded a project contract to the German Siemens-Bauunion GmbH . In 1925, Siemens submitted a finished project for an 80 km tunnel with 86 stations. Due to a lack of money, however, the Siemens project stayed on paper.
By 1930 Moscow's population was nearly three million. The huge number of tens of thousands of passengers a day could no longer be handled by trams - at that time practically the only public transport in the city. Since the Soviet capital obviously urgently needed a new, more efficient means of transport in the form of a subway, the building decision was finally passed on June 15, 1931 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . The organization was taken over by the state-owned company Metrostroi (Russian Метрострой ) founded for this purpose . The first underground line was supposed to be completed in 1933. The construction management was incumbent on Lasar Kaganowitsch , the then transport minister of the USSR, a close confidante of Stalin . This was the first time that the construction of a tunnel section began in Moscow; this test section was located at Sokolniki Park.
Crowds for the metro construction
In the following year, construction of the first regular route began with the excavation of a first excavation north-east of the city center. This should run through the city center and connect several strategically important objects with each other, including the square of the three train stations and the planned Palace of the Soviets . In view of the tight deadline for the completion of the route and the large number of mostly unskilled workers, the scope of work was large. Volunteers from all over the Soviet Union to help build the 11.2 km long route were won through mass propaganda and heroization of the metro workers, as well as the use of large amounts of money. In addition, the massive rural exodus that began at that time as a result of forced collectivization resulted in an extremely rapid population growth in Moscow and thus an extensive supply of unskilled, cheap labor. The underground construction is said to have been Stalin's favorite project with the aim of owning the best and most beautiful metro in the world. As a sign of the dawn of a new future, the underground means of transport became the socialist prestige object of the Soviet Union in general. The demands on the metro in the sense of socialism manifested itself in Kaganowitsch's statement: "The metro will stimulate and illuminate our minds even more than all theaters and palaces."
The working conditions in metro construction were no better than on comparable construction sites. The crowds often worked more for the glory and honor of socialism than for the small wages just enough to survive. In addition to the poor food, they did not rely on modern technical aids, but only on picks, spades and wheelbarrows. These conditions led to a strike in the spring of 1933 . In response to this, wages were increased, the construction of the metro line was declared a Komsomol object and the workers were increasingly being replaced by young and ideologically convinced Komsomols. The socialist youth organization of the CPSU had the task of recruiting numerous specialists from all over the Soviet Union to Moscow, including, for example, concretes who were already involved in the construction of the Dnieper dams, or experienced miners from coal mines in the Donets region . At the end of 1933 36,000 workers were employed, by mid-1934 there were already 75,000; Among them were many German engineers and workers who were convinced of the communist ideology and who had fled to the Soviet Union in the early 1930s because of Hitler's takeover.
When it turned out that the deadlines for this project could no longer be met without special technical equipment, the decision was made to buy a tunnel boring machine from England. Since this accelerated the construction of the line, further tunneling machines were built in the Soviet Union on the basis of British design templates. This meant that the construction period of three years could still be met. On the night of February 6, 1935, the first train ran continuously from Sokolniki to Smolenskaya .
Around 500 industrial companies were involved in the construction of the first metro line. Particular emphasis was placed on high quality materials: different types of marble and granite for the design of the train stations, vehicle engines, ventilation systems and pumps as well as cables and tracks of special design. The scope of work included the excavation of 2.3 million cubic meters of earth and rock material as well as 842,500 cubic meters of grouting concrete. At that time, 21% of the current city budget was raised to finance the metro line.
The first routes
|Development of the line network|
Even days before the official inauguration, the mood among the Moscow population was very good over the praised work of the volunteers . For example, the Moscow newspaper Pravda said:
“In the next few days, the traffic-plagued Muscovites will be entering the metro. You will see the vestibules, the gleaming foyers with the glass cash registers, the wide, grand corridors lit with rigid chandeliers and the unexpectedly huge, luminous halls of the underground platforms and stations. Railway stations, clad in marble, granite, copper, colorful tiles, with delicate gray, pink, red-veined columns, with polished walls, [...]. "
On May 15, 1935, the first Soviet metro line was opened between the stations Sokolniki ( Сокольники ) and Park Kultury ( Парк Культуры ). There was also a junction in the direction of Smolenskaja ( Смоленская ), which is now part of the independent line 4 . The 11.2 km long first construction phase of the Moscow Metro comprised a total of 13 stations. From then on, twelve pairs of trains, each with four wagons, carried the city's population in a new way. When the stations were put into service, numerous citizens came, many of them only to visit the train stations, which with their escalators , which were already considered a technical marvel, chandeliers and marble-clad buildings, create a strong contrast to the rather dark-looking cityscape, which is still characterized by wooden houses formed. This first stretch of the new means of transport alone carried around 177,000 passengers a day at that time.
However, this did not set the end of the subway project, work on the next sections was continued continuously. What is more, after the overwhelming success of the first routes, metro construction enjoyed more prestige than ever before. The Soviet state, which has since regained its economic strength, generously supported the further construction; no longer simple, unskilled workers and Komsomol, but skilled workers equipped with modern technology and the most renowned architects of that time were now at work. Most of the stations built between 1937 and 1954 were accordingly architecturally more sophisticated than the oldest 13 train stations from 1935.
The Moscow Metro saw the second line opening on March 20, 1937, when a 1.4 km long line between Smolenskaya and the new Kievskaya station ( Киевская ) went into operation, with which the Kiev train station received a metro connection. Another year later, on March 13, 1938, the route between Ulitsa Kominterna ( Улица Коминтерна , today Alexandrowski Sad - Александровский Сад ) and Kurskaja ( Курская ) was opened. The connection from Plotschtschad Revolyuzii ( Площадь Революции ) to Kurskaya later became part of line 3 . With the opening of the line between Sokol ( Сокол ) and Teatralnaja ( Театральная ) line 2 was formed, an 8.5 km long north-south line connecting six stations, the route of which largely corresponds to the design from 1902 . The commissioning of line 2 should be the last network expansion for the coming years due to the subsequent historical development.
Railway stations become bunkers and hospitals
As a result of the mobilization for the war against National Socialist Germany, around 30% of the Metro workers had to be withdrawn for military service from June 1941; many of them volunteered. All expansion plans to expand the network were initially postponed for an indefinite period. During the war, the metro played an extremely important role in life in Moscow, also because Stalin did not leave the capital during the bombing war.
So from 1941 soldiers and government offices were housed in some stations in the metro network. With this, these stations were converted into strategic bases at the beginning of the war. For example, the new headquarters of some departments of the General Staff of the Red Army was established in Kirovskaya station ( Кировская , today Tschistyje Prudy - Чистые Пруды ). The platform was separated from the tracks by quickly bricked walls and the trains no longer stopped at this station.
With the bombing of Moscow by the German Air Force , the second phase of the conversion of the stations began. The subway stations were considered to be the safest place during air strikes. Therefore, the stations were converted into air raid shelters , in which the elderly, women and children found shelter. Numerous beds were set up, drinking water was distributed, and stationary metro wagons were used for medical care. With the increase in air strikes on the city, subway traffic ceased from 6 p.m. even without a bomb warning. The number of people coming to the stops increased, with crowds often standing in front of the entrances. In addition to the basic provision of food such as bread and milk and medical aid, a few libraries were set up and there were also film screenings. Up to 500,000 Muscovites fled into the metro every day, and in the evenings it was the vital bunker for a total of around 15 million people. During this time around 150 children were born in one of the train stations.
But after the further course of the Second World War there was no longer any risk of the city being taken by the Germans, the expansion work continued. With the slogan “The whole country is building the metro” hopes for a better future were raised. As early as 1943, line 2 received three stations on 6.2 km of new line, line 3 was extended by 7.1 km with four stations in the following year. These new openings were a very special prestige object for the Soviet leadership: by opening new metro lines during the war, they wanted to send a clear signal not only in their own country but also throughout the world that the industrial power of the USSR was unbroken despite the war and that no one would doubt the country's coming victory.
After the Second World War
After the end of the war, planning was resumed for numerous construction projects, although it would take another five years for the first new lines to open, as most of the country's resources were used for post-war reconstruction. Probably the most important of the new projects was the construction of the ring line to relieve the central transfer nodes.
The Kolzewaja ring line was initially planned as a strictly circular line that was to run under the Sadowoje Kolzo ring road (German: Garden Ring ) along the historic 16th century border of Moscow. The first section was opened on January 1, 1950 between Park Kultury and Kurskaja . After that, however, the plans were changed so that the line runs up to 1.5 km outside the garden ring. In this way it was achieved that the most important long-distance train stations in Moscow are linked by a single metro line. This second part was opened on January 30, 1952 between Kurskaya and Belorusskaya ( Белорусская ). On March 14, 1954, the ring was closed with the opening of the connection between Belorusskaya and Park Kultury .
There is a modern legend about where the idea of such a ring line came from. A group of engineers is said to have informed Josef Stalin about the progress with the metro plans. While looking at the drawings, Stalin poured himself some coffee and spilled it a little over the rim of the cup. When asked if he would accept the project, he put his mug in the middle of the plans and disappeared without a word. The bottom of the cup left a brown circle on the drawings. The planners would have looked at this circle and found that it was the ideal course of the line for which they had previously searched in vain. They would have recognized this as a sign of Stalin's genius and thereupon placed the orders for the construction of the ring line, which is always marked in brown on the plans to this day. Most likely, this legend was invented in the context of the personality cult around Stalin at the time .
With the death of Stalin in 1953, the previous pompous, extravagant architecture of the metro stations gave way to the new functionality , which was aimed at increasing usefulness and safety. In the process, some stations were considerably simplified in terms of the architectural design, deviating from the original plans. This was done on the orders of the head of state Nikita Khrushchev , who was well known for his economy-oriented policies. From 1935 Khrushchev was responsible for the new buildings in Moscow, including the construction of the Moscow Metro, for which he received his first Order of Lenin . A uniform decoration scheme was developed for all new metro stations to be built. Therefore, most of the train stations from the 1960s were built almost identically, only the marble used and the colors of the ceramic tiles differed. It was not until the mid-1970s that the old, splendid decoration was increasingly taken as a model again.
In 1958 two new lines were opened. This was on the one hand line 4 , of which the first line section from Alexandrowski Sad to Smolenskaya had existed since 1935, and on the other hand line 6 as an important north-south route. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the construction of the metro was continued. Three more lines were opened. Since the end of the Second World War, an average of four kilometers a year had been opened to traffic.
After 1991, the city of Moscow invested more heavily in road infrastructure due to increasing automobile traffic, which slowed down the expansion of the metro. Many of the expansion projects, which were already overdue at the time, could not be implemented due to the recurring economic crises in the 1990s and the resulting constant lack of money. It was only after the turn of the millennium that important expansion projects were pushed forward again, and with a view to the 2018 World Cup and the increasing efforts to cope with the traffic chaos on the streets, the expansion of the metro is now enjoying higher priority again. In order to save financial resources, it was decided not to build “splendid” train stations and this sometimes led to suboptimal solutions, such as in the 2000s with the supposedly cheaper “light metro” such as the L1 viaduct line in 2003 Opened south of the city, originally called. In the meantime mainly underground stations are being built again, they no longer have anything in common with the Soviet “palaces for the people”, but are at least characterized by their individual design, which is often implemented based on the name or location of the station . From 2010 to 2018, 33 new metro stations were opened.
Even if the Moscow subway is one of the most technically reliable and thus also the safest subway systems in the world, there have been several incidents in the course of its operating history. Listed below are the most serious and spectacular accidents with personal injury that have occurred in the Moscow Metro since it was put into operation.
The first terrorist attack in 1977
The first serious incident in the forty-year history of the Moscow metro was also the first " high-profile " terrorist attack in the Soviet Union, which until then had never known terrorism in this form. On January 8, 1977, three bomb explosions occurred in Moscow, one of them in the early evening in a fully occupied metro train between the Ismailovskaya and Pervomaiskaya stations (line 3). Two more bombs went off in a nearby grocery store and in a garbage can. A total of seven people were killed and another 37 were injured, some seriously. After the explosion in the metro tunnel, the train and the wrecked car had to be driven on to the Pervomaiskaya station, which had since been closed and cleared. However, since several trains with passengers coming from the opposite direction had to pass the station without stopping, the occupants of these trains saw a picture of horror in the form of the tattered car and numerous, sometimes seriously injured, people on the platform. Given the extremely sparse public information policy of the Soviet mass media, rumors then circulated in the country of alleged hundreds of deaths. The search for the perpetrators lasted ten months. Finally, three Armenian separatists were arrested and evidence of their perpetrators and components for other bombs were seized. All three were sentenced to death in a secret trial that lasted a year and executed by shooting in early 1979.
The escalator accident in 1982
The metro experienced its first fatal accident on February 17, 1982. Two years earlier, a new type of escalator had been installed at Aviamotornaya station (line 8), and a design fault had been discovered before the accident . How serious this was, however, only became clear after the incident: Around 5 p.m., just as the number of passengers was increasing with the evening rush hour, there was mechanical damage inside the escalator, which was triggered by a damaged step. Due to the design flaw, the brakes turned out to be too weak to be able to stop the escalator. It therefore accelerated downwards without braking, under the weight of dozens of passengers. A mass panic ensued - the people on the lower end fell because of the high speed and were crushed by those who followed. Eight fatalities and around 30 injured were counted.
Since the incident was barely reported in the Soviet media, various rumors spread - sometimes there was talk of hundreds of people who, in the accident, climbed the railing of the escalator in a panic, broke into the inside of the escalator and were dismembered by the gearbox. In fact, some of the victims fled to the railing and broke in there, but they got away with bruises because there are no machines directly under the cladding, but hollow space.
The Aviamotornaya station had to be closed for three weeks after the accident, with the escalators being thoroughly overhauled and new safety measures implemented. Other stations with identical escalators were also overhauled in a row.
First post-Soviet terrorist attack in 1996
Late in the evening of June 11, 1996, a self-made TNT explosive device hidden under a seat detonated on a train between the Tulskaya and Nagatinskaya stations (line 9). Under the force of the explosion, not only was the affected wagon destroyed, windows in other wagons were also broken. There was a lot of smoke, so that the train could not continue. All around 250 passengers had to be evacuated through the tunnel, but help came too late for four people, and another 16 suffered some serious injuries. The attack is attributed to Chechen separatists.
First suicide attack in 2004
The third attack on the Moscow metro, which up to this point was the most momentous, occurred on February 6, 2004 at around 8:30 a.m. in a train between the Avtosavodskaya and Paveletskaya stations (line 2). The attack was carried out for the first time by a suicide bomber , a 20-year-old Chechen . The time and place of the attack were apparently chosen deliberately by the masterminds, who have not yet been determined, in order to cause as many victims as possible. Line 2 is a usually very busy line during the morning peak. The second car in which the explosive device went off was almost completely destroyed, the two neighboring cars were also damaged by the force of the detonation. Countless passengers who were on the train had to be gradually evacuated through the tunnel to the two nearest stations. Due to the failure of some damaged car doors, many occupants could not be freed from the car for a long time, which triggered additional panic. The rescue of the victims and the clean-up work on the stretch of road lasted until the evening. The balance of the attack amounted to 39 dead and well over 100, some seriously injured.
Suicide bombings in March 2010
On March 29, 2010, two terrorist attacks occurred early in the morning, affecting two stations on Line 1. This was the second time in the history of the Moscow Metro to be suicide bombed. A total of 40 passengers were killed, and over 100 more were injured, some life-threateningly.
Accident in July 2014
On the morning of July 15, 2014, three wagons on a train on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line between the Pobedy Park and Slavyansky Bulwar stations derailed, probably due to an improperly installed switch . At least one car of the busy train was completely destroyed. 23 people were killed and over 150 injured, 55 of them seriously. It is the worst metro accident in Moscow with the exception of the terrorist attacks in 2004 and 2010.
In the 1990s, due to the economic problems in Russia and the associated lack of public funds, many of the planned expansion projects could not be implemented. With the increasing stabilization from the turn of the millennium and also since the increasing prosperity of Moscow during the term of office of Mayor Luzhkov , work is intensifying again today on expanding the metro. A number of stations have been extensively renovated, such as Mayakovskaya , which was completed in 2007 and named after the famous futurist Vladimir Mayakovsky .
The following expansions of the metro network are planned for the years after 2016:
- Extension of line 10 further north to Verkhniye Lichobory (2014)
- Extension of line 2 from Rechnoi Woksal to Ulitsa Dybenko (2014)
In 2008, a total of 3.235 billion rubles (around 80 million euros) were approved from the Russian state budget for the expansion of the Moscow Metro. According to an announcement by a representative of the Russian Ministry of Finance, this grant should be increased further in the next few years: in 2009 to 9.68 billion and in 2010 to 10.65 billion rubles. The Moscow city administration described the subsidies as inadequate and demanded a 50 percent participation of the state in the construction of the metro. So far, the lion's share of the financial resources for the construction of the metro has been raised by the city of Moscow: In 2008, the subsidy from the city budget amounted to 41.576 billion rubles (the equivalent of a good billion euros) and thus 93% of the funds invested in the expansion.
During the international financial crisis , which also hit the construction industry in Russia, the construction budget of the Moscow Metro for 2009 had to be cut by around 7 billion rubles compared to 2008. For 2010, no more subsidies from the state budget were planned for the construction of the metro.
The award of the 2018 soccer World Cup to Russia in December 2010 made new demands on the planned expansion of the metro: a total of 82.5 kilometers of metro should be built by 2017, the financial volume including the modernization of the existing systems increased to 14 billion Euros estimated. The city of Moscow wanted to carry around 10 billion euros of this mute, the state around two billion euros. Foreign partners were sought for the missing two billion. There was interest on the part of Siemens or the Hyundai group; The latter considered providing financing from South Korean banks and, in return, operating the new lines through income from ticket sales and shop rentals in the stations.
All vehicles that are used in the Moscow Metro or have been used in the past - with the exception of the В series - come from Russian production. They are manufactured, maintained and modernized by the Metrowagonmasch machine works in Mytishchi near Moscow. Part of the vehicle fleet acquired in the 1980s comes from the production of the Yegorov machine building plant in Saint Petersburg , which is also the main supplier of the Saint Petersburg metro .
On all routes, power is supplied via a lateral busbar , which is coated from below, based on experience, particularly with the large-profile routes of the Berlin subway . All cars are each 19.2 meters long and have four double sliding doors on each side that are centrally operated by the driver. The only exception are the articulated wagons of the 81-740 / 741 series, which are each 27.5 meters long with four doors on each side. All models are exclusively equipped with longitudinal seats in the passenger compartment. Depending on the line, the trains are used as six, seven or eight-fold trains. The route network is designed in Russian broad gauge (1524 mm). The reduction of the nominal dimensions by four millimeters made in the 1970s for the railways in the USSR, which in any case only affected the superstructure , was not carried out in the existing underground and tram companies, but the tolerances are identical.
|All series of the Moscow Metro|
|model series||Production period||Period of use|
|А / Б ("A / B")||1934-39||1935-75|
|B ("W", formerly C )||1927-30||1946-68|
|Г ("G")||1939-40, 1946-56||1940-83|
|E / Ем / Еж ("E / Em / Esch")||1959-79||1962 ff.|
|81-717 / 714||1976-2011||1979 ff.|
|И ("I", 81-715 / 716)||1974, 80-81, 85||-|
|81-720 / 721 "Jausa"||1991-2004||1998-2019|
|81-740 / 741 "Russitsch"||2002-13||2003 ff.|
|81-760 / 761 "Oka"||2010–16||2012 ff.|
|81-765 / 766/767 "Moscow"||2016 ff.||2017 ff.|
Construction of underground trains for Moscow began in 1934, a good year before the first line opened. The internationally largely isolated Soviet Union had to forego the expensive import of trains due to massive financial difficulties and instead commission local manufacturers with the development and production. The industry was faced with the problem of developing a new type of motor for subway trains because the electric motor used for ordinary railroad trains could not be used for reasons of space. When the Moscow dynamo plant finally produced a suitable 825 V compact engine, the task was to develop a suitable car body . The design by the architect Leonid Teplizki, which envisaged a passenger area with leather upholstered seats and 30 round ceiling lights, which at the time was quite elegant, was finally awarded the contract. The mechanical engineering plant in Mytishchi that was commissioned with the production, today's Metrowagonmasch , then started production and delivered the first wagons at the end of August 1934. They have been designated Series A . In these trains, power was only drawn from the first and last cars. In addition to the driver's cab, each car also had a permanent conductor's seat ; because it was not until 1958 that the access barriers used today at the stations replaced the conductors . The first cars were delivered to the Metro in September 1934. For the time being, they were parked in the new Severnoje depot that was to serve the first line. The first test drive followed on October 16, 1934; the first regular use of the trains - then as a four-car train - took place on the opening day of the metro on May 15, 1935. A total of 48 A- series cars were delivered for the operation of the first construction phase of the Moscow metro . The series, which was used for a good 40 years from its first delivery , was further technically developed in 1937 - as model Б - and in the mid-1950s - as modifications Ам / Бм .
As early as the late 1930s, the Metrowagonmasch plant began developing a new series called Г , which was to be used on the newly built Line 2 . Until 1941, some cars were made for test purposes and used on test drives. However, with Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in World War II, Metrowagonmasch, like many other companies in the Soviet Union, had to convert its production entirely to armaments . Meanwhile, the underground service continued almost uninterrupted during the four years of the war, and a few kilometers of new metro lines were even built and put into operation. Accordingly, it became necessary to purchase additional trains in the mid-1940s. Because of the production stoppage caused by the war, this was not easily possible. Finally, experts looked into the possibility of taking over underground trains from the capital of the recently defeated Germany. Since the large-profile trains used in the Berlin U-Bahn appeared to be technically suitable for operation in Moscow, the Soviet Union confiscated a number of type CII and CIII cars in autumn 1945 , which in the Soviet Union were derived from the B series (the Cyrillic W by Wojennyje - war chariots ). A total of 120 cars were brought from Berlin to Moscow by rail in this way. The cars were extensively modernized there for use in Moscow and adapted to the standards of the Moscow Metro. Regular use of the trains began in 1946.
Development after the Second World War
After the end of the war, Metrowagonmasch resumed the further development and manufacture of the Г series developed in the late 1930s . Series production began in 1947. In contrast to the А / Б trains, the power consumption of the new series took place across all cars, the maximum speed was increased from 65 to 75 kilometers per hour. Improvements were also made to the car body structure, electrical equipment and braking system. Overall, the cars in this series were considered technically very advanced and reliable at the end of the development phase. Since the cars could not be manufactured in sufficient numbers in the first post-war years, the Berlin B trains remained in operation parallel to the new series until 1961.
After the parallel operation of the B and Г series in the Moscow Metro began in the late 1940s , Metrowagonmasch decided to combine the technical advantages of both series when developing a new type of train. The five test cars left the factory as early as 1949. They were initially given the designation M5 . The development of the new series was completed in 1955. It was mass-produced under the final designation Д. Externally, there were hardly any differences compared to the previous series Г , but there were technical differences : The empty weight of the cars was reduced from 43.7 to 36.2 tons, the lighting and ventilation of the passenger compartment were improved. The cars of the series, which were produced until 1963, were in use until 1995, most recently on line 3 .
Vehicles currently in use
The E family
There are currently three generations of vehicles in regular use in the Moscow Metro. The oldest are trains from the E / Ем / Еж series , which were produced until the mid-1970s. This successor to the Д series was developed by Metrowagonmasch in the late 1950s. The first cars were built in 1959 and series production began in 1963. Compared to the previous model , the E- cars had a slightly modified exterior design of the car body, as well as a number of technical improvements aimed, among other things, at higher performance. The maximum design speed was 90 instead of the previous 75 km / h, the empty weight of the wagons was reduced again to 31.5 tonnes, and the door width was increased by a good fifth compared to the previous designs in order to enable faster train handling at the stations. The starting acceleration increased to 1.3 m / s 2 despite the reduction in the drive motor output (4 times 68 kW) . There is a driver's cab in each car. They are individually mobile and freely connectable. The Scharfenberg couplings couple the pneumatic and electrical connections including the control lines for the multiple control. The smallest train unit that can be used in operation consists of two cars. The passenger compartment was equipped with an improved ventilation system. In 1964, wagons of the new series were also delivered to Leningrad and Kiev for the first time, followed by the newly opened subways from Tbilisi and Baku in 1965 and 1967 .
The series has been continuously developed and modified for many years. In addition to various technical innovations on the actual model E , which was still produced until 1969, the modifications Ем and Еж also emerged in the 1960s . The former was necessary for operation in Saint Petersburg, where, in contrast to the Moscow Metro, there are stations with platform screen doors , at which ordinary electric trains cannot stop because of the smaller distance between the doors compared to the previous series. This type of car was also modified by 1977, such as Ем-501 , Ем-508 , Ем-508T , Ема or Емх , as well as a version Ев and Ечс (Ečs) for Prague , specially developed for the Metró Budapest and used there until 2018 , where it was in use until 1997. The version Еж as well as the modifications Еж1 (intended primarily for use as an intermediate car, although there is also a driver's cab) and Еж3 (developed in 1973 as a successor to the Еж motor car with driver's cab ) was produced from 1970 and was the last type of car produced by the E. Series until production was finally stopped in the late 1970s. Both the types Ем and Еж differ only technically from the original type, externally they all look largely the same - apart from the Budapest and Prague modifications that were given different paintwork.
Today trains of the series E / Ем / Еж in the Moscow Metro, after they were completely replaced by the series 81-740 / 741 by 2009 on line 4 and by 2011 on line 3 , are only in use on line 7 . It is used by vehicles of the modifications Еж3 and Ем508Т . Between 2003 and 2011 all cars were completely overhauled. This extended their useful life by another 15 years. During this modernization, among other things, the driver's cabs in the cars running in the middle of the train were expanded, thus gaining additional space for the passenger compartment. However, this eliminated the possibility of permissive train formation.
Series 81-717 / 714
The vehicle series currently most frequently used in the Moscow Metro are the so-called Nomernyje trains, i.e. the 81-717 / 714 series , which was produced in place of the E modifications from the late 1970s . For the first time, not every car was given a driver's cab. This restricted the free movement of trains, but the usable passenger space was increased significantly. The railcars with a driver's cab were given the type designation 81-717, those without a driver's cab 81-714. The lighting with fluorescent lamps is striking from the passenger's point of view; This made the interior significantly lighter than the E series. The series, which was essentially developed on the basis of the electric trains, was originally intended to be only an interim solution in order to cope with the increase in passenger numbers expected in connection with the Olympic Games ; the actual successor series should be the completely new series И , which is in the development phase at the same time. Due to various technical deficiencies, however, their development had to be stopped years later; the vehicles were neither in series production nor in regular use.
Instead, the much more robust Nomernyje were modified and further developed several times. Series production started in 1978. In addition to the higher space capacity, the trains stand out compared to their predecessor models with a more modern frontal design and an improved design of the passenger compartment in several ways. Based on the 81-717 / 714 model developed in 1976, several successor models were created up until the 2000s, including:
- 81-717.5 / 714.5 - developed in 1987, later and still used in almost all underground trains in the former Soviet Union,
- 81-717.5M / 714.5M - developed in 1993 and produced to this day, in use in the Moscow and Kiev metro, and
- 81-717.6 / 714.6 - developed in 2007, later and still today, in use in the Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod , and
- 81-717.5A / 714.5A - developed in 2010, later and still today.
Series 81-720 / 721 Jausa
The И series, which failed in the 1980s, was taken by Metrowagonmasch in the early 1990s as the basis for developing a new generation series. The new trains were presented for the first time in 1993; The shape of the car body and the doors was slightly reminiscent of the test wagons from the 1970s. The trains, which bear the name Jausa (based on the river of the same name ) in addition to their primary series designation, have at a good five years the longest period of time between the first production and the start of regular use in the history of the metro wagon machine plant. One reason for this was Russia's economic collapse in the 1990s. As a result, there was a lack of financial resources both for the development and for the purchase of new subway vehicles.
It was not until June 1998 that the first Jausas were used on line 10 of the Moscow Metro. Compared to the 81-717 / 714 series, the trains have a new exterior design, have an electronic destination display and have improved fire protection equipment and engine performance. The passenger compartment was also given a new interior design and improved sound insulation. However, even after several repairs, there were technical breakdowns with the Jausas , which led to train cancellations when they were used on line 10. Therefore, in 2002 Metrowagonmasch stopped the series production of the series that had started three years earlier. The manufacturer delivered a total of 49 Jausa cars . They are used on the Ljublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line in train sets with seven cars in addition to those of the 81-717 / 714 series. Some of the Jausa type wagons were moved to the Samoskvorezkoye depot in summer 2008 for use on the Kakhovskaya Line.
Class 81-740 / 741 Russitsch
The latest vehicle series used by the Moscow Metro is the 81-740 / 741 , also called Russitsch , which has been in production since 2002 . It was initially developed by Metrowagonmasch in the years 2001 to 2002 primarily for use on the so-called light metro lines (see above the section “ Construction of the light metro ”). The first-time implementation of the regenerative three-phase drive has increased the efficiency of the vehicles enormously. Technically, they can in principle also be used on any other line, in fact, however, due to their relatively small space capacity compared to the 81-717 / 714 series, only on certain, relatively weakly used lines. During the development of the Russitsch trains, the Jausa series was largely taken as the basis, albeit with numerous changes both inside and outside. Since 2003, the 81-740 / 741 series has been in sole use on the L1 line , which went into operation in the same year , line 4, 2006–2011 line 3 and 2009–2011 line 5 were completely converted to these vehicles in 2005–2009 .
Series 81-760 / 761/763
From 2005 to 2010 Metrowagonmasch developed another series for the Moscow Metro with 81-760 / 761, the trains of which are supposed to combine the main advantages of the 81-720 / 721 and 81-740 / 741 series, but at the same time lower production and thus acquisition costs exhibit. The first sample copies were delivered to the Sokol depot in early 2010 , the series was officially presented in mid-2010. Series production of these trains began in 2012, and the trains are now running on Line 8, and the next step is to renew the fleet of Line 9.
The trains running on the Moscow Metro are maintained in a total of 15 depots . Basically, each line has its depot for all vehicles that drive on the line; certain larger lines even have two separate depots each. All 15 depots are located above ground and connected to the respective lines via operating tracks, which lead from underground lines via ramps to the surface.
The functions of each depot extend to the scheduled cleaning, maintenance and repair of the vehicles. In addition, the drivers are employed in a certain depot; In particular, they have to undergo a routine medical check before they start work, which is intended to prevent train drivers being absent due to illness and thus ensure smooth metro operations.
The 15 depots of the Moscow Metro are listed in detail in the table below. The commissioning of two new depots is also planned for the next few years: By 2013, the Bratejewo depot at the southern end of Line 2 is to be built at the same time as its upcoming southern extension, and Line 3, which was extended by three stations at the end of 2009, will also soon be available Was extended to the west, with Mitino got their second depot.
As is customary elsewhere, there are automatic announcements of the next station and the transfer options on the Moscow Metro. In principle, this takes place immediately before departure and immediately before or upon arrival at each station. In the first case, the closing of the doors is announced and the next station announced, in the last case the current station and, if applicable, the transfer options available here. If the exit is on the right, this is also announced in both cases. A standard announcement on departure of the train reads: " Осторожно, двери закрываются, следующая станция ... " (in German: "Caution, the doors close, next station is ...") or when the train arrives at each station: “ Станция…, переход на… линию ” (“Station…, transition to the… line”). Since spring 2017 these announcements are also in English. In addition, there are often additional instructions such as that you should not forget your personal belongings when getting off or that you should leave the space to disabled people, the elderly, pregnant women and passengers with children.
The speakers are usually (partly former) radio presenters who record the given announcement texts on behalf of the Metro in a recording studio of the Moscow Radio House. A special feature of the Moscow Metro is that the announcements are made with both female and male voices, whereby the division follows a certain pattern: the announcements in trains running in the direction of the city center are male and journeys in the direction of the outskirts made with a female voice. In the case of long north-south or east-west lines, votes are changed at a specific station closest to the Kremlin . On the ring line , the announcement is made with a male voice for clockwise journeys and with a female voice for counterclockwise trains.
In vehicles of the new series there are also electronic display boards inside the passenger compartment, on which the next station is displayed with ticker.
For a long time there has been a persistent rumor about Metro Two , a secret additional system up to 150 kilometers long that is supposed to connect the Kremlin with strategically important points, such as the government airport Vnukovo-2 , the government sanatorium Bor with the command post of the General Staff 60 kilometers south of Moscow and the central command post of the air defense at Zarya east of Moscow. A number of facts speak for the existence of a secret metro network: Entrances in tunnels and shafts of unclear meaning, tracks branching off from the normal metro with an unknown destination; known vehicles that do not run in the normal metro, presidential or government resolutions, some of which relate to a special transport system that is not explained in detail . It was reported in the Russian media, especially at the beginning of the 1990s, but it was never confirmed by the authorities. The alleged Metro Zwei was mentioned and discussed in the novel Moscoviada by Jurij Andruchowytsch , first published in 1993 , as well as in the dystopian novel Metro 2033 by Dmitri Gluchowski .
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- RIA Novosti: Budget: 222.9 million euros earmarked for underground construction in Russia in 2007 , May 23, 2007.
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- russland-heute.de: Siemens and Hyundai want to operate Moscow Metro ( Memento from June 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), May 25, 2011.
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- See review of the novel
- Wladislaw Hedeler: Review by H-Soz-Kult from November 10, 2002.