Video surveillance

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The articles video surveillance , video surveillance system and surveillance camera overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Kai Kemmann ( discussion ) - Improving instead of deleting : Encyclopedia is ancient Greek for "comprehensive" - 20:04, 19 Feb. 2019 (CET)
Pictogram "video surveillance" according to DIN 33450
Surveillance camera on a bank building in Hamburg, 2006
Video surveillance of the platforms in Bielefeld main station
Split screen of the video surveillance system in the MVG Museum in Munich , 2007
Video surveillance in the elevators of Chungking Mansions , Hong Kong

Video surveillance is the observation of places by optical-electronic devices, optical room surveillance systems ( video surveillance system ). This form of monitoring is often associated with the recording and analysis of the audio-visual data obtained. The data is often stored digitally and the images can be analyzed by software. For example, people can be automatically identified with face recognition or the license plates of moving vehicles can be automatically recognized .

Proponents of video surveillance welcome the clarification of crimes (identification of perpetrators; documentation of the course of events) and the preventive effect . Many potential perpetrators, who know or see that they are being observed in a certain spatial area, behave differently there than when they feel unobserved (“ pressure to observe ”). This also leads to a reduction in vandalism . The attacks at the Boston Marathon 2013 and other acts of terrorism owe the quick clearing up of the video surveillance.

Critics fear a surveillance state , a possible misuse of data and a general social climate of suspicion that promotes conformity in public spaces . They also question the real effectiveness of such measures against crime and consider them populist . Some consider less video surveillance to mean more privacy and / or civil rights .

Legal situation in Germany

A large number of laws define who may or must use video surveillance and under what conditions. The admissibility of video surveillance depends specifically on who uses it. A general distinction is made between private and state video surveillance.

All federal states have data protection officers . As in any new or novel area, judicial law plays an important role; H. Judgments by higher and highest courts (private law: OLG and BGH; administrative law Higher Administrative Court (OVG) and Federal Administrative Court ).

Corporate co-determination and legal bases

According to Section 87 (1) No. 6 BetrVG, the works council has the right to co-determination when using technical measures that are intended to monitor the behavior or performance of employees . Decisive for the legality of data processing by non-public bodies is Art. 6 Para. 1 S. 1 lit. f GDPR, according to which processing is lawful insofar as it is necessary to safeguard the legitimate interests of the person responsible or a third party, unless the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject, which require the protection of personal data, prevail, in particular if the person concerned is a child.


Basically, (must in video surveillance between the monitoring by private parties in public areas 6b Federal Data Protection Act § ), video monitoring of employees by 1 BDSG § 32. And other Video monitoring in non-public places according to 28 BDSG § be distinguished .

The Düsseldorfer Kreis , founded in 2013, serves as a committee in the conference of the data protection officers of the federal government and the states of communication, cooperation and coordination of the supervisory authorities in the non-public area.

Observation of publicly accessible spaces

The video surveillance of publicly accessible rooms is regulated by Section 4 of the Federal Data Protection Act (BDSG). Earmarking , data economy and transparency are essential aspects of data protection and are regulated in this regulation. According to this, monitoring is only permitted if it is necessary for the fulfillment of tasks by public authorities, for the exercise of house rules or other justified, specifically defined interests and there are no indications that the interests of the data subjects worthy of protection prevail. The monitoring must be pointed out and the responsible body must be named ( Section 4 (2) BDSG).

The BDSG is a fall arrest law, i. This means that regulations from the BDSG only apply if no special regulations exist. The data protection laws of the federal states (e.g. DSG NRW) specify the requirements of federal law. The official churches regulate video surveillance in their own data protection regulations. The regulations in the order on ecclesiastical data protection (KDO) of the Catholic Church and the EKD Data Protection Act (DSG-EKD) are practically identical in content to Section 6b of the BDSG (1990).

State video surveillance

Police mobile video surveillance at a demonstration

Special powers of the police are regulated in the state police laws. In recent years, many state parliaments have passed appropriate changes to allow their police to use video technology ( e.g. Section 15 a PolG NRW ). However, there are high hurdles to overcome. This is to prevent crime from being pushed to other areas.

Surveillance camera of the federal police for facial recognition in the west hall of the train station Berlin Südkreuz

According to the Federal Police Act ( BPolG ), the Federal Police may use video surveillance. An amendment to the BKA law could also allow the Federal Criminal Police Office to use video surveillance in private apartments in the future.

The German Federal Police is carrying out a pilot project for face recognition at Berlin Südkreuz train station from August 2017 to January 2018 , in which video surveillance with three cameras is to be used in marked areas of the west hall of the train station to determine whether any of the 300 volunteer, previously registered test persons are resides in this area.

Mandatory video surveillance

Cash desks of banks and savings banks and the entrances to casinos and amusement arcades must be equipped with optical room monitoring systems according to § 6 UVV “Kassen” and § 6 UVV “Spielhallen” .

Certain industrial systems, for example nuclear systems , must also be equipped with video surveillance systems.

Legal situation in Austria

In Austria, video surveillance is regulated by the Data Protection Act (DSG) and in the area of ​​the police by the Security Police Act (SPG) .

Private video surveillance

(Alleged) warning of video surveillance at Vienna's central cemetery

Since January 1, 2010, private video surveillance has been regulated by the video surveillance section (9a.) Of the Data Protection Act (DSG). Video surveillance is only permitted if it fulfills a permissible purpose (protection of an object / a person or legal due diligence), if also the confidential interests of third parties worthy of protection are less than the interests of the operator (e.g. an attack is likely or has already taken place has) and if the video surveillance is suitable, the mildest means and proportionate .

If video surveillance is permitted according to these aspects, it must be reported to the data processing register (DVR) . In addition, there are other obligations for the operator of the system (e.g. labeling obligation, logging obligation, data security measures, deletion obligation after 72 hours and the obligation to provide information to those affected).

Police video surveillance

In § 54 Security Police Act the video surveillance is regulated by the police. The police may also use sound recorders and license plate recognition devices. Video surveillance is currently being carried out by the police at the following locations in Austria: Vienna (1st district - Schwedenplatz, 1st district - Karlsplatz, 15th district - Westbahnhof); Carinthia (Klagenfurt - Pfarrplatz, Villach - Lederergasse); Lower Austria (Schwechat airport, Wr. Neustadt, Vösendorf - SCS); Upper Austria (Linz - Hinsenkampplatz; Linz - Old Town); Salzburg (Salzburg City - Rudolfskai, Salzburg City - Südtirolerplatz); Styria (Graz - Jakominiplatz, Graz - Central Station); Tyrol (Innsbruck - Rapoldipark, Innsbruck - Bogenmeile);

Situation in other countries

Video surveillance in Paris , mapped in an OpenStreetMap project

Video cameras can provide important legal evidence .

After the fatal attack on the Boston Marathon in 2013, one of the perpetrators could be seen on a fixed surveillance camera; after the publication of pictures he was identified.

Venlo , a Dutch town on the German border, had for years problems caused by drug -related crime . In the meantime (2013) Venlo advertises in advertisements that the city is safe thanks to 48 cameras in the city center plus 21 cameras operated by the railway company Nederlandse Spoorwegen in and around the Venlo train station. The text mentions the advantage of being able to film the perpetrator during their act; early recognition of emerging aggression and the possibility of intervention before an escalation; higher probability of being able to arrest a suspect (the cameras are installed within sight; anyone who leaves the observation area of ​​one camera is already in the area of ​​the next).


Sign indicating video surveillance in front of the Essen-Steele district court
  • On August 20, 2009, the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided that there is currently no legal basis for prosecuting road traffic violations with video technology without cause. A motorist who was supposed to pay a fine for exceeding the speed limit, which was determined by video from a motorway bridge, had previously complained that the video recording of the traffic violation had been made without a sufficient legal basis due to a lack of concrete suspicion. The complaint was dismissed by the Mecklenburg court on the grounds of the decree to monitor the safety distance. After filing a constitutional complaint , the BVerfG decided that this decree was not a suitable legal basis for interfering with the fundamental right to informational self-determination , and therefore assessed the procedure as arbitrary. Thereupon a ban on the use of evidence was issued .
  • The Reeperbahn in Hamburg has been monitored with ten video cameras since March 2006, and more are planned. The system cost 620,000 euros. In the first five days after the surveillance system was set up, five acts of violence occurred on the Reeperbahn that were not recorded by the cameras. The surveillance was quasi suspended between 2010 and 2012 because a resident felt that the surveillance had disturbed her right to informational self-determination. In 2012, the Federal Administrative Court (BVerwG) confirmed the interference with their personal rights and their informational self-determination, but these could be restricted in a crime area such as the Reeperbahn due to the laws in Hamburg. Police chief Werner Jantosch sees the purpose of the system primarily in " prevention ".
  • From September to December 21, 2001, the Böblingen bus station was monitored in order to combat drug-related crime. Gerhard Lang, Chief Police Officer in Böblingen, notes that drug crime is being pushed out into neighboring areas.
  • Freiburg im Breisgau: In the Haslacher Bad and Westbad the entrance area is monitored by cameras. Monitoring of the changing rooms for men was ended after the intervention of the state data protection officer. The goal of reducing locker break-ins is now to be achieved through exclusive video surveillance of the lockers. There are signs indicating surveillance.
  • Heilbronn: Since July 2002 the “Sülmer City” has been monitored by two cameras. The video data is transmitted to the Heilbronn police station. The recordings are automatically deleted after 48 hours, unless individual sequences for documentation or evidence in the case of specific criminal offenses or administrative offenses have to be stored or saved for longer. The acquisition costs were 140,000 euros. The cameras are each installed at a height of 3.5 meters.
  • Mannheim: From July 26, 2001 to the end of 2007, Paradeplatz was filmed with three cameras and Marktplatz, Neckartor and Kurpfalzkreisel each with one camera, as they were considered the focus of crime. According to an interim report by the police for the Ministry of the Interior (around December 2002), the recorded occurrences had stabilized. Displacement effects in "drunken cliques" were also noticed. The cameras for monitoring the public space were officially switched off at the end of 2007 because, according to the city administration, the measure “made itself superfluous”. The forecourt of the main station will continue to be monitored. In September 2008 it became known that video surveillance of the public space in entrances, corridors and playgrounds had been carried out in 17 of the 95 schools in Mannheim since 1995 and increasingly since 2000. The videotapes were kept for up to two weeks. The legal basis was unclear. In other large cities in Baden-Württemberg (e.g. Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Tübingen and Heidelberg), schools were not monitored (as of 2008).
  • Stuttgart: From January 28, 2002 to July 2003, the Rotebühlplatz was filmed by the police with five cameras. Displacement effects were also found there. Trade and consumption of illegal drugs would have on nearby Charlotte Square and in the upper King Street increased. The annual costs were 420,000 euros; these are paid by the country and city. Since Rotebühlplatz was no longer a focus of crime, video surveillance was discontinued.
  • Ravensburg: During the Rutenfest 2004, the Grüner Platz sports field was filmed by the police in order to prevent excesses by alcoholized young people. The number of crimes then decreased.
  • Biberach: The Biberacher Schützenfest 2004 should be monitored on July 3rd and July 8th, each time from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. The Third Chamber of the Sigmaringen Administrative Court prohibited the surveillance as there was no specific risk situation. One camera was then dismantled and two more were imposed. In 2008 an attempt was made to make video surveillance still possible by letting the festival area to a private association. The state data protection officer saw this as "an improper circumvention of the statutory data protection rules". The data protection department of the Ministry of the Interior in Stuttgart, responsible for video surveillance in the private sector, informed the Biberach monitors in a letter of their omissions and urgently advised them not to carry out the surveillance. The cameras that had already been installed were dismantled.
  • Berlin : According to an article in Die Welt on June 18, 2004, the CDU, FDP and SPD voted in a district assembly for the future surveillance of the Spandau town hall and the city library. Smearers, rubbish dumpers and wild uriners are no longer tolerated. The town hall forecourt is seen as a focus of crime. District mayor Konrad Birkholz (CDU) announced in the district council meeting on August 25, 2004 that Berlin's Senate Administration is rejecting police video surveillance. The interference is disproportionate. According to the Berliner Morgenpost of September 12, 2005, the surveillance project that had been discussed for several years was discontinued for cost reasons. Instead, one tries to counteract the problem with an instant graffiti cleaning.
Notice of video surveillance in Dresdner Prager Strasse
  • Mönchengladbach : Since September 2, 2004 the old town in Mönchengladbach has been filmed. A total of six swiveling and zoomable cameras transmit images via microwave radio to the old town guard, where they can be seen by the police on three monitors. The system cost 93,000 euros. It is saved for a maximum of two weeks. Private zones were configured in the camera system in order to block the view into apartments. When there was an unexpected mass brawl between Hell's Angels and Bandidos on the night of January 21-22, 2012 , the cameras were invaluable in coordinating the police, ambulance and medical staff. Four people were injured - some of them life-threatening.
  • Leipzig : Police video surveillance began in April 1996. The Saxon State Ministry of the Interior allowed a camera to be installed in Richard-Wagner-Strasse for four weeks. After the shutdown, increased crime was recorded again. The test operation was then repeated. Since April 2000, two cameras have been filmed on Roßplatz and Martin-Luther-Ring. In June 2003, video surveillance began at the Connewitzer Kreuz . This was justified with rioting on New Year's Eve 2002/03 and street battles in May 2003. The station forecourt is under video surveillance. Since September 2009 the junction of Eisenbahnstrasse / Hermann-Liebmann-Strasse has also been under video surveillance, as this is a focus of crime according to the police .
  • Hamburg: The Bondenwald grammar school has set up several video cameras to monitor bicycles: at the entrances to the school and other places. This endeavor was initiated and supported by parents.
  • Bremen: Several schools in Bremen use (as of 2010) video surveillance against violence, vandalism , theft and smokers. The data is stored 24 hours during school hours; on weekends, public holidays and vacations up to the first day of school. The rector, another person and, in the case of criminal offenses, the police have access to the data. The Bremen state data protection officer criticized the fact that in general the schools did not create an adequate data protection concept.
  • In December 2012, a man left a bag on a platform at Bonn Central Station in which a bomb was later found. The federal prosecutor took over the investigation. Federal Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich (CSU) took the case as an opportunity to demand an expansion of video surveillance.
    • Federal Justice Minister Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger (FDP) rejected the request.
    • Railway boss Rüdiger Grube ("We want more video recordings and thus better prosecution of crimes at train stations") announced that we would like to invite to a 'security summit' in February 2013.
  • Krakow , Breslau (Poland): The extensive police surveillance of the inner cities regularly leads to nudity in public punished in Poland as illegal "impropriety" with imprisonment , a fine of up to PLN 1,500 (approx. € 340) or a reprimand can be successfully prosecuted ex officio.
  • At the end of 2012, around 17,000 cameras were in use in Bavaria
  • Four days after the 2013 Boston Marathon attack (two bombs killed three people and injured over 180), police released mug shots and videos showing two suspect young men. They could be identified and found later.
  • Video surveillance of tourists in ski resorts was declared one of the neglected news of the year in 2014 by the Intelligence Initiative .
  • In 2019, the data protection activist, civil rights activist and European member of the German Pirate Party, Patrick Breyer, exposed mass video surveillance of vehicles. So-called "license plate scanners" compare the license plates of passing vehicles with search databases. According to the rulings of the Federal Constitutional Court, general surveillance without cause is unlawful.

Video surveillance and terrorism

Video surveillance recordings were used in forensic analysis to identify the tactics, techniques and perpetrators of terrorist acts. There are also projects - such as INDECT - which aim to automatically detect suspicious behavior by people or groups of people. However, it has been argued that surveillance cameras do not deter terrorists, that preventing acts of terrorism is not the current use of surveillance cameras, and that terrorists might see them as an additional means of propaganda and dissemination of their actions. Calls for more video surveillance after the attack on the Berlin Christmas market at the Memorial Church in 2016 by the SPD , CDU and CSU were criticized by the left-wing politician Frank Tempel as a " placebo for a subjective feeling of security".


Video surveillance was a controversial security technology. In 2005, the technology received the negative Big Brother Award for the “creeping degradation” of people to “monitored objects” and for “playing down the consequences of extensive surveillance” .

Data protection problems

Information sticker "video monitored"
Critical graffiti by street art artist Banksy in London
  • If a person can be identified through a graphic representation, the images are subject to data protection. It is irrelevant whether a person is actually identified or not.
  • Video surveillance in public spaces almost only affects unsuspecting ordinary people. There is no suspicion against a specific person, but general suspicion against all persons. That contradicts the presumption of innocence .
  • Stored data arouse desires. Even earmarked data can be used by criminal prosecutors (AG Gummersbach on the Autobahn Toll Act). As a reaction to this decision, the earmarking of the collected data in the Autobahn Toll Act was increased.
  • Private security operators work hand in hand with the police ( security partnerships ). The police receive information from private security operators. This increases the police's control options. It also dilutes the divide between law enforcement officers and private security firms.
  • The individual affected by video surveillance has little chance in everyday life of determining the operator and storage periods (and whether the latter are actually adhered to) - especially due to the inadequate labeling.
  • There are major problems in the practical enforceability of the data subject's right to information.
  • The extent of privately operated video surveillance is difficult to control and will be difficult to regulate in the future.
  • In combination with digital systems for image recognition, it is possible to automatically identify monitored persons, provided that appropriate reference material (e.g. from systems for digital face recognition - see biometrics ) is used.
  • Due to increasing digitalization, the simple manipulation of stored video data represents a potential danger, as it can be used for automated recognition. If necessary, this risk can be countered by using security-tested video systems ( seal of approval , protection profiles).

Suitability aspects

The suitability of video surveillance for crime prevention is debatable. Some studies come to the conclusion that video surveillance reduces crime, while other studies find no or even the opposite effect. A systematic summary and critical appraisal of all evaluation projects in Germany, Austria and Great Britain can be found among others. a. in a publication by Rothmann (2012).

According to a study, crime in Berlin subway cars initially increased after the introduction of 24-hour video surveillance in 2007 - this is probably due to a statistical effect: because of the higher chance of clarification, more offenses were reported than before; the number of unreported cases fell.

  • Video surveillance can be proportionate :
    • Dangerous places in industry: If technical processes are included, no personal data is generated. Usually no “broad masses” are filmed.
    • Parking lot monitoring: The behavioral patterns in a parking lot are in a restricted spectrum. "Deviating behavior" can be recognized more quickly or with a higher probability than, for example, in a shopping street, since parking lots or multi-storey car parks do not offer a pleasant atmosphere.
  • In order to be able to take into account the extent of seasonal effects, a study must consider a longer period - at least one year. Public spaces are used more in the warm season than in the cold. This also has a major impact on the frequency of offenses.
  • A study should also be long-term in order to record habituation effects. Local media report the installation of video cameras; Experience has shown that this has an impact on the incidence of crime in the observed area. In the long term, the perception of observation can wane.
  • displacement
    • Video surveillance is ineffective in drug-related crime (because it is addiction-driven), but displacement can mean that crime hotspots are no longer perceived as such.
    • Some of the perpetrators will move their actions to an unsupervised location. Some places become more dangerous.
  • Surveillance cameras are usually small and inconspicuous.
    • If perpetrators don't notice the cameras, then they won't act differently.
    • Surveillance cameras are used to identify offenders, not for prevention.
    • Investigating perpetrators is a victim's right . Only if a perpetrator is identified does a victim have a chance of compensation or reparation .

Public discussion

This is followed by reports from the press about critical voices on the subject of video surveillance in chronological order in individual areas.

  • Whitsun 2012: a 15-year-old boy attacked two women in Mönchengladbach main train station for no reason or warning; he and another youth beat her 'ready for hospital'. When the police from the Deutsche Bahn wanted to have videos from the camera, the images were automatically transferred to Aachen and were not available for a quick search. On Pentecost Sunday in Bielefeld, five young people beat up a 26-year-old who had shown moral courage in a train station underpass .
  • In the old town of Mönchengladbach, where fights often occur, seven cameras are installed on the old market. The police can often report successful searches. January 2012: Mass brawl between Hells Angels and Bandidos at the Old Market. The police saw in the pictures that gang members banded together. She requested additional forces for a large-scale operation. Four people were injured in the mass brawl, one of whom was life-threatening. The police found crucial evidence of suspects on the video images.
  • After the accident at the Love Parade in 2010 , it became publicly known that video cameras can improve the police and rescue services' overview of crowds. For example, the Rheinbahn in Düsseldorf wants to detect overcrowded platforms and other sources of danger from August 2012 by means of video recording - which can be viewed several times for the purpose of analysis and preservation of evidence.
  • May 6, 2008, “Billions in investments in a nationwide system of surveillance cameras have barely curbed crime in Great Britain. The network with more than four million video cameras is a 'complete fiasco', said… the head of Scotland Yard's video surveillance department, Mike Neville. "
  • September 27, 2004: Cuxhavener Nachrichten. "The" little brothers "never look the other way: Camera surveillance in Cuxhaven, video surveillance in public space by private individuals" : Even a professional supervisor like Claus Nöckel from the detective agency Nöckel observes the handling of images from private surveillance cameras in public spaces with skepticism. "It is hair-raising how carelessly data is handled," says the detective, who, for example, set up the cameras at the stadium by the sea on behalf of his customers. In some places, video copies of the images from the surveillance cameras are taken and taken home, or there is voyeurism . Too often, for example, the signs that must indicate video surveillance according to the Federal Data Protection Act and who is carrying it out were missing, according to Nöckel.
  • February 28, 2004, Neukölln-online: Steglitz-Zehlendorf's Education Councilor Erik Schrader (FDP) excludes cameras in schools for his district: "There are no such massive incidents that would justify this."
  • February 13, 2002, Berliner Morgenpost regarding surveillance in Brandenburg: For Andreas Schuster, head of the Brandenburg police union, video surveillance is not a suitable means of effectively combating criminal offenses. Schuster sees relocation effects .
  • December 13, 2001, Brandenburg's GdP state chief Andreas Schuster in the Berliner Zeitung: “We have the best-guarded bicycle stand in the country in Erkner” With this and similar sentences, the police union commented on Jörg Schönbohm's (CDU, Interior Minister's) video surveillance project . The cost of a system amounted to a one-off around 180,000 marks and around 100,000 marks per year.
  • December 30, 1998, Berlin SPD parliamentary group leader Klaus Böger and head of the Berlin Association of German Criminal Investigators (BDK) Heide Rudert rejected video surveillance in Jewish cemeteries to prevent anti-Semitic desecrations .


Here are examples of cases of abuse or misuse that have become known.

  • In Great Britain, the country with the largest density of surveillance cameras in the world, surveillance films with spicy scenes are always available for purchase. These come from private houses and apartments that could be seen through cameras.
  • At the HAK / HAS in Oberwart / Austria a teacher filmed the ladies' toilet with mini cameras. The two cameras were aimed at the toilet bowl and were used to detect drug abuse. The first camera was discovered in May 2004 by a cleaning lady and then identified as a mini camera by an explosives expert. It wasn't until July 2004, after the teacher in question hung up a second camera, that something was done about it. Allegedly the school management was not informed. (Other sources: Neues Volksblatt (no date); Niederösterreichische Nachrichten of July 30, 2004; MUND Florian Steiniger)
  • A webcam in Meißen filmed drinkers in the city center.
  • Angela Merkel was personally a victim of video surveillance: In March 2006 it turned out that the security service of the Pergamon Museum could look directly into her living room with a remote-controlled video camera.

Forest fire detection

Video surveillance, in particular using thermal imaging cameras, is a very effective means of detecting forest fires at an early stage. For this purpose, cameras of this kind are mounted on towers in areas at risk of fire, which can also serve as observation towers or radio towers. The use of manned or unmanned aircraft with such cameras is also possible.

Special video surveillance cameras

There are also video surveillance cameras used for scientific research. An example of this can be found at the Hessdalen AMS .


  • Helmut Bäumler : “The individual video camera may be sensible and useful in itself. But many sensible and useful video cameras lined up in a row can nonetheless endanger freedom. "
  • Alexander Lehmann : "Every video evidence is proof that surveillance cameras do not prevent crimes."

See also


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  • Robert Rothmann: To evaluate the security-related suitability of video surveillance - regional deficits, international standards, methodological challenges. In: Juridikum. Journal for Criticism, Law, Society. Issue 4, 2012, pp. 483–495.
  • Ralf Röger: The video surveillance of public spaces to avert danger and to exercise house rights - an analysis of the police law as well as the state and federal data protection regulations using the example of North Rhine-Westphalia. In: Martin Zilkens (Ed.): Data protection in the municipality. Current issues and possible solutions. 2003, ISBN 3-88118-341-8 , pp. 103-127.
  • Philipp Stierand: Video- monitored city? , Diploma thesis, Dortmund 2000
  • Katja Veil: Room control, video control and planning for public spaces. Thesis. Berlin 2001.
  • Paul Virilio: The Vision Machine . Merve publishing house .

Web links

Commons : Video surveillance  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: Video Surveillance  - In The News

Initiatives against video surveillance

Video surveillance information



  • Every Step You Take A one-hour documentary about video surveillance in Great Britain (and partly Austria), by the Austrian director Nino Leitner (English)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Laws on the Internet
  2. Website with information on the GDPR online
  3. Non-public bodies and video surveillance. Retrieved October 19, 2017 .
  4. Face recognition: Big Brother in the Berlin Südkreuz train station. In: Berliner Morgenpost , July 27, 2017, accessed on August 23, 2017
  5. ^ A b Maximilian Schrems: Private video surveillance. A guide. Jan-Sramek-Verlag, Vienna 2011, ISBN 978-3-902638-43-4 .
  6. ( Memento of the original from October 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. ^ Advertisement in: Rheinische Post. 5th June 2013.
  8. Federal Constitutional Court : Press release No. 97/2009: Restricting the right to informational self-determination of August 20, 2009. Accessed on July 26, 2011.
  9. Police end permanent video surveillance on Reeperbahn. In: , July 15, 2011. Accessed November 25, 2013.
  10. Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig confirms video surveillance of the Reeperbahn January 25, 2012. Accessed: November 25, 2013.
  11. Leon Hempel: Repression instead of prevention . In: Telepolis. January 15, 2004.
  12. Karl-Otto Sattler: Surveillance cameras are banned from changing rooms. In: State Gazette Baden-Württemberg. December 15, 2003.
  13. Video surveillance started in Heilbronn. (No longer available online.) In: Press release. Ministry of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg, July 8, 2002, archived from the original on December 27, 2007 ; Retrieved on April 2, 2012 (they are on the south side of the K3 building, west of the main entrance from Sülmerstrasse and attached to a mast on the west side of Sülmerstrasse). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  14. ^ City of Mannheim: Video surveillance in public spaces. ( Memento from August 18, 2013 in the web archive ) July 5, 2006.
  15. ^ City of Mannheim: Safety and order department: Video surveillance in public spaces. ( Memento from June 1, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) September 26, 2008.
  16. Stuttgarter Zeitung: Report by the Stuttgarter Zeitung on video surveillance in public spaces ( memento of the original from October 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , September 26, 2008. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  17. ^ Ministry of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg: Interior Minister Dr. Thomas Schäuble and Mayor Dr. Wolfgang Schuster start video surveillance in Stuttgart. In: press release. January 28, 2002 ( Memento des Internet Archives of September 6, 2002)
  18. Südkurier . July 23, 2004, August 6, 2004.
  19. ^ Sigmaringen administrative court: Shooting festival in Biberach: video surveillance prohibited by administrative court In: press release. July 5, 2004.
  20. Statement by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Interior on the planned video surveillance of the Biberach Schützenfest 2008 ( memento of the original from December 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 125 kB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. Senate prohibits video surveillance of the town hall , Berliner Morgenpost dated August 27, 2004, version dated August 29, 2004.
  22. Source: Westdeutsche Zeitung of September 3, 2004 The cameras were installed in Sandradstraße 4, Hindenburgstraße 1-19, Waldhausener Straße 1, Turmstiege, Gasthausstraße and in Waldhausener Straße between Gasthausstraße and Aachener Straße.
  23. Fear of rocker war. In: Rheinische Post. January 23, 2012.
  24. Fear of a new rocker war. - The “peace pact” between “Hells Angels” and “Bandidos” no longer seems to apply. Since a gang brawl, the police in North Rhine-Westphalia have increasingly been using large raids in the milieu. of February 11, 2012.
  25. ^ Robert Nößler: More than 700 surveillance cameras in the city of Leipzig , October 27, 2011. Accessed: November 25, 2013.
  26. Camera city map
  27. ↑ of the Leipzig Police Department of September 8, 2009 ( Memento of September 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Access: November 25, 2013.
  28. Preventing violence on Bremen debts through video surveillance ( Memento from September 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (in April 2, 2010.
  29. Friedrich calls for stronger video surveillance.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Rheinische Post. December 15, 2012.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  30. Friedrich urges citizens to be vigilant: The Interior Minister sees Germany “in the crosshairs of jihadist terrorism”.
  31. Justice Minister rejects more video surveillance , December 16, 2012.
  32. Bahn boss wants to tighten video surveillance ,
  33. Biegali nago po Rynku. Dostali po 500 zł mandatu. (Not available online.) In: . February 22, 2013, formerly in the original ; Retrieved February 25, 2013 (Polish).  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  34. Golasy biegały po wrocławskim rynku. In: . December 21, 2009, accessed February 25, 2013 (Polish).
  35. Akcja na wrocławskim rynku - pościg za golasami. In: . June 10, 2010, accessed February 25, 2013 (Polish).
  36. ^ Mike Szymanski: Scouting attack with 17,000 cameras . In: February 27, 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013.
  37. FBI publishes wanted photos of two suspects ,
  38. Marathon assassin: The hunt is over - Boston cheers ,
  39. 2015: Top 6 - Monitoring in Ski Areas. Intelligence initiative , accessed on October 23, 2019 (German).
  40. Vehicle scanner: questionable license plate recognition. Retrieved on August 27, 2019 (German).
  41. 1 BvR 142/15. Retrieved August 27, 2019 .
  42. 1 BvR 2795/09. Retrieved August 27, 2019 .
  43. Nick Mold, James L. Regens, Carl J. Jensen, David N. Edger: Video surveillance and counterterrorism: the application of suspicious activity recognition in visual surveillance systems to counterterrorism . In: Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism . 9, No. 2, August 30, 2014, pp. 151-175. doi : 10.1080 / 18335330.2014.940819 .
  44. ^ In the Petabyte Age of Surveillance, Software Polices . Popular Mechanics. May 10, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  45. More video surveillance against terrorists - WDR news - broadcast - video - media library - WDR . WDR. October 26, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  46. Calls increase for sweeping surveillance after Berlin attack . German wave. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  47. Kabinett initiates expansion of video surveillance
  48. Big Brother Awards, 2005 winners
  49. "If you ask questions, you make yourself suspicious", press report, Karin Krichmayr,, February 19, 2014
  50. Rothmann, Robert (2012): To evaluate the security suitability of video surveillance: regional deficits, international standards, methodological challenges , in: Juridikum, Zeitschrift für Critique, Recht, Gesellschaft, issue 4/2012, pp. 483-495 (PDF)
  51. Study: Video surveillance in the Berlin subway did not bring any security gain , heise online
  52. a b c After the violence in Mönchengladbach: better video surveillance should protect citizens ; Mönchengladbach: Gladbach thugs on the run ; Mönchengladbach: Both Gladbach clubs are free
  53. Five young people cause serious injuries to 26-year-olds , of May 29, 2012. Accessed: November 25, 2013.
  54. See cameras do not scare - Big Brother fails on May 6, 2008 at
  55. ^ "The" little brothers "never look the other way: camera surveillance in Cuxhaven, video surveillance in public space by private individuals" . Cuxhaven News. September 27, 2004.
  56. Jens Blankennagel, Martin Klesmann: Police officers reject video surveillance. In: Berliner Zeitung . December 13, 2001, p. 29 , accessed April 2, 2012 .
  57. Video surveillance of cemeteries rejected. ( Memento from September 9, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Press quote from the Berliner Morgenpost. December 30, 1998, p. 7. In: Prima.
  58. Florian Rötzer: Voyeurism not punishable due to loophole in the law in: telepolis of July 30, 2004. Retrieved on July 26, 2011.
  59. Ernst Corinth: A website that the world doesn't need in: telepolis from June 6, 2002. Accessed on July 26, 2011.
  60. Security margin: Security guards secretly filmed Merkel's living room in: Der Spiegel from March 26, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2011.