Graffiti , Italian singular graffito , is a collective term for thematically and creatively different visible elements, for example images, lettering or signs that were created with different techniques on surfaces or by changing them in private and public spaces . The graffiti are mostly made under a pseudonym and illegally.
The acceptance and definition of graffiti is shaped differently. If unauthorized graffiti is generally seen as a form of vandalism in the public eye, especially in the western world , it will also be recognized by others as a form of art . However, both are not mutually exclusive.
Public institutions are taking complex measures to prevent the illegal posting of graffiti. Many municipalities release special areas. The legal sanction extends to the prohibition of possession of the corresponding tools. The Central Association of German House and Landowners announced in 2005 that the removal of unauthorized graffiti from buildings and public transport would cost around 500 million euros a year. Deutsche Bahn estimates its damage in 2012 at 33 million euros, of 30,000 acts of vandalism, 14,000 were graffiti cases.
In Italian, graffito originally meant hatching and denoted (in addition to its modern meaning today) an inscription carved into stone or ornamental or figural decoration (see also the stucco techniques of sgraffito ).
Today we speak of a graffiti instead of a graffito and the plural graffitis formed in analog form is used. The Duden allows both terms.
Forms of graffiti
There are many different types of graffiti, the delimitation of which is often not clearly possible. For example, clog graffiti can also have political content or a writer paints lettering with the name of his favorite football club. The distinction between writing and street art is particularly difficult because the techniques often overlap.
Style Writing / graffiti writing or shortly Writing is currently the most widely used form of graffiti and is therefore perceived most strongly by the general public. Due to this fact, there is usually no differentiation to other forms of non-writing-related graffiti in the general population. When writing, the writing (letters and numbers) forms the basic element of the image composition and the actors (writers) make artistic demands on themselves. The frequent as possible distribution of the name or rather the pseudonym of a Graffiti Writers in combination with the possible unique, innovative and above all aesthetic design are the central goals to the highest degree of fame (fame) to obtain. However, the focus is on aesthetics. A writer who paints a lot but doesn't have a good style receives less recognition from other members of the scene. Well-known writing artists include Loomit , DAIM or the Swiss Dare or the German-French Darco .
In hip-hop culture , writing (alongside MCing , DJing and B-boying ) is one of the four essential elements. The idea of a non-violent competition and the handling of conflicts on an artistic level (battle) is an essential characteristic of the peaceful writing culture - as with the other elements of hip-hop - and manifests itself nowadays e.g. For example, in the world's largest writing competition, Write4Gold , in which writers compete against each other on a national level and, in subsequent rounds, on an international level to choose the best in their craft. Writing is in contrast to the violent gang culture and must not be confused with it. However, there are also writers and crews who have exclusive sovereignty claims on a certain area or z. B. provide a train parking facility (yard) and rigorously paint over "intruders" or sometimes even use force against them.
Scratching (German: Kratzen)
Scratching drawings or writing into surfaces is probably the oldest form of graffiti.
Modern scratching, in which tags are scratched with ( grinding ) stones, broken glass, sandpaper or knives in plastic surfaces or the window panes of public transport such as trains, trams and buses, came in the mid-1990s as a response of the writer scene to increasingly prompt cleaning of painted and sprayed graffiti. In many means of public transport, especially in Berlin, the windows were sometimes scratched to the point of being opaque.
Scratch graffiti, also known as scratchiti , causes higher costs as damage to glass than painted or sprayed graffiti, as scratches can only be removed mechanically by polishing or replacing the glass.
In the meantime, special transparent anti-scratch films are attached to the windows of almost all modernized and all new vehicles in rail traffic. Although these are easier to scratch, they can be replaced at low cost. In Berlin , these foils were also provided with disturbing patterns (Brandenburg Gate) in order to minimize the visual success of Scratchiti on the foils.
Etching (German: Ätzen)
Etching is the process of etching window panes using special acids. If (strongly diluted) poisonous hydrofluoric acid is used, this may, in addition to property damage, also constitute a criminal offense of releasing poisons. However, since hydrofluoric acid is not freely available on the market and can hardly be handled by laypeople, these Anyway harmless and over the counter products such as Amour-Etch or Etch-Bath from the USA are used. Like the Scratchiti, this form is a tendency in the writing scene to counteract increasingly efficient cleaning agents. Because of the risk to unsuspecting passengers or cleaning staff if they come into contact with the skin, Etching is being followed closely (at least in Berlin).
Gang graffiti has been known in the United States since the 1930s. The city of Los Angeles is a stronghold here. In contrast to style writing, with gang graffiti the attachment of tags serves exclusively as a targeted marking of the area (turf) of a gang . The writing acts as a warning for other gangs to cross the boundaries defined in this way. Painting over the lettering of rival gangs or spraying in a foreign territory is considered a provocation and is sometimes used deliberately to trigger a gang war.
In gang graffiti, in contrast to style writing, only partial emphasis is placed on a certain aesthetic. The letter design is strongly influenced by Gothic fonts . As is often the case with writing, the letters are not connected to one another in cursive style. There are hardly any elaborately designed, multi-colored works like in the writing scene.
Pixação is a special form of gang graffiti that originated in São Paulo in the late 1970s. At the same time, the Pixação act as a political statement. The actors (pixadores) mostly come from the city's favelas and therefore have little more to lose besides their lives and see no other way to attract attention. They often mount their works at sometimes extreme heights. Characteristic for the design of this graffiti is that almost exclusively single-color tags are made with spray cans or paint rollers. The basic forms of the letters of the Pixação are predominantly Gothic fonts, runes and the typography of the logos of heavy metal bands . These are abstracted to create an individual lettering. The individual characters of the often head-high lettering, which can also contain figurative representations, usually have a uniform height and are clearly separated from one another. The letters are usually quite tall and narrow. In contrast to the writer's tags, there is no variation in the design of the lettering. Like a logo, it is always painted in the same way. A lettering can be the pseudonym of a single person or a whole gang.
Even football fans , the most of ultras come, mark the places they visit, with graffiti. These are artistically rather undemanding and are used purely for marking. There are some parallels to gang graffiti, as football fans from different teams are often enemies and therefore often paint over each other.
In the respective hometowns of the groups, elaborate wall paintings are sometimes made. Nowadays the ultras also take elements from the writing culture and the street art sector or writers work for an ultra group.
The term street art ( English for street art ) encompasses non-writing-related artistic graffiti, stencils, sticker art , billboards and installations in public spaces. Many actors in the adbusting scene are also street artists. In street art, pictorial motifs usually play a bigger role than the writing.
Stencil / pochoir
A stencil or pochoir is a stencil that has to be made beforehand and through which the paint is then sprayed. Frequently, politicians, political symbols, ideologically represented people or socially critical motifs are sprayed according to their original use.
Graffiti on posters / adbusting
Graffiti on posters , especially those depicting people, is widespread and has long been practiced . The most common form of poster graffiti consists of "decorating" the people depicted on these posters with beards or horns. Graffiti on posters is particularly common during election campaign times. This form of graffiti can be classified in the category of toilet graffiti .
A special form of poster graffiti is the so-called adbusting , which should be understood as criticism of consumption and society. The actors mostly come from the street art sector.
Reverse graffiti involves dirty surfaces, especially concrete walls or asphalt floors populated with lichen , e.g. B. with water, soap and brush and high pressure cleaner selectively cleaned so that the cleaned area shows the graffito. Templates are sometimes used. This form of graffiti is used by writers and street artists, as well as ordinary people, organizers, entrepreneurs and industry, as this form of graffiti can circumvent legal situations.
Graffiti artists also work with moss, such as the German DTagno, who covered a wall with moss tags for the ARTotale project at Leuphana University Lüneburg .
Viral graffiti refers to graffiti or stencils that are provided with a “DNA” so that they can be reproduced or distributed virally by anyone as often as they want . Within the viral graffito z. B. placed a link or QR code that leads to a website where the original graffito can be downloaded as a template. The downloaded template must contain the original “DNA” in order to enable a theoretically endless reproduction of the original. Viral graffiti stencils are usually only sketchy in order to give the "reproducer" freedom for their own creative variations.
A very modern further development of graffiti, also due to stricter legal situations, are LED throwies. These are small, battery-operated light-emitting diodes that are connected to a magnet and are thrown as high as possible onto metal ( ferromagnetic ) surfaces so that they stay longer. However, it is difficult to convey a specific message.
Political graffiti are usually rather artistically undemanding and only serve the anonymous representation of various views, mostly directed against the authorities. Topics include a. Ideology , religion , anti-Semitism , racism and discrimination of minorities , such as homosexuals . They are also an expression of anger against z. B. Police and political power relations (especially in authoritarian and totalitarian systems) or generally represent slogans or just symbols .
In order to reach as large a number of recipients as possible, political graffiti are mainly placed in highly frequented and clearly visible places, such as during the Arab Spring from 2011 on Cairo's Tahrir Square .
Klograffiti is a form of graffiti that has been practiced since ancient times. The artistic claim - in the creative sense - is less or not at all in the foreground. The term Klograffiti encompasses all doodles such as poems, rhymes, sayings, jokes and declarations of love, caricatures and simple drawings or the mere leaving of names that can be found in public toilets. Some of the toilets have philosophical, sexual or humorous content.
Latrinalia-like graffiti can also be found outside of public toilets, e.g. B. in prisons or in places that are particularly frequent destinations of tourists or pilgrims, such as mountain peaks, observation towers or z. B. under the balcony of Romeo and Juliet in Verona or the grave of Jim Morrison in Paris. This category also includes tree carvings that hikers and lovers cut into the bark with a sharp object (e.g. a penknife). In this context, leaving names has certain parallels to modern tagging , but is practiced far less often by non-writers and only in certain places, usually without the use of a pseudonym.
In 2009, a large-format work for chamber choir and symphony orchestra by the Finnish composer Magnus Lindberg entitled Graffiti , in which the composer uses 62 Latin graffiti texts from Pompei and Herculaneum , premiered .
In prison, graffiti is mainly caused by the prison situation and boredom. Entire collections of entries are created in the remand prison, ranging from simple names, dates, simple drawings to political organization names or slogans that indicate the reason for the arrest. In some cases, since there is enough time, names are also carefully typographically executed. Available items such as pencil, ballpoint pen, felt-tip pen, keys or nails serve as writing tools. A special variant of prison graffiti are the paintings that students put up during their detention in the university dungeons .
Tines are secret signs of crooks, vagabonds or “ traveling people ” in general, which are attached in public places to inform like-minded people about the situation there. This type of graphic communication has been around since the 16th century.
Graffiti on trees
Tree graffiti is used in forestry to mark the tree population during forest work , similar to markings in road construction (technical graffiti).
As part of the first Spechtbaum campaign , hundreds of thousands of nature conservationists and bird conservationists from Pro Natura and the Swiss Bird Protection Agency marked trees with woodpecker holes. A logo was attached to the trunks as a pochoir using a pink spray at chest height.
In 2017, in the dispute over the construction of the Mur power plant in Graz-Puntigam , paint crosses sprayed in orange and † crosses made of white wooden strips appeared on trees that were to be cleared.
Graffiti research deals with the sociological and art-historical aspect of wall paintings . This branch of research sees itself in the tradition of the archaeologists , who began about 300 years ago to search for, evaluate and publish ancient wall inscriptions. The term graffiti research was first coined around 1980. It prevailed worldwide in 1995.
The graffiti researchers start from the assumption that graffiti fulfills a warning sign and can be viewed as a political thermometer, provided that transpersonal relationships play a role. This is especially important in politically uncertain times. Here graffiti can be an indicator of social developments, depending on whether it is tolerated or consistently pursued because of its content.
The first graffiti was found in ancient Egypt . This does not mean the richly decorated wall paintings in the temples and tombs, but according to the definition private, scratched inscriptions that are on temples, in graves, on rocks and statues. It can be found at least since the Old Kingdom - ie 2707–2216 BC. - Graffiti in various scripts and languages. So z. B. Demotic , Phoenician , Aramaic , Meroitic , Latin and Greek inscriptions. Thematically they include a. Blessings, prayers, worship of gods and temple oaths. But there are also accounts and mere lists of goods as well as only the name of the writer himself, as is still common today. The Egyptian graffiti can be traced back to the middle of the 5th century. The last in demotic script is dated December 12, 452.
Even with the Romans, z. For example, in the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum , which went under in the year 79, many graffiti provide information about people's living conditions. There is also sexual content and images, such as caricatures or other drawings. Many graffiti also deal with gladiator fights and are mainly found on the stadium.
The same type of inscriptions can be found e.g. B. also in the 2nd and 3rd centuries in the Greek cities of Ephesus and Aphrodisias , which were also part of the Roman Empire at that time. Most of the graffiti is written in Greek and only rarely in Latin. The application of graffiti does not seem to have been reprehensible, so that praise for innkeepers was found in rooms.
The content of the ancient graffiti allows authentic conclusions to be drawn about the everyday life of the people at that time. They also provide information about the literacy level of the population at the respective times. The dating of the graffiti provides further important information for historians.
The Vikings also left traces in the form of graffiti. Probably in the 9th century a Viking named "Halvdan" carved runes in a balustrade of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, today's Istanbul . In the 12th century, Vikings put several inscriptions in a grave on the Orkney Islands.
Since the 16th century, so-called "tines" have been found in Europe on various surfaces that are attached by traveling people to inform like-minded people about the local situation. So these secret characters are z. B. attached to residential buildings to indicate to subsequent tramps whether there is something to beg for there or whether it is better not to audition because beatings are to be expected. These symbols are used to this day.
Since the beginning of the 17th century, inscriptions have been carved into the so-called " Inscription Rock " in New Mexico. The first is from 1605 by the Spanish conquistador Don Juan de Oñate. Since then around 2000 people have immortalized themselves there. Nowadays, however, this is prohibited. The Native Americans put petroglyphs (rock carvings) there long before the Europeans and their descendants .
In the Netherlands in the 17th century, several interiors of churches were painted with children's drawings on pillars. In addition, the artists often signed in such a way that the signature looked like graffiti on the walls. These include Pieter Saenredam , Emanuel de Witte and Hendrick Avercamp .
The English painter and engraver William Hogarth (1697–1764) used the graffiti motif for some of his series of copper engravings ("The four stages of cruelty", "A Harlot's Progress", "A Rake's Progress"), in which the protagonist in the bad Society slips. The graffiti appears on the streets, in prison cells and asylums.
From 1779 to 1789 in Paris, the French writer Nicolas Edme Restif de la Bretonne scratched various texts with a key in walls and bridges. He even documented all of his graffiti in his book "Mes Inscriptions," which was published after his death.
At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century it was the soldiers of Napoleon, among others, who left graffiti on their campaigns. So z. B. 1797 in Ludweiler or during the Egypt campaign at the Temple of Isis in Philae . On the painting Bonaparte crossing the Alps on the Great Saint Bernhard by Jacques-Louis David from 1800, names of well-known Alpine crossers are carved into the rock: "ANNIBAL" (Hannibal), "KAROLUS MAGNUS IMP" (Charlemagne) and "BONAPARTE ".
The Italian explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni again toured Egypt between 1815 and 1819 and applied various graffiti to document his presence for posterity. In 1818 he wrote in the Chephren pyramid "Scoperta da G. Belzoni 2 mar 1818." He also left a graffito that is still preserved today on a column in the Ramesseum in Theben-West.
In the 1830s there was an increase in graffiti in Paris, mainly done by street boys. Several contemporary depictions show how these so-called “gamins” paint pear graffiti. These pear graffiti go back to a popular caricature of the “citizen king” Louis-Philippe , in which his head was transformed into a pear for physiognomically obvious reasons.
In 1843 the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton spontaneously carved the multiplication formula of the quaternions into the stone of Broom Bridge in Dublin in order to record the solution that suddenly occurred to him after years of searching. A plaque commemorates this “scratching” today.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, students put up various slogans, pictures and caricatures in the dungeons of the universities, including the later Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in Göttingen in 1833 . Nowadays these prison graffiti are being restored in order to preserve them for posterity as a testimony to the student life of that time.
When the Mayan city of Tikal in Guatemala was rediscovered, where graffiti was created in ancient times, the researchers immortalized themselves there again. The archaeologist “ Teoberto Maler 1895–1904” is one of them .
In 1915, Mao Zedong posted a 4,000 character diatribe about his teachers and Chinese society in the washrooms of his university in Changsha . He holds the world record for the graffito with the most characters.
Gang-posted graffiti has been around in the United States at least since the 1930s. This practice is still used to this day. The heyday of gang graffiti was from the 1970s to the 1990s. Although the frequent application of names (tagging) in elaborate letters also plays a role here, this type of graffiti must not be confused with writing.
In 1943 the members of the German resistance movement white rose Hans Scholl , Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf put political stencil graffiti with brush and tar paint as well as oil paint on walls and house walls in Munich. On February 4th and 9th, 1943, at the entrance to the university building, they wrote "Freedom" and "Down with Hitler" several times. On February 16, at Marienplatz and Viktualienmarkt , the words “Mass Murderer Hitler” and crossed-out swastikas can be seen on around 30 facades. According to Alexander Schmorell, they wanted to “mainly address the masses of the people” with the actions, which “was not possible to this extent with the distribution of printed matter”.
When the jazz saxophonist Charlie “Bird” Parker died in 1955 , a short time later the phrase “Bird Lives!” Appeared at the jazz clubs in New York, for which Ted Joans and some of his friends later declared themselves responsible.
Another form of tagging , which is used purely for marking and is therefore rather artistically undemanding, has been practiced by some football fans, most of whom belong to the Ultrà movement , since the 1960s . So mark the supporters of a team z. B. their whereabouts at away games but of course also their hometown, primarily with their group name. In some cases, however, large-scale murals with lettering and club emblems are created, which have a certain artistic claim. In this case, Fraktur font is often used as a model for letter design, or nowadays just as often the writing style. Like the Ultrà movement itself, this practice has its origins in Italy.
In 1967 a stranger sprayed the slogan "Clapton is God" for the first time in London's Islington underground station . This then spread to other places in London . This graffito is documented by a famous photo of a dog urinating on the wall with the writing on it.
In 1968 Peter-Ernst Eiffe appeared, who is said to have been the first German to spread graffiti in a larger style in Hamburg . So he wrote his name, address and various slogans all over town on walls and other street furniture.
In 1970 the word “Heiduk” appeared in Munich . This supposedly meaningless word is said to go back to a left-wing commune from the Schlachthofviertel.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s in Europe, before the import of American writing, it was mainly punks who “tagged”. Amsterdam in particular stood out as the center. Pseudonyms were sometimes used by the punks, but they did not make any artistic claims on their legacies, which is due to the general aesthetic understanding of this youth culture. As a result, there was no such development into technically mature works as in the United States. The graffiti retained the status of mere scribbles. Punks were also apparently the first to use stencils in public spaces in an artistic context.
Since graffiti in the European cultural area initially developed completely independently of the writing culture in the USA, completely different forms of expression emerged here. In contrast to American writing, it was not the font or a name that formed the basic element of the graffiti composition, but rather pictorial motifs. The metropolis of Paris was particularly innovative here.
The French Gérard Zlotykamien is credited with being the first artist ever to have worked as an artist in public space before the development of style writing. Initially with chalk or brush, and later also with spray paint, he painted stick figures for the first time in 1963, his “Éphémères” (“the ephemeral” / “threatened with disappearing soon”) on walls and other surfaces.
Also in Paris, Blek le Rat has been distributing his stencil graffiti on various walls since 1981 , initially as a duo, after he said he had failed miserably to paint a piece in the American writing style with his partner .
In 1983, Claude Costa redesigned the posters hanging there with brush and paint in the Paris Metro for the first time - an early form of adbusting .
Since 1977 Harald Naegeli , the “sprayer of Zurich ”, has been spraying his stick figures on walls in various large cities. In 1981 he was sentenced to nine months in prison and a fine of 206,000 francs for his graffiti in Zurich. He had to serve this sentence in 1984 after he fled to Germany and an international arrest warrant was issued against him. Today he is a recognized artist, whose works are considered worthy of protection by the city of Zurich.
The “lovers” of the Aachen mural painter Klaus Paier was placed under monument protection in December 2011 . At the end of 2014, his work "Between the Days" and 2015 for "The Great War" were placed under protection.
In addition to these European graffiti activists, who are more likely to be attributed to street art, there are also sprayers in the American cultural area who can be assigned to this genre and not to style writing. Here are other Keith Haring , Jean-Michel Basquiat and Richard Hambleton than known representatives to mention.
History of style writing
Graffiti writing as one of the four essential elements (alongside rap / MCing , DJing and B-boying ) of hip-hop culture has its roots in New York City in the late 1960s. However, there is not necessarily a connection between writing and hip-hop. Writing is older than hip-hop culture, which only later combined all four elements. Even today, not all writers are necessarily hip-hoppers at the same time.
The leaving of names is as old as the history of graffiti itself. Evidence of this practice can already be found among the ancient Egyptians - but not to the extent that is the case with modern graffiti writing.
The Kyselak lettering , which the Austrian Joseph Kyselak wrote in all possible and impossible places in the 19th century on the basis of a bet, is considered the forerunner of graffiti writing. This type of marking of places is identical to the principle of modern tagging in the writing culture; but without the aesthetic aspect that today's writers have of themselves. He also does not yet use a pseudonym, as is customary later.
Another forerunner is the sentence “ Kilroy was here ”, which was written by US soldiers in the most impossible and weird places during World War II. Here the same name was used by several people at the same time and therefore much more widely. You can say that this approach is already similar to the merging of several writers into a crew .
In the mid-1960s, Darryl McCray began promoting his pseudonym CORNBREAD in Philadelphia . At first just to get a girl's attention, then it became kind of a no-brainer , and she tried to tag crazier and crazier spots to become even more famous. For example, he wrote his pseudonym to an elephant in the Philadelphia Zoo and to the private jet of the Jackson 5 . His partner COOL EARL should also be mentioned . Actions that were as daring as possible, as Kyselak already did, and the associated fame thus already played a decisive role as a central goal, as is still common today for modern graffiti writing. Another significant step away from graffiti, which until then was the only predominant part of gang culture, in the direction of writing is also attributable to CORNBREAD , as it was the first to operate independently of gang areas, the so-called turfs , throughout the city. CORNBREAD was also the first to put a crown on its day .
In the late 1960s, tagging made its way to New York City, where it became really popular. On July 21, 1971, the New York Times reported on the weakness of a Greek-born messenger boy to leave his pseudonym TAKI 183 on various walls while running errands through the city of New York. This animated numerous imitators. The tagging spread quickly among young people throughout the city. It is assumed that JULIO 204 may have started tagging in New York before that, but did not get the attention of TAKI 183 and therefore did not become as well known.
With markers or felt-tip pens and spray cans , the actors affixed their abbreviations, characters or pseudonyms as conspicuously as possible on walls, doors, benches, etc. Due to the enormous number of writers , as the members of the scene are called, the tags became bigger and more elaborate, and each individual had to develop their own innovative style and new techniques in order to stand out from the crowd of names. The spots also became more and more spectacular. The Taggers discovered the subway as an excellent means of spreading the name more easily, as it drove their name through town to people and not the other way around.
The piece - short for masterpiece - was invented through the invention of the fat cap and the subsequent edging of the thicker letters with a different color (outline) . These steps are attributed to SUPERKOOL 223 , who is also said to have been the first to spray a subway car from the outside with such a piece. The pieces became increasingly larger, more conspicuous and technically sophisticated, but in principle mostly only retained the shape of the tags, which were merely framed. The writer began in themselves to provide an artistic standards, and it developed quickly different styles, such as the Bubble Style and Wild Style of PHASE2 or to Western - typography reminiscent Broadway Elegant , by TOPCAT 126 was imported from Philadelphia to New York and soon developed into a blockbuster .
Significant names from the early days of culture include FRANK 207, EDDIE 181, HONDO 1, JAPAN 1, MOSES 147, SNAKE 131, LEE 163rd, STAR 3, TRACY 168, BARBARA 62, EVA 62, CAY 161, JUNIOR 161 and STAY HIGH 149 .
Innovations such as the 3D block to give the style depth, multi-colored fill-ins and background designs (background / cloud) as well as representations of figures (characters) gradually came along. Around 1974 writers such as TRACY 168 , CLIFF 159 and BLADE used elaborate background designs and figures for the first time, so that a complete wagon with detailed scenery was soon designed (Mural Wholecar) . The style also developed further because the various writers adopted ideas from others, interpreted them and developed them further. In addition, the throw-up was invented. In this way, by 1974, all fundamental developments on which all subsequent generations were based were completed.
In the early 1980s, writing began to decline in New York because the parking facilities were better secured and the trains were cleaned faster and more often. Due to the greater efforts that had to be made to paint the trains, some writers made sovereign claims to certain parking facilities and, accordingly, increased violence against “intruders”. This demotivated a large number of writers. In addition, spray cans were no longer allowed to be sold to minors and the dealers had to keep the spray cans in locked cabinets so that they could no longer be stolen. Even so, until the late 1980s there was still a large number of writers who continued to paint on the subway. Only when the last train was cleaned in 1989 did very few New Yorkers paint on the subway , for nostalgic reasons or because they did not want to lose the fight against the MTA , as did some tourists who made a pilgrimage to the “Mecca” of writing .
Writing became popular beyond New York's borders in the early 1980s. The French BANDO CTK is credited with importing American style writing to Europe in 1983 and having contributed significantly to its dissemination here. But especially through the films Wild Style , Beat Street and Style Wars , through which a broad public was reached, the idea of writing found enthusiastic supporters in the 1980s, primarily in Western cultures. After the end of the Cold War , graffiti writing also spread increasingly in the Eastern Bloc . It is now distributed almost all over the world, but mainly in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In developing areas such as B. Africa there are no local scenes except in South Africa .
Writer who were active at the beginning of the movement on the respective continent, are now commonly referred to as Old School called (Old School). It is common for the local pioneers of this culture to be called this way in a city too.
Due to the many developments that have recently been made in the field of writing, it is difficult nowadays to clearly separate the two terms writing and street art . Many techniques overlap. For example, some writers have B. abstracted or visualized their names so far that they are still known under a pseudonym, but in principle only use a type of logo or a figurative motif as a distinguishing mark. Other writers write their tags or pictures on stickers and posters at home as they can be attached more quickly. Still others build three-dimensional sculptures of their names and install them in public spaces. But all of these are also techniques from the street art area. Therefore, the English term post-graffiti is sometimes used to describe this technical advancement.
Motivation for writing
The University of Potsdam found various motivations for the sprayers in investigations:
- Striving for improvement, making progress
- Positive emotions (switch off from everyday life, ventilate, improve mood, drug-like kick when spraying)
- Creativity (realizing ideas and visions, expressing feelings)
- Group feeling (security, cohesion)
- Fame (English: Fame )
- Meaning of life
- Making borderline experiences (experiencing fear, danger and overcoming)
The drug-like state of intoxication that sprayers experience again and again is only found in extreme athletes such as B. rock climbers found and surprisingly it occurs equally in legal (fame and achievement) and illegally (borderline experience) working writers. At the same time, however, illegal painting also means a high level of psychological and physical stress . This stress can be a reason for a writer to switch to legal painting.
Graffiti is sprayed or painted on all suitable surfaces of various objects or created by changing and interfering with the structure of the objects. Common examples are house walls, transformer stations, bridges, underpasses, railway systems, vehicles, noise protection walls, power boxes or traffic signs.
In the so-called writing scene, the following rule of thumb applies: the more difficult an object is to reach and paint, the greater the recognition within this group. A wall on the roof of a house, a whole train or z. As well as one emergency vehicle the police are more difficult to paint as a rule, as a road underpass and bring correspondingly more prestige. The degree of recognition also depends on quality (cleanliness, style, etc.) and quantity.
The painting of single-family houses, private cars , monuments , tombstones , historical buildings and similar objects, however, should be frowned upon in the writing scene, even though these self-imposed taboos are not universally valid. In addition, graffiti is also created by people who do not belong to this scene and accordingly do not adhere to these supposedly unwritten rules.
Legal situation in Germany, Austria, Switzerland
Under civil law, a claim for damages may arise against the sprayer for tort . Removal is often associated with high costs, but the statute of limitations of the claim can be up to five years even if the polluter is currently insolvent. In addition, the owner can also demand an omission .
Graffiti is criminally prosecuted as damage to property , which can also be punished with a prison sentence. The applicable legal norms in Germany are and StGB (fine or up to 2 years imprisonment, for damage to tombs, monuments or public art objects up to 3 years). In Austria StGB and StGB and in Switzerland StGB.
However, for a long time an intervention in the substance or function was required in order to meet the criteria of property damage ( BGHSt 29, 129). If the intended function was not just a certain appearance, as is the case with monuments, traffic signs, etc., the case law did not recognize such an interference with removable spraying. A further interpretation would exceed the wording limit (see prohibition of analogy ). However, the courts left it sufficient that the physical substance was not injured until it was removed. However, this jurisprudence caused both practical (problems of evidence, expert costs) and dogmatic (occurrence of success and therefore the time of completion) problems. In Germany, this led to the 39th Criminal Law Amendment Act in September 2005 , which added the new paragraph 2 to the offense of damage to property. According to this, "anyone who unauthorized changes the appearance of a foreign thing, not only insignificantly and not only temporarily." Has not yet been clarified by the supreme court, everything that falls under this new offense.
Other possible criminal offenses can result from the violation of property rights (unauthorized entry of third-party property: prosecuted as a criminal offense within the meaning of StGB - serious risk from the release of poisons.StGB - trespassing) as well as endangering road and rail traffic when painting traffic signs, signs and signals ( and StGB - dangerous Interventions in rail or road traffic). The use of hydrofluoric acid in publicly accessible areas is
Some countries have also adopted corresponding regulations in public law. For example, in Section 9 (3) of the building regulations of the State of Berlin, there is an obligation to remove “paint smears”. This is also done in order to reduce the attractiveness by removing the graffiti quickly.
Law enforcement in Germany using police helicopters
To find people who may have sprayed illegally, u. a. Police helicopter used. At night, these are equipped with thermal imaging cameras, which should also be able to detect people over several kilometers before the helicopter can be heard.
The idea comes from the former Interior Minister Otto Schily and was implemented by his successor, Wolfgang Schäuble . Since 2004, the Federal Police have been flying helicopter missions over railway systems in Munich, Stuttgart and Cologne. The spokesman for the Federal Ministry of the Interior , Christian Sachs, described the operations "of the Federal Police [...] as successful and suitable".
Field of tension
In reporting on legal proceedings against graffiti artists, the conflict of the fundamental rights concerned is also pointed out. On the one hand, freedom of art (see Article 5 of the Basic Law or Basic Law) and, on the other hand, the guarantee of property (see Basic Law) or, specifically, damage to property according to (2) StGB. This can be traced on the basis of the graffiti sprayer Oz , who has been illegally active for over 20 years in Hamburg, or the Augsburg flowers, which met with public acceptance (the city marketing wanted to advertise with the flowers), but the artist 10 months imprisonment on probation due to property damage and the performance from community hours and fined. In one case in Düsseldorf , the friend of the Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli had the airbrush artist Andi Ponto spray his girlfriend's picture on her birthday as a four by five meter mural on the fire wall of a private house facing a railway site. After the owner of the house filed a complaint about property damage, the prosecution began the investigation. Another case in which a trade-off between artistic freedom and ownership came into play is the legal dispute over the graffiti documentary Unlike U - Trainwriting in Berlin . The art affected here is not the creation of graffiti, but rather the filming of it on the property of the Berlin transport company . They had sued because of the recordings and got their right in the first instance; the next instance overturned the judgment.
Preventive and countermeasures against illegal graffiti
Due to the widespread use of illegal graffiti, efforts are being made to protect potential targets in public spaces from sprayers.
There are essentially the following preventive approaches:
- Protection of popular graffiti targets - such as trains - by fencing the facilities, barbed wire, using security guards, bright lighting and motion detectors .
- Above all, camera surveillance should act as a deterrent, as it cannot prevent the actual spraying or scratching. In addition to the deterrent effect, the image material can be used to identify the perpetrators.
- The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe protect parts of the underground stations by affixing easy-to-clean enamel signs in front of the walls. Special foils, which are stuck to glass panes inside and large areas outside on the wagons, should also ensure easy removal and prevent damage to the subsurface.
- Various techniques can be used to protect facades at least to the extent that the removal of graffiti does not damage the substance. This is often done by applying layers of protective lacquer that have to be reapplied after graffiti has been removed.
- By planting surfaces, graffiti can be prevented with good success. The use of glass as the main building material does not represent a real prevention against graffiti because of the most original form of graffiti, the scratching, which was widespread among the writers.
- Do not paint large areas in one color, but have a wall design attached. Most writers have a respect for the artistic work of others and do n't spray large murals with tags or throwups. The design does not have to be graffiti to use this preventive effect.
- Design of public and private areas by sprayers
- Creation of open spaces in public spaces to promote legal graffiti ( Hall of Fame ). This cannot prevent some writers from working on unauthorized areas, but this is only consistent in order to be able to convey to the children and young people in a credible way that they are not allowed to spray in public spaces without permission. In order to curb " graffiti " in the urban area, for example the city of Lörrach issued in 2011 that the pillars of the Wiesentalbrücke can be legally designed with graffiti. The aerosol arena is located in Magdeburg . In this one can legally spray graffiti. A railroad car is available.
- Implementation of competitions with corresponding areas
- Quick cleaning of surfaces that are frequently sprayed in order to show sovereignty over the surface and to take away the incentive for complex work. The main incentive of the sprayer to show his work visibly in public space is thus nullified. In practice, this approach often has the negative effect that the quality of the graffiti applied drops extremely, and in some cases even ends in the surface being constantly "crossed".
- Consistent criminal prosecution. Deterrence is the main focus here. For this purpose, Mayor Giuliani introduced the zero tolerance strategy in New York in the 1990s . In Germany, the not inconsiderable and not only temporary external changes to surfaces were added to the criminal code as an additional criminal offense in 2005 and have been considered damage to property ever since.
In 2000, in Frankfurt am Main , Schnitzing initiated a project for the decriminalization of young people, which received the “German Crime Prevention Award 2004”. Graffiti lettering is shown three-dimensionally in wood. This combines traditional wood carving with the content of the writing culture in order to elevate the dynamic of the graffiti design language to sculptural art.
Graffiti can be removed successfully and without residue on unpainted surfaces, for example concrete, clinker stone and natural stone. Three steps are necessary for this:
- Applying a graffiti remover (e.g. with GBL ) with an appropriate exposure time depending on the substrate, outside temperature of at least 15 ° C and coloring agent to break up the coloring agent from the substrate. Dissolved colourants are removed with a hot water high pressure cleaner. This process may have to be repeated.
- An alkaline shadow remover is used to remove the mostly remaining graffiti shadow. This treats the remains of color pigments and the color shadows.
- If there are still residues of colored shadows, these can be removed with a bleach .
Public perception and commercialization
The subject of graffiti is always controversially discussed: Graffiti are mostly considered a central means of expression of urban lifestyle among followers of culture and are often recognized, especially among young people. In contrast, in 2007 the overwhelming majority of the population perceived graffiti as disfigurement and pure vandalism . But opinions differ widely among the population and there are major differences in the assessment of individual works and forms of expression. While z. For example, the monochrome tags (signature abbreviations) and most of the other types of graffiti are perceived as pure "graffiti" and visual pollution and are prosecuted, works by individuals, such as the British street artist Banksy, are partially protected from change behind plexiglass panes or even from walls sawed out in order to be able to auction these considerable amounts at art auctions. In the London borough of Islington , the council decided not only not to remove Banksy's graffiti, but to protect and restore it. Brad Pitt, for example, is one of his most famous fans. A sprayed stick figure by the Swiss Harald Naegeli - by the way the last one preserved in his hometown - was officially restored by the Canton of Zurich in 2004 as a contemporary document. The graffiti in the East Side Gallery was also widely recognized as art, so that in 2013 there were protests against the relocation of parts of the wall. The evaluation therefore also depends crucially on the beauty and meaning of the original object and the aesthetics of the graffiti - whereby a graffito is often evaluated completely differently within the scene than by outsiders. However, parts of the scene also intentionally demonstrate or celebrate their awareness of injustice, thereby increasing public rejection.
How far the social influence and acceptance of graffiti has already progressed is shown by the fact that in March 2006 a street in Vienna was officially renamed Graffitistraße by the city administration . The City of Vienna has already officially recognized graffiti as an “expression of youth culture” and “art”. At the end of 2008, the city of Helsinki also officially declared, after a zero tolerance strategy for many years, that graffiti was “part of city culture”. A short time later, Potsdam announced something similar. The last two explanations, however, make the aesthetics of graffiti dependent on its legality. The St. Ottilien Monastery has had the walls of outbuildings sprayed with graffiti since 2012. In Munich, parts of the Donnersbergerbrücke have been sprayed since 2011 with the support of the municipal building department and the Stadtsparkasse München. In 2015, Munich was the first city in Germany to hire a clerk for street art and graffiti (part-time). David Kammerer (stage name Cemnoz ) got the job . With a budget of € 80,000 per year, he should a. Organize areas for legal spraying or support festivals. Because Kammerer is said to have discovered a conflict of conscience, or because of a dispute between the street art and graffiti scene, he resigned at the end of the probationary period . The position has not been filled. The veins of Jena are an official project for the artistic design of district heating pipes in Thuringia. In contrast to these developments, the City of Sydney has consistently removed graffiti from public spaces, even if it does not belong to it and even if the house owner has expressly consented to the installation of graffiti or even paid graffiti artists specifically to design his property. Another testimony to how great the effect graffiti has on society is the founding of various associations or the holding of international congresses to combat this phenomenon. Even laws are enacted or changed about graffiti. Well-known examples are the 39th Criminal Law Amendment Act 2005 in Germany, the first anti-graffiti control law in 1972 in New York by Mayor John Lindsay and the 1985 ban on the sale of spray cans by Edward Koch . In Australia and New Zealand, too, minors are prohibited from possessing spray cans. Since November 2008, graffiti sprayers caught in Milan have had to pay a fine of 500 euros.
Graffiti in its entirety and its aesthetics is also often used as a stylistic device in the advertising and design industry, especially for youth products or to give the products a more youthful image. For example, B. the car manufacturer Smart with matching advertising for the specially designed Graffiti model. Also from Renault , there was already an eponymous Clio special model . Opel hired DAIM and Loomit for an advertising campaign (with Lena Meyer-Landrut ) and Volvo invites graffiti and street artists to Zurich every year for the Volvo Art Session . The global McDonald’s group has been using stencil optics since 2005, and the logo of the soap opera Everything that counts was designed in a similar way . The Red Bull company even went a considerable step further and in 2006, with the Outsides campaign, relied on subversive guerrilla marketing disguised as street art, and the pocket web provider Ogo has its company name sprayed directly on walls. These were just a few examples of the forms in which the industry takes up graffiti as an advertising medium and even sometimes carries out or has carried out redesigns in public spaces in a graffiti-typical manner. The legal commercial outdoor advertising generally present in the cityscape is far less likely to be accused than graffiti.
Writing as art
Regardless of legal aspects, every single graffito ( tag or piece ) can initially be viewed as a work of art that is in the tradition of abstract painting , calligraphy and comic aesthetics. However, not every graffito is a "successful" work of art. Writing is a genre like any other, and so there are few masters in their field and many learners, untalented or imitators. This evaluation of the works is only relevant for members of the scene.
Insiders are currently criticizing the fact that the choice of motif and the way in which today's graffiti is executed is very repetitive and obeys narrow graffiti conventions and rituals , but the original creativity and innovation in design was once very free and was much more of "self-expression" , thus served the subjective artistic expression of the writer than today, when one often only meticulously complied with established writing rules. Graffiti has also lost its surprising effect on the general public.
The sociology student Hugo Martinez was the first to recognize the importance of the writing culture and founded the United Graffiti Artists (UGA) in 1972 . This foundation led to a certain social recognition of the subculture and works of the writers were from now on exhibited in galleries and thus - at least in part - accepted as art for the first time.
Some writers such as B. Seen , DAIM , JonOne and Jay One are now internationally recognized artists who sell their various works such as canvas works or sculptures and exhibit them in renowned galleries and museums. In general, there are now relatively many exhibitions on the subject of writing / street art. The Urban Discipline exhibitions organized and carried out by getting-up are among the world's most important graffiti exhibitions. Or the exhibition series Backjumps - The Live Issue initiated by Adrian Nabi in Berlin were important presentation platforms. Renowned art collectors like Rik Reinking present graffiti and street art combined with other art genres in exhibitions. In addition, there are numerous writers who share their creative experience, e.g. B. use in the design or advertising industry. Others do commissioned work and can even make a living from it. In contrast to the time when culture was still in its infancy and idealistic motives were in the foreground, it is an incentive for many to leave illegality behind and be able to earn a living from their hobby.
Graffiti magazines mostly deal with the topic of style writing or street art and are usually made by the scene for the scene. Such publications are hardly noticed by the general public, especially since they are usually only sold in specialist shops.
- 14K (Switzerland) First German-language, second European and worldwide third hip-hop magazine. Published regularly from May 1988 until April 1998. In 2003, a collaboration with the Zurich graffiti magazine RaZHia begins, from which the website Zeecity.com emerges.
- Stylefile: appears three times a year (March, July, November). Reports on graffiti in Germany (especially the Rhine-Main area) and Europe.
- Nonstop: appears three times a year. Reports on graffiti and street art in Switzerland and Europe.
- Adrenalin: internationally known graffiti magazine from Saarbrücken.
With the increasing influence of the Internet, many magazines are now also available as PDF files for free download.
Movie and TV
The classic films that deal with the phenomenon of writing are the feature film Beat Street (1984) and Wild Style (1983) - a mixture of documentary and feature film. Just like Style Wars (1983) - a pure documentation - they had an enormous influence on the rapid spread of writing culture and at the same time shaped the graffiti scene and graffiti jargon .
Somewhat more modern feature films that deal with graffiti in the broadest sense are The Graffiti Artist (2004) and Quality of Life (2004). Film productions such as Status Yo! (2003), Moebius17 (2005) and Wholetrain (2006). The directors of the last two films (Frank Lämmer and Florian Gaag) are deeply rooted in the writing culture.
In addition to films, the subject of graffiti also appears from time to time in television series. B. Soaps to crime series to cartoon series, which testifies to a public perception - for the graffiti scene, however, has no essential meaning or influence.
More significant are the documentations of the writing scene that are created with an outsider's eye or by writers or crews. Graffiti in Berlin is a fairly balanced documentary - writers as well as the police, an anti-graffiti association and a cleaning agent manufacturer have their say in interviews. From the scene itself mostly documentaries with a more limited perspective, actions filmed live and interviews with writers originate. Sometimes there are also feature films that thematically connect the film scenes with each other or other filler material. Internationally, the film BOMB IT by Jon Reiss , released in 2007, is currently the most up-to-date and comprehensive graffiti documentary.
The subject of graffiti or individual artists occasionally make it into the television news (e.g. a court hearing by OZ in Hamburg), in talk shows ( slide on Riverboat in the MDR) or fill entire reports ( Loomit - The Sprayer on Arte).
- In 2004 GTA San Andreas appeared . In: which you have to spray over gang graffiti as a side mission. However, in the predecessors of the video game series, graffiti was a means of creating realism. For GTA IV , COPE2 and other well-known New York writers were specially hired and their works were integrated into the game in order to create authenticity.
- In the video game series Tony Hawk's Skateboarding , graffiti can also be found in most of the levels. In the parts Tony Hawk's Underground 2 and Tony Hawk's American Wasteland you can create your own logos and spray them yourself.
- In February 2006, the video game Marc Ecko's Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure was released , which only has the topic of writing as its content. Here, too, big names in the scene have been hired.
- Klark Kent developed the online game Bomb the World , in which you can have your own works rated by the community of players and thus move up in the player ranking. This principle comes very close to the basic idea of the writing culture.
- Another online game that has a similar structure to Bomb the World is LRPD Vandalsquad .
- Peter-Ernst Eiffe
- Martin Heuwold
- Klaus Paier
- Tasso (graffiti artist)
- Gérard Zlotycamia
- Bomber One
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- The History and Elements of Hip-Hop (English) Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation ( Memento from January 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: zulunation.com.
- 1967-1975: The Glory Days. ( Memento of the original from January 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: cornbreadthelegend.com , Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Katie Haegele: No Rooftop Was Safe - Cover Story. (No longer available online.) In: philadelphiaweekly.com. October 24, 2001, archived from the original on November 12, 2004 ; accessed on January 20, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ed Boland Jr .: FYI In: query.nytimes.com. June 15, 2003, accessed January 20, 2015 .
- Jon Naar: The Birth of Graffiti. Prestel 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3796-8 .
- History: Subway Writing 1969–1989. In: subwayoutlaws.com. Retrieved January 20, 2015 .
- About New York City Graffiti. In: at149st.com. Retrieved January 20, 2015 .
- About New York City Graffiti @ 149st. In: at149st.com. May 12, 1989, accessed January 20, 2015 .
- Sybille Metze-Prou et al: Graffiti Art # 11. Graffiti in Paris, 2000, ISBN 3-89602-343-8 , p. 26.
- Falko Rheinberg, Yvette Manig: What is fun about spraying graffiti? An inductive incentive analysis. Institute for Psychology at the University of Potsdam. 2003 (PDF; 0.4 MB).
- See Wesel, NJW 1997, 1965 ff.
- Sebastian Knauer : Helicopters against graffiti: Sprayer hunting from the air. Der Spiegel , July 23, 2007, accessed on March 29, 2017 .
- Wolfgang Eitler in an interview with Berti Habelt: "The helicopter was in use anyway". Süddeutsche Zeitung , March 4, 2011, accessed on March 29, 2017 .
- Helicopter chased graffiti sprayers in Essen-Dellwig. Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung , April 2, 2012, accessed on March 29, 2017 .
- Federal police chasing graffiti sprayers with thermal imaging cameras. (No longer available online.) Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk , August 24, 2016, archived from the original on March 30, 2017 ; accessed on March 29, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- At 2 a.m .: police chase sprayer with helicopter in Nuremberg. nordbayern.de , March 20, 2017, accessed on March 29, 2017 .
- Kurp Juweit: Federal helicopter on sprayer hunting. Der Tagesspiegel , April 7, 2005, accessed on March 29, 2017 .
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- Senior sprayer in court. In: taz . January 28, 2011, accessed September 22, 2012 .
- Not a question of art. In: Augsburger Allgemeine . September 19, 2012, accessed September 21, 2012 .
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- Carving - graffiti in wood. In: schnitzing.de. Retrieved January 20, 2015 .
- Legal graffiti walls instead of graffiti on buildings and facades. Press release number 751 (dated December 30, 2008) of the City of Potsdam.
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- Collectively auctioned Banksy graffiti worth millions
- Banksy and the price spiral. (No longer available online.) In: orf.at. November 11, 2007, archived from the original on December 14, 2007 ; Retrieved January 20, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Kito Nedo: Banksy: Artists on the run. (No longer available online.) In: stern.de . March 29, 2007, archived from the original on November 6, 2014 ; Retrieved January 20, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Guido Kalberer: Harald Naegeli: «I spray again». In: tagesanzeiger.ch. October 11, 2008, accessed January 20, 2015 .
- Wiener wall ( Memento of 15 March 2007 at the Internet Archive )
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- Opel Corsa featuring DAIM & Loomit. getting-up, Reisser Mirko, May 18, 2001, accessed on January 28, 2011 : “ DAIM and Loomit - two names that are known far beyond the graffiti scene. For the new Opel Corsa, the artists designed several motifs on which there is a lot to discover. "
- Volvo Art Session Zurich. Marc Kirchner, February 14, 2011, accessed on July 1, 2013 : “Last weekend (February 9 to February 13, 2011) 10 artists designed a new VOLVO S60 in the name of the Volvo Art Session in Zurich's main train station. Each artist was allowed to let his imagination run free for half a day. Also present: C-Cline, Yummy Industries, DAIM , Pius Portmann, Donovan & Onur, Blackyard, Nevercrew, Lowrider, Sukibamboo and Wes21. A first time-lapse video after the jump, more photos will follow. "
- Anouk Poelmann: Volvo Art Session 2011. 1st edition. Edition A&Z, Zurich 2011, ISBN 978-3-9523913-0-3 .
- McDonalds window stickers. General Association of Communication Agencies GWA e. V. 2005.
- Chronics History of Outsides ( Memento from July 13, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) In: outsides.de.
- Christian B. Schmidt: Ogo campaign: When guerrilla marketing borders on vandalism. ( Memento of the original from March 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: cbschmidt.de , January 13, 2008, accessed January 15, 2017.
- Christoph Bannat: Ant paths of attention. Graffiti and street art under the spell of commercialization. artnet, March 18, 2009, accessed on January 27, 2014 : “In the end, there were even opportunities for advancement into the field of art, which from time to time needs a rejuvenation of trivial myths, and there are connections to the value chain of advertising. Sporting goods and street wear manufacturers, Nike, Adidas, Carhartt and Converse place advertisements in graffiti magazines around the world. Conversely, entertainment brands use the design language of street art for sales messages in mainstream advertising - for example radio stations, manufacturers of electronic gadgets and film distributors. "
- Arne Rautenberg: Mirko Reisser: DAIM. Coming out. Galerie MaxWeberSixFriedrich, 2010, accessed on July 13, 2013 .
- Abstraction 21. (No longer available online.) HELENE BAILLY GALLERY, archived from the original on January 3, 2014 ; Retrieved December 30, 2013 (English, French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Gerhard Finckh , Toke Lykeberg: still on and non the wiser: an exhibition with selected urban artists. Exhibition catalog. 1st edition. Publikat Verlag, Mainaschaff 2008, ISBN 978-3-939566-20-5 .
- Urban Art. Works from the Reinking Collection . New Museum Weserburg Bremen Foundation, 2009, accessed on June 25, 2013 : “Participating artists: Akim, Ash, Herbert Baglione, Banksy , Blu , Boxi, Bronco, Dave the Chimp, Brad Downey , Ben Eine, Shepard Fairey , Mark Jenkins, Kaws, Daniel Man , Miss Van, Mode 2, Os Gêmeos , Mirko Reisser (DAIM) , Space Invader, Swoon, DTagno, Tilt, Vitché, Heiko Zahlmann, Zevs, Zezão "
- Ingo Clauss , Stephen Riolo, Sotirios Bahtsetzis: Urban Art: Works from the Reinking Collection . 1st edition. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2009, ISBN 978-3-7757-2503-3 .
- Julia Reinecke: Street Art: A subculture between art and commerce. 1st edition. transcript, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89942-759-2 , p. 35.
- Os Gemeos in an interview. Marc Kirchner, April 9, 2010, accessed on July 1, 2013 : “Yes, this exhibition was very important for us. And we are still very grateful for this opportunity back then. There, too, we got to know a lot of interesting writers from Germany and all over Europe. Thanks to DAIM , Tasek, Daddy Cool, Stohead and many others who worked really hard for it. We know that, it was a feat to make it all possible. Everything went very well, everyone helped everyone, no competition among each other, it was really a very good atmosphere. It was nice to be able to make our contribution and to be able to show a piece of Brazilian graffiti as part of the exhibition. We noticed very quickly that many did not even know that there was graffiti in Brazil, let alone something of life with us. Some of them didn't understand our work at all back then. We still have a lot of respect for what happened in Hamburg back then. A great project with a great story behind it. Urban Discipline has actually been one of the first and still largest gallery exhibitions that have combined graffiti art, style and a professional presentation perfectly and successfully. For many this event was an important step for more, Daniel Man , DAIM and also Banksy ! "
- Adrian Nabi, Don M. Zaza: Backjumps - The Live Issue # 3: urban communication and aesthetics (catalog for the Backjumps - The Live Issue # 3 exhibition, June 23 - August 19, 2007 in the Kunstraum Kreuzberg / Bethanien in Berlin). 1st edition. From here to Fame, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-937946-27-6 (in search) ( limited preview in Google book search)
- Call it what you like! Collection Rik Reinking . KunstCentret Silkeborg Bad, 2008, accessed on June 27, 2013 (English): “The exhibitions includes works of art by, among others: Till FE Haupt (DE), Mirko Reisser alias DAIM (DE), Rainer Splitt (DE), Banksy , (UK), ZEVS (FR), Otavio og Gustavo Pandolfo alias Os Gemeos (BRA), Santiago Sierra (ESP), Katsuhiro Saiki (JP), Liam Gillick (GB), Barbara Kruger (USA), Toshiya Kobayashi (JP) , Tony Ousler (USA) and Nan Goldin (USA). "
- Sven Nommensen, Iben From: Call it what you like !: Collection Rik Reinking . Exhibition catalog. 1st edition. KunstCentret Silkeborg Bad, Denmark 2008, ISBN 978-87-91252-23-5 .
- Annett Reckert, Rik Reinking : POESIA - Works from the Reinking Collection. 1st edition. Municipal Gallery Delmenhorst 2013, ISBN 978-3-944683-00-3 .
- Sebastian Krekow, Jens Steiner: We can do a lot. The German hip-hop scene Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, 2002, ISBN 3-89602-329-2 .
- "BOMB IT" by Jon Reiss: Summary. ( Memento from November 21, 2011 in the web archive archive.today ) In: tate.org.uk , August 16, 2008. (English)