|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Tübingen|
|Height :||341 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||108.12 km 2|
|Residents:||90,546 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||837 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||72070, 72072, 72074, 72076|
|Primaries :||07071, 07073 , 07472|
|License plate :||TÜ|
|Community key :||08 4 16 041|
|LOCODE :||DE DO|
|City structure:||23 districts|
City administration address :
|Am Markt 1
|Lord Mayor :||Boris Palmer ( Alliance 90 / The Greens )|
|Location of the city of Tübingen in the Tübingen district|
Tübingen (in the Swabian dialect Diebenga, official name Universitätsstadt Tübingen ) is a university town in the center of Baden-Württemberg . It is located on the Neckar around 30 kilometers south of Stuttgart . The city is the seat of the district Tübingen and the same administrative district and was 1947 to 1952 provincial capital of Württemberg-Hohenzollern . It belongs to the Neckar-Alb region and the European metropolitan region of Stuttgart . Together with the neighboring town of Reutlingen to the east , it forms one of the 14 regional centers in the state. Tübingen has been a major district town since April 1, 1956 . As the twelfth largest city in Baden-Württemberg , Tübingen has around 90,000 inhabitants (at the end of 2018) and has the lowest average age of all cities in Germany, probably also due to its status as a university town (39.1 years on December 31, 2015). Tübingen is the third largest medium- sized town in Baden-Württemberg after Ludwigsburg and Esslingen am Neckar .
With the Eberhard Karls University founded in 1477, the city is one of the oldest German university towns . Urban life is strongly influenced by the approximately 27,565 students (as of winter semester 2018/19).
Tübingen is located in the central Neckar valley between the northern Black Forest and the Swabian Alb . In Tübingen the Goldersbach flows into the Ammer , which, like the Steinlach, flows into the Neckar. In the city center the lie Schlossberg and the Österberg , located on the outskirts among many other of Schnarrenberg , the 475 m high Spitzberg as a mountain of the district Hirschau , the Herrlesberg and hardening . The lowest point of the Tübingen urban area is at in the eastern Neckar valley, the highest is the Hornkopf in Schönbuch north of the Hagelloch district with a height of 515.2 m. The Schönbuch Nature Park begins in the north of Tübingen . The Swabian Alb begins about 13 km (straight line between Tübingen Mitte and Roßberg (tower) (869 m)) further south-east.
Geographical center of the state of Baden-Württemberg
In Tübingen, in the small forest Elysium, below the Luise-Wetzel-Weg near the Botanical Garden at geographic center of Baden-Württemberg is located according to the center of gravity calculation method. A three-ton, conical stone from the Franconian Jura symbolizes this point. It has an inclination of 11.5 °; this should represent half of the earth's inclination . If, on the other hand, the geographic center of the state is calculated using the averaging method of the respective state extreme points, it is in Böblingen ., the
The following cities and communities border the city of Tübingen, starting clockwise from the north:
- Dettenhausen ( Tübingen district )
- Walddorfhäslach ( Reutlingen district )
- Pliezhausen (Reutlingen district)
- Kirchentellinsfurt (Tübingen district)
- Kusterdingen (Tübingen district)
- Gomaringen (Tübingen district)
- Dußlingen (Tübingen district)
- Rottenburg am Neckar (Tübingen district)
- Ammerbuch (Tübingen district)
- Altdorf ( Boeblingen district )
- Weil im Schönbuch (Boeblingen district)
The city of Tübingen is divided into 23 districts , including 10 so-called outer districts. Of the latter, 8 were incorporated into the most recent municipal reform in the 1970s and are now also localities within the meaning of the Baden-Württemberg municipal code . That is, they have one of the eligible voters in each municipal election to be elected Ortschaftsrat with a local chief in the lead. There is also an administrative office. The two districts of Derendingen and Lustnau, which were incorporated in 1934, each have a local advisory council and an office of the city administration. They are subdivided into three or four statistical city districts, which are indented in the following overview. Administrative and business offices are quasi district town halls, where you can take care of the most important urban matters.
Within some parts of the city there are some other parts of the city that have emerged over time. These are mostly new developments or residential areas, the boundaries of which can also be fluid. Each district and its subdivisions have a three-digit number for statistical purposes.
Tübingen is located in the south of the Stuttgart metropolitan area (see for extent under Stuttgart ). Together with the neighboring city of Reutlingen, the city forms the main center of the Neckar-Alb region , to which the following intermediate centers are assigned:
For the following cities and municipalities in the district, Tübingen also takes on the tasks of the central area:
- Ofter things
The near-surface geological subsurface of Tübingen is mainly formed by the rocks of the Middle Keuper (km). The steep Keuper slopes are followed by strata formed by the claystones of the Black Jura (Lias). The layer areas are between 440 and and mostly have a slightly thick loess cover, which was deposited there during the cold ages.
The following layer sequence is open:
- Loess loam : The loess loam has resulted in good arable soils on which, as far as they have not been colonized, grain is grown.
- Schwarzer Jura α: Most important step-maker in Tübingen.
- Rhätsandstein : Fossil-rich sandstone, which was also used for building purposes.
- Tuber marl : They form the upper slope areas and are poor building ground due to their plasticity.
- Stubensandstein : This Keuper sandstone was previously broken as abrasive sand and also forms layered surfaces in places.
- Lower colored marl , silica sandstone , upper colored marl : They form the lower slope areas in Tübingen.
- Reed sandstone : The reed sandstone comes to light, for example, in the bed of the Neckar. It forms the base of the Neckar Bridge. The Neckar ridge, caused by the reed sandstone, favored the founding of Tübingen.
- Alluvial gravel : They form the level valley floor of the Neckar and its tributaries Steinlach and Ammer and are mined for construction purposes. Hence the quarry ponds in the Neckar valley.
The leveling formed by Alluvium , Stubensandstein and Lias α is important as a stable building ground and also for the construction of large areas of buildings. University and trade were located on the alluvial alluvial plain. New clinics, the Waldhäuser Ost district and the natural science faculties on Morgenstelle were built on Stubensandstein and Lias α.
Approx. 5 km north of Tübingen there is a geological nature trail on the Kirnberg ( Schönbuch ), on which the Keup layers are explained on several display boards. On June 2, 2017, the revised geological nature trail was presented to the public and handed over.
In 1831 a 70 m deep well bore was sunk for the water supply for the construction of the new anatomy building (Österbergstrasse 3), which was also scientifically described and represents one of the oldest geological Keuper profiles in southern Germany.
The Tübingen climate is about the average for Baden-Württemberg. The mean annual temperature is 9.0 ° C and is therefore roughly in the middle between the values of the climatically favored cities in the Rhine Valley (e.g. Karlsruhe : 10.5 ° C) and the cold places on the plateaus (e.g. Villingen-Schwenningen : 6.7 ° C). The long-term mean annual rainfall of 741 mm is also roughly the average of the values in other cities in Baden-Württemberg (e.g. Stuttgart : 679 mm / Freiburg im Breisgau : 954 mm).
The regularly warmest month in Tübingen is July with an average temperature of 18 ° C, the coldest is January with an average of −0.7 ° C. With a mean 101 mm, most of the rain falls in June. The months with the least rain are March and December with a long-term average of 39 mm.
The urban climate is strongly influenced by the numerous elevations. In winter it is not uncommon for the districts on the Neckar to be completely free of snow, while the high altitudes have a closed snow cover. The location of the slopes also has climatic effects. For example, the southern slope of the Spitzberg is extremely warm and rich in species, while the northern side is much colder and can only have a fraction of the biological diversity of the southern side.
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Tübingen (1990-2008)
Prehistory and first documentary mention
The region around the city of Tübingen has been visited by Ice Age hunters and gatherers at least since the Magdalenian period , the youngest section of the Upper Palaeolithic . In the following, the presence of people in almost all prehistoric epochs can be proven in the form of tool finds, burials, house floor plans or remains of settlements. B. those of the Bandkeramischen , the Rössener , the Schnurkeramischen and also the Großgartacher culture . The Bronze Age is in Tübingen u. a. represented by the sensational find of the " Menhir von Weilheim ". From the older Iron Age , numerous grave mounds from the Hallstatt period are known in the urban area of Tübingen , such as the grave mound of Tübingen-Kilchberg . Traces of the Romans, who built the Neckar-Limes a little further to the northeast, date from around 85 AD . In connection with the siege of "castrum twingia" (Zwingburg) by King Heinrich IV. Hohentübingen Castle is mentioned for the first time in 1078. It can be assumed that the previous rural settlement was located in the area of the flood-proof saddle between Schlossberg and Österberg. The place name alone gives an indication: the name of the place founder Tuwo in the prefix and the name ending in -ing (en) point to the foundation during the migration period. The Tübingen lower town has its origin there. The upper town emerged later as an extension of the Burgmann settlement below the castle.
The first mention of merchants comes from 1191, which is evidence of a marketplace. In the middle of the 11th century, the area around Tübingen belonged to the Counts of Zollern . City rights are mentioned for the first time in 1231. In 1262 Pope Alexander IV founded an Augustinian hermit monastery, followed by a Franciscan monastery in Tübingen, founded with the support of Count Palatine Heinrich von Tübingen , exactly ten years later. In the 13th century, Tübingen received a Latin school, which later became the Schola anatolica . In 1342 the castle and town passed to the Counts of Württemberg . The city soon became the seat of an office.
Tübingen becomes a university town
With the relocation of the Sindelfingen Martinsstiftes to Tübingen in 1476, a collegiate monastery was founded that offered the economic and personnel prerequisites for founding a university. The parish church of St. George became a collegiate church. The Eberhard Karls University was founded one year later.
On July 8, 1514, the Treaty of Tübingen , which is the most important constitutional document of the Duchy of Württemberg , was concluded. Since then, Tübingen has been allowed to use the Württemberg antlers in its coat of arms as the place where the contract was concluded. With the introduction of the Reformation between 1534 and 1535, the history of the city's monasteries ended. In 1535 Leonhart Fuchs accepted a position at the university, a year later Duke Ulrich von Württemberg founded the Evangelical Monastery of Tübingen as a scholarship for Protestant theology students, which moved into the former Augustinian Hermit Monastery in 1547.
Thirty Years' War
Between 1622 and 1625, after the Battle of Wimpfen on May 6, the Catholic League occupied the Protestant Duchy of Württemberg. In 1629 the edict of restitution came into force. During the “ cherry war ” from June 28th to July 11th, Tübingen was looted. After the Battle of Nördlingen , the commandant Johann Georg von Tübingen handed over the Hohentübingen Castle, occupied by 70 citizens, to the imperial troops in September 1634 . After all, Tübingen was not plundered thanks to the commitment of a Tübingen citizen's son, who was in imperial service as a (Protestant) Rittmeister in the Fürstenberg regiment. Tübingen was then mostly occupied by Bavarian troops.
In 1635 and 1636, 1,485 people died of the plague in the city . Two years later the Swedish army invaded Tübingen. Shortly before the end of the Thirty Years War, Hohentübingen Castle was besieged by the French in 1647 ( Siege of Hohentübingen Castle ). On March 14th, the southeast tower was blown up with the help of a mine . The Bavarian occupation gave up and received an honorable deduction. The French stayed in Tübingen until 1649.
In a city fire in 1771, parts of the western old town around Ammergasse were destroyed. Another city fire hit parts of the eastern old town in the area of today's Neue Straße in 1789. It was rebuilt on a straightened floor plan in the classical style. In 1798 Johann Friedrich Cotta , the publisher of German classics such as Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, founded the Allgemeine Zeitung in Tübingen , which in the following years became Germany's leading political daily newspaper.
Tübingen during the Württemberg royal period
After the founding of the Kingdom of Württemberg , Tübingen remained the seat of the Oberamt of the same name , but underwent some changes until 1813 in the course of the new administrative structure . From 1807 to 1843 Friedrich Hölderlin lived in care in the Hölderlin tower on the Neckar. From the beginning of the 19th century, the city grew significantly beyond the medieval borders with the right-angled Wilhelmsvorstadt at the new auditorium and the botanical garden . In the so-called Gôgen uprising of 1831, around 60 young craftspeople and wine growers marched through the city as a protest against police arbitrariness and sang Schiller's robber's song. The local authorities called for help to the officially non-existent and forbidden student associations , and armed student security guards were used against the insurgents. In the Tübingen bread riot of 1847, an academic security corps from the University of Tübingen, consisting of around 150 students, under the leadership of Carl Heinrich Ludwig Hoffmann, was armed from the university's arsenals. The Security Corps put an end to the unrest by resolutely opposing the social interests of the poor. In 1861, with the opening of the station on the Upper Neckar Railway , Tübingen was connected to the Württemberg railway network .
Tübingen has been a military base since 1873. An infantry barracks was set up south of the city in which the 10th Württemberg Infantry Regiment No. 180 was stationed. In 1938, the barracks was named Thiepval Barracks , named after the French province of Picardy situated Weiler Thiepval , where, during the Battle of the Somme in September 1916 soldiers of this regiment fought. A plaque on the barracks wall reminds of this. 16 houses were damaged in a French air raid in World War I. From 1914 to 1916 a second barracks was built, which was initially called the New Barracks and was also named Loretto Barracks in 1938 to commemorate the Loretto Battle . In 1935 a third barracks was opened, which was renamed from Burgholzkaserne to Hindenburg barracks in 1938 .
The beginning of the time of National Socialism in the German Reich in 1933 also meant the end of the short-lived, free state of Württemberg . The university town of Tübingen now came under the jurisdiction of the NSDAP district of Württemberg-Hohenzollern .
Tübingen was declared an urban district by the German municipal code in 1935 , but remained within the district of Tübingen , as the Oberamt Tübingen has been called since 1934. In 1938 the district of Tübingen was considerably enlarged and the district of Tübingen was created (in the form valid until 1972) . From 1933 to 1943 the Gestapo had a field service in Tübingen . During the November pogrom in 1938 , the synagogue at Gartenstrasse 35-37 was burned down by SA men . A memorial stone in the Jewish cemetery north of the B 28 towards Wankheim today commemorates 14 Jewish victims of the Shoah . The Jewish victim of the Nazi dictatorship has also been commemorated with a plaque on the wall facing the collegiate church on the Holzmarkt since 1983, as well as with the Synagogenplatz memorial on Gartenstrasse since 2000.
On April 19, 1945, the Second World War ended for Tübingen . Three air strikes had completely destroyed 82 houses, 104 badly and 607 slightly damaged. Tübingen was destroyed to a total of 5% by air raids. On the initiative of the on-site doctor Theodor Dobler , the town was handed over to the French troops without a fight. Tübingen was now in the French occupation zone .
post war period
In 1946, the French occupying power made Tübingen the capital of the newly established state - from 1949: federal state - Württemberg-Hohenzollern , until it became part of the new state of Baden-Württemberg . The city became "immediate district town". On 18 February 1949 the prison in the Doblerstraße 18 which was in the courtyard murderer Richard shoe with guillotine executed. It was the last civil execution on West German territory. In 1952 Tübingen became the seat of the administrative district of Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern , which was transferred to the administrative district of Tübingen on January 1, 1973 during the district reform . In 1956, Tübingen was named a large district town . In 1965, Tübingen was awarded the European Prize for outstanding efforts to promote European integration. With the incorporation of eight municipalities, the urban area reached its current size between 1971 and 1974. During the district reform carried out in 1973, the Tübingen district also got its current size.
Tübingen remained a French garrison town until the 1990s . The French soldiers helped shape the cityscape. In addition to the three Tübingen barracks, the French garrison used numerous residential buildings, especially in the southern part of the city.
History of the districts or localities and residential areas
The places that, as a result of the incorporation in the 1970s, have a local constitution with their own local council and mayor, are referred to as localities , but according to the main statute of the city are just as districts as the districts that were previously incorporated. There is also a place to live that has never been an independent community.
- Ammern (living space) was first mentioned around 1120 as "Ambra". Through various donations from the Count Palatine of Tübingen, the town came to the Obermarchtal Monastery in the 12th century, which had been the bailiwick from 1303. After that, the village gradually disappeared. The remaining goods came with Obermachtal in 1803 to the princes of Thurn and Taxis and from 1806 under Württemberg administration. In 1852 Ammern became the property of the royal house of Württemberg and politically belonged to the municipality of Derendingen, with which it was incorporated into Tübingen in 1934. In 1935 the municipality of Ammern and in 1978 the Ammern mark was dissolved.
- Bebenhausen (locality) was first mentioned in 1185 as "Bebenhusin", but the settlement is older. The Count Palatine of Tübingen founded a monastery that was initially settled by Premonstratensians. Cistercians from Schönau near Heidelberg followed in 1190. From 1204 at the latest, the monastery became imperial. It only came under the rule of Württemberg at the end of the 14th century. In 1534 it was dissolved after the Reformation was introduced. The goods of the monastery and the associated place were administered by Württemberg bailiffs in the monastery office of Bebenhausen. In 1759 this was raised to the rank of Oberamt and its seat moved to Lustnau. From 1807 Bebenhausen belonged to the upper office of Tübingen.
- Bühl (locality) was first mentioned around 1100 as "Buhile". Around 1120 noble free von Bühl are mentioned. In the 12th century, the place came to the Counts of Hohenberg. From 1292 Bühl was given as a fiefdom to Amman von Rottenburg, who held it until 1502. Then it was split up. Among others, the gentlemen from Ehingen zu Kilchberg and the gentlemen from Stain zum Rechtenstein were the owners. The latter built the castle from 1550. The sovereignty over Bühl was incumbent on Austria. The fiefdom was withdrawn several times and pledged again. In 1805 Bühl came to Württemberg and was assigned to the Oberamt Rottenburg . When it was dissolved in 1938, Bühl came to the Tübingen district.
- Derendingen (district) was first mentioned around 1089 as "Taredingin". The lords of Derendingen were servants of the Counts of Achalm , who sold half of the town to the Zwiefalten monastery . In the 13th century, servants of the Count Palatine of Tübingen ruled over the other half, who sold their share to Württemberg in 1342. However, the Zwiefalten monastery was able to expand its share in the village later. In 1750 the Zwiefalten monastery exchanged its property with Württemberg, so that all of Derendingen was part of Württemberg. The Württemberg part always belonged to the Office or Oberamt Tübingen.
- Hagelloch (locality) was first mentioned in 1106 as "Hagunloch". The place was sold to the Bebenhausen monastery in 1296 through several lordships, with which it came to Württemberg in 1534. Hagelloch remained under the administration of the Bebenhausen monastery office until 1807 and then came to the Tübingen regional office.
- Hirschau (locality) was first mentioned around 1204 as "Hizroune". The place came under the Hohenberg fiefdom through several lords and from 1381 to Austria. From 1621 Hirschau was again pledged to the Barons von Hohenverg, from 1733 to the Lords von Raßler (until 1762). After the transfer to Württemberg in 1805, Hirschau was assigned to the Rottenburg Oberamt in 1807 and when it was dissolved in 1938 it came to the Tübingen district.
- Kilchberg (locality) was first mentioned in the 12th century as "Kiliberc". The local nobility were servants of the Count Palatine of Tübingen. From 1429 the place came to the Lords of Ehingen zu Hohenentringen, but one eighth of the place had been part of Württemberg since 1389. The Ehinger built the castle. In the 17th century, the place was divided between different gentlemen, including Leutrum von Ertingen . In 1805 Kilchberg came to Württemberg and was assigned to the Oberamt Tübingen.
- Lustnau (district) was first mentioned around 1120 as "Lustnow". The place was ruled by the Palatine ministerials from Lustnau. But the village gradually came to the Bebenhausen monastery, which built a nursing yard here. After the abolition of the monastery, Lustnau was the seat of the Bebenhausen monastery office, which was only dissolved in 1807. Since then the place has belonged to the Oberamt Tübingen. As a result of major construction work, the village expanded in the direction of Tübingen from around 1930, so that today the place has grown together with the core city.
- Pfrondorf (locality) was first mentioned around 1200 as "Prundorf". First with the Count Palatine of Tübingen, the place came to the Lords of Lustnau and finally around 1400 to the Bebenhausen Monastery, to whose monastery the place belonged. In 1807 Pfrondorf came to the Oberamt Tübingen.
- Unterjesingen (locality) was first mentioned at the end of the 11th century as "Yesingen". From 1299 Marshals von Jesingen named themselves after the place. The village belonged to Roseck Castle, which was owned by the Lords of Ow and in 1410 came to the Bebenhausen monastery. The village and castle thus became part of Württemberg and belonged to the Bebenhausen monastery office. In 1807 Jesingen came to the Oberamt Tübingen and in 1810 to the Oberamt Herrenberg . To distinguish it from the neighboring town of Oberjesingen, the prefix Unter- was added, so that the place has been called Unterjesingen ever since. When the Oberamt Herrenberg was dissolved in 1938, Unterjesingen became part of the Tübingen district.
- Waldhausen (district) was first mentioned around 1100. Around 1270 the place came to the monastery Bebenhausen and from 1534 to the monastery office Bebenhausen. In 1807 the place came to the Oberamt Tübingen, but always remained a part of the political community of Bebenhausen. In 1934 the place was re-municipalityed to Tübingen. In 1967 the district of Waldhausen was abolished. In the 1970s, not far from the hamlet of Waldhausen, a new residential area " Waldhäuser Ost (WHO)" was built, which today has grown together with the core city of Tübingen.
- Weilheim (locality) was first mentioned around 1100 as "Wilon". From 1271 ministerials of the Count Palatine of Tübingen named themselves after the place. In 1342 the place came with Tübingen to Württemberg and from 1500 was assigned to the office or later Oberamt Tübingen.
The following communities and districts were incorporated into the city of Tübingen:
- July 1, 1971:
- August 1, 1971: Weilheim
- November 1, 1974: Bebenhausen
In the Middle Ages and the early modern period , Tübingen had a few thousand inhabitants. The population grew slowly and fell again and again due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. The plague epidemics in 1348 and during the Thirty Years' War in 1634 and 1635 claimed numerous lives. Only with the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century did population growth accelerate. In 1818 only 7,500 people lived in the city, in 1900 there were already 15,000. By 1939 the population had doubled to 30,000. With the incorporation of eight smaller neighboring communities in the early 1970s, the population grew from 55,000 in 1970 to 70,000 in 1973. On December 31, 2008, the " official population " for Tübingen was 85,344 according to the Baden-Württemberg statistical office. A second home tax has also been levied in Tübingen since 2009 . Since 2012 the tax rate has been 10% of the annual basic rent. For this reason, the number of people with a main residence has increased by approx. 3000 people within one year. Mayor Boris Palmer (GREEN) is aiming for a population of 100,000 in the medium term. Having gone through the 2011 Census , the population of Tübingen by 6.5 percent to approx. 85,000, this target may be difficult to achieve in the near future. For this purpose, but also to create more living space, the city, like many other cities, is pursuing the policy of closing construction gaps. It also wants to counteract ever increasing urban sprawl .
According to the 2011 census , 38.9% of the population were Protestant , 24.6% Roman Catholic and 36.5% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then. At the end of 2018, a total of 30,658 or 33.8% of people in Tübingen were Protestant, 20,398 or 22.5% were Roman Catholics, and the largest group of 39,534 (43.6%) belonged to another religious community or were non-denominational. At the end of 2019, Tübingen had 91,656 inhabitants, of which 22.5% were Catholic, 33.0% Protestant and 45.0% either had another religion or no religion at all.
Tübingen initially belonged to the diocese of Constance and was assigned to the archdeaconate “in front of the forest” (chapter Sülchen). As a result of belonging to the Duchy of Württemberg, the Reformation was introduced here, as in the rest of Württemberg, from 1535 . The reformers active in the city were Ambrosius Blarer and Balthasar kauffelin . Thereafter, Tübingen was a predominantly Protestant city for many centuries. In 1559 the great church ordinance came into force. Tübingen soon became the seat of a deanery (see church district Tübingen ) within the Württemberg regional church , which initially belonged to the general superintendent of Bebenhausen. From 1692 there was a dean's office in Lustnau. In 1806 Tübingen became the seat of its own general superintendent. The Deanery of Tübingen has been part of the Reutlingen Prelature since 1911.
The main Protestant church in Tübingen is the collegiate church , which probably emerged from a chapel mentioned around 1188. The church, consecrated to St. Georg and later St. Georg and Maria, was elevated to the status of a collegiate church in 1476 after the Sindelfingen canon monastery had been transferred to the Tübingen parish church. The current church was built from 1470. The tower comes from the previous church. The second old church in the city is the Jakobuskirche, first mentioned in 1337 . It was also originally a chapel, which was connected to the hospital after the Reformation. The essentially Romanesque church was redesigned in the Gothic style in the 16th century. A parish was established on her in 1910. Other Protestant churches are the Eberhardkirche from 1911 (parish from 1911), the Martinskirche from 1955 (parish from 1957), the Stephanuskirche from 1968 (parish from 1965), the Albert Schweitzer Church and the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Church, which was built between 1983 and 1985. These seven parishes in the core city of Tübingen form the Evangelical Church Community of Tübingen.
From the Augustinian monastery founded in the 13th century, the Evangelical Abbey emerged after the Reformation. The Franciscan monastery , founded in 1272, was converted into the Collegium Illustre after the Reformation . The Catholic theological seminary from Ellwangen moved here in 1817 . Since then it has been referred to as the Wilhelmsstift .
With the exception of Bühl and Hirschau, the Reformation was also introduced in the districts of Tübingen due to their predominant affiliation with Württemberg. Therefore, to this day there is usually a Protestant parish or at least a Protestant church. Derendingen had a chapel as early as 1189. The current church was built in 1514. The Protestant church Hagelloch was built in 1904 in the neo-Romanesque style. However, there was a parish in Hagelloch since 1545. In Kilchberg, the Reformation was introduced by Georg II von Ehingen. The parish church in Kilchberg has different construction phases. The oldest part is probably Romanesque. The Protestants in Bühl also belong to the Kilchberg community. The church of St. Martin in Lustnau was built at the end of the 15th century, but there was already a church and a parish in the 12th century. The parish of Bebenhausen is also looked after by the parish of Lustnau. However, with the former monastery church, the community also has its own church. Pfrondorf was initially a branch of Lustnau. In 1833 the place received its own parish and church. Unterjesingen already had a parish in the 11th century and a church dedicated to St. Barbara from the 14th century. The current church was built between 1470 and 1494. In Weilheim there was a church dedicated to St. Nicomedes . The current church was built between 1499 and 1521 in the late Gothic style. The Protestants from Hirschau also belong to the community. All the parishes mentioned also belong to the Tübingen deanery of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg.
As early as 1750, the Marchtal monastery established a Catholic parish in the hamlet of Ammern , which was abolished in 1806 when the Catholic parish of Tübingen was founded. The services were initially held in the Jakobuskirche - the former hospital church. From 1817 the director of the Wilhelmsstift was also a Catholic parish priest. In 1818 the congregation was able to build its own house of worship, the Church of St. Wilhelm near the Wilhelmsstift. The congregation, founded in 1806, initially belonged to the Diocese of Constance, then from 1808 to the General Vicariate of Ellwangen and from 1821 to the newly founded Diocese of Rottenburg (today Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart ). Today's Tübingen parish church of St. Johannes Evangelist was built between 1875 and 1878. After the Second World War, further Catholic parishes and churches emerged in Tübingen, namely St. Michael (1949, parish from 1958) and St. Paulus (1974, parish from 1975). A clinic church was built in 1961, where a parish had already been established in 1896. The university parish was established in 1933. The Catholics from Hagelloch and Unterjesingen also belong to the parish of St. Johannes Evangelist. The Catholics from Weilheim are looked after by the parish of St. Michael.
In 1275 a church and a parish were named in the Bühl district. Since Bühl finally came under the sovereignty of Austria through various rulers , the place remained Catholic. Nevertheless, the Reformation was temporarily introduced by Georg II von Ehingen and David vom Stain in the 16th century, but it was reversed in 1609. The current parish church of St. Pankratius in Bühl was built in 1902, the tower is from the previous building in 1599. The parish also includes the Catholics from Kilchberg. The residents from Hirschau initially belonged to the parish of Sülchen near Rottenburg , some of them also to Wurmlingen. In 1461 the St. Aegidius chapel in Hirschau was raised to a parish. Today's Church of St. Giles is Gothic in essence, but was mostly rebuilt between 1851 and 1852. The Church of St. Petrus was built in Lustnau in 1956 and made a parish in 1961. This also includes the Catholics from Pfrondorf. All Catholic parishes in the Tübingen urban area are now part of the Rottenburg deanery of the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese.
In addition to the two large churches in Tübingen, there is also a Greek Orthodox community and free churches , including the Methodist Church (Friedenskirche), an Evangelical Free Church ( Baptist - Kreuzkirche), the TOS Church in Tübingen , a Free Christian Congregation, an independent Evangelical Lutheran congregation (Philippus congregation), an Advent congregation ( Seventh-day Adventists ) and a free-church Pentecostal congregation (Arche). The New Apostolic Church , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Christian Community are also represented in Tübingen.
There are three mosques in Tübingen:
- the IGMG in Reutlinger Strasse
- the mosque in the Turkish Association in the moat
- the Islamic culture and meeting center in Philosophenweg on the tub
The Center for Islamic Theology , which belongs to the University of Tübingen, has existed since the 2011/2012 winter semester .
The Tübingen Buddhists are organized in several groups that belong to different traditions of Buddhism :
- The Buddhist Community of Tübingen is close to the Theravada tradition, but is also open to other Buddhist schools.
- In Zen Dojo Tübingen is Zen Meditation practiced.
- In Buddhist Center Tübingen the Karma Kagyu lineage is Kagyu taught -Tradition.
- The Triratna Order offers weekly meetings.
- The Yun Hwa Sangha is based on the teachings of the Buddhist master Ji Kwang Dae Poep Sa Nim.
- Meditation & Mindfulness - Thich-Nhat-Hanh-Gruppe Tübingen offers weekly meetings. It is based on the Zen master Thich Nhat Hanh.
In Tübingen there has been evidence of a council and a court since around 1300, the council including the court. Both bodies represented the citizenry in relation to the rulers. After the transfer to Württemberg there was initially only one court. A council was not set up again until 1477, but it had completely different tasks. In the 16th century, both bodies were also known as the “magistrate”.
Originally, it was the task of up to two mayors in office at the same time to collect taxes and to run the municipal accounting, to supervise the municipal construction and to keep the course of the bunting outside the city under control. From the middle of the 16th century, the tasks and importance of the mayor grew steadily. Their number increased by 1600 to four. That corresponded to a quarter of the Tübingen court staff. You were in office for life, but only the two "calculating mayors" carried out official business. As members of the landscape parliament , the mayors also played an important role in state politics.
In the 16th century the mayor was only entitled to a fixed salary of 30 florins . He received an additional 25 pounds of Heller from the tax collection and 5 pounds of Heller from the fruit administration. On December 24, 1674, Duke Wilhelm Ludwig decided that the mayor should draw 50 florins from the city treasury in the future, while the other court relatives and mayors should draw 24 florins a year. For this, however, the city had to pay 12 guilders as a tax to the princely chancellery. According to the princely resolution of 1710, the mayor received an annual fixed salary of 150 florins in addition to the waiting fee and the statutory counting fee. He was also allowed to use the kennel garden at Schmiedtor since 1749.
With the introduction of the Württemberg municipal constitution in 1819, there was no longer any difference between court and council. The body was now referred to as the city council. The head of the city was initially called the Lord Mayor , from 1823 Stadtschultheiß and from 1903 again Lord Mayor. This is now directly elected by the citizens for a term of eight years. He is chairman of the municipal council and head of administration. His general deputies are the first alderman with the official title “First Mayor” and the second alderman with the official title “Mayor”.
In the election of the Lord Mayor on October 22, 2006, with a turnout of 51.6%, Boris Palmer ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) was elected as the new Lord Mayor with 50.4% of the votes in the first ballot Incumbent Brigitte Russ-Scherer ( SPD , 30.2%) and Hans-Jörg Stemmler ( CDU , 11.9%). He took office on January 11, 2007.
In the election of the Lord Mayor on October 19, 2014, incumbent Boris Palmer (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) was confirmed in office with 61.7% of the votes in the first ballot with a turnout of 55.0%. The challenger Beatrice Soltys, supported by the CDU and FDP, came in at 33.2%.
The municipal council consists of the mayor as chairman and 40 volunteer city councilors. The committee defines the goals and the framework of local political action and decides on all important community matters, unless the mayor is legally responsible or the local council has assigned him certain tasks.
The municipal council is elected directly every five years. The last local election took place on May 26, 2019, at the same time as the European elections. Apart from the Pirate Party, all lists that had been represented in the local council up to that point were up again, as did the AfD and Democracy in Motion .
|AL / GREEN||14th|
|Tübinger List eV||6th|
|TÜL / The Left||4th|
|The PARTY / Stammtisch "Our Chicken"||2|
In 1999 the Tübingen Youth Council was elected for the first time . It consists of 20 members and is elected every two years by all 12 to under 19-year-olds in the Tübingen city area. Members may not be older than 18 years at the time of election. Like other youth councils, he works with the mayor. A special feature of the youth community council is that, in addition to the right to speak and be heard, it also has the right to make an application in the community council. Since 2002, the Lilli Zapf Youth Prize has been awarded annually by the local youth council together with the Courage e. V. in the field of moral courage and social affairs.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Tübingen shows the triple red flag of the Count Palatinate in gold on three red suspension rings . On the shield are two diagonally crossed men's arms clad with red puffed sleeves with gold slits and holding two pointed stag poles. The city flag is red and yellow.
The oldest seal of the city dates from 1272 and already shows the flag of the Count Palatine, which is also depicted in the coats of arms of Böblingen and Herrenberg. Even after the city became part of Württemberg, the coat of arms symbol was retained. But on August 18, 1514 Duke Ulrich von Württemberg awarded the so-called upper coat of arms, the stag sticks with the two arms of the mercenary, as a special decoration for the loyalty of the city during the uprising of poor Konrad .
Tübingen maintains a city partnership with the following cities :
- Monthey - Wallis , Switzerland , since June 14, 1959
- Aix-en-Provence - France , since October 20, 1960
- Ann Arbor - Michigan , United States , since November 17, 1965
- Durham - England , UK , since July 6, 1969
- Aigle - Vaud , Switzerland, since October 12, 1973
- Perugia - Umbria , Italy , since June 21, 1984
- Petrozavodsk - Karelia , Russia , since October 1989
- Villa El Salvador - Lima , Peru , since September 24, 2006
- Moshi - Tanzania , since June 16, 2014
Some districts of Tübingen also have partner communities:
- In 1981, the Kilchberg district signed a partnership agreement with the municipality of the same name Kilchberg near Zurich in Switzerland .
- The Hirschau district has had a partnership with the municipality of Kingersheim in Alsace ( France ) since 1963 .
- The Unterjesingen district has been on friendly terms with the Hungarian community of Iklad in Pest County , near Aszód , since 1991 .
Economy and Infrastructure
The economy of Tübingen is strongly influenced by the public service. The largest employers are the university and the clinic with a total of over 12,000 employees. The 30 or so authorities in Tübingen employ around 2,500 people. A total of around 40,400 employees subject to social security contributions work in Tübingen. Then there are the civil servants and self-employed workers who work in Tübingen. Almost 24,000 of the employees subject to social insurance commute to Tübingen, around 10,000 people from Tübingen work abroad. In the 2000s, up to 2,843 citizens were registered as unemployed at the Employment Agency, about a third of them for more than twelve months. In June 2012, the number of unemployed reached a long-term low of 1,317 people. By August 2016 it had risen to 1,671 unemployed, in December 2017 1,310 were registered as unemployed.
In contrast to many other cities in Württemberg, Tübingen was never a well-known industrial location . Today the city only has three major industrial employers - Walter AG , Hugo Brennenstuhl GmbH & Co. KG and the CHT / BEZEMA group . There are also a number of smaller companies in mechanical engineering, medical technology and the textile industry. Based on the university's research institutes, a number of companies in the fields of information, bio- and nanotechnology have been added in recent years, some of which are based on the Oberer Viehweide in the Tübingen-Reutlingen Technology Park, Germany's largest start-up center for biotechnology, such as immatics and CureVac . Many long-established handicraft businesses have come together in the Weststadt in the Handwerkerpark.
Up until the 1990s there were three other large industrial companies that together employ several thousand people. In particular, these were the Württemberg terry weaving mill Lustnau ( insolvency 1992), the household appliance manufacturer Zanker (dissolution 1993) and the Beka-Werke , in which kitchen items were manufactured until 1999. The historically low industrialization of Tübingen and the associated low importance of Tübingen for arms production in World War II was one of the reasons why the city was spared major Allied air raids.
Utility and service companies
The Stadtwerke Tübingen GmbH (SWT) are responsible for electricity, water, gas, district heating and telecommunications supply to the city. They also operate the Tübingen baths and parking garages. The subsidiary Stadtverkehr Tübingen organizes the bus transport. With the Neckarwerk hydropower plant , SWT also operates a run-of-river power plant.
Local public transport (ÖPNV) is organized by Stadtverkehr Tübingen (SVT), a branch of Stadtwerke Tübingen GmbH. The individual city bus routes are advertised and awarded to a bus company for a certain period of time. Every night run night buses on 12 lines. Local transport is integrated into the Neckar-Alb-Danube transport association (NALDO). A semester ticket is available for students at Eberhard Karls University , which is valid in the entire NALDO network. Tübingen is experimenting with a free public transport offer. Currently, however, the free use only applies on Saturdays (as of August 2019). The city pays the TüBus transport company € 260,000 annually.
- Tübingen main station ,
- Tübingen-Lustnau on the Plochingen – Tübingen railway line ,
- Tübingen-Derendingen on the Tübingen – Sigmaringen railway line as well
- Tübingen West ,
- Unterjesingen Sandäcker and
- Unterjesingen Mitte on the Ammertalbahn .
The Tübingen main station is a railway junction for several railway lines.
On the Neckar-Alb-Bahn from Tübingen via Reutlingen and Plochingen to Stuttgart , regional trains to Wendlingen (travel time approx. 40 minutes) and regional express trains to Stuttgart main station (travel time approx. 61 minutes) run. At Plochingen station there is a connection via the Filstalbahn to Ulm and on to Munich . In addition, there is a two-hour Interregio-Express (IRE) with only one stop in Reutlingen Central Station to Stuttgart (journey time approx. 45 minutes), where it connects to long-distance traffic. Since December 13, 2009, Tübingen has also had a long-distance connection. A daily intercity service connects Tübingen with Stuttgart, Mannheim , Cologne and Düsseldorf , and on certain days also with Berlin . With the trains of the Kulturbahn you can change trains every two hours via Horb , Nagold and Calw to Pforzheim (travel time about one hour and 40 minutes). The Tübingen – Horb railway via Rottenburg is run every 30 minutes. In Horb there is a connection to the Gäubahn Stuttgart- Singen and on to Zurich .
Regional light rail
The establishment of a Neckar-Alb regional light rail system based on the Karlsruhe model has been planned for several years . For this purpose, a tram line from the main train station via the university and university clinics to the Waldhäuser Ost residential area is to be built, which will be connected to the regional train service (inner city route). A standardized assessment resulted in a positive economic benefit-cost ratio of 1.4. The inner city route in Tübingen is being discussed controversially by the citizens, so that the administration and the municipal council have promised a referendum. In 2013, the surveying work on the regional light rail system began. The government of the state of Baden-Württemberg secured the financing of the project in 2014. The municipal council has agreed on a referendum in 2020 on the construction of the inner city route.
Tourist trains on weekends in summer
Hohenzollerische Landesbahn tourist trains from Tübingen to Kleinengstingen (wagons 4–5), Schömberg (wagons 3) and Sigmaringen (wagons 1–2) reach the Obere Donau Nature Park , where a timed offer is available on all routes. An early train has been offering full-day excursions since 2015.
In Germany, the Tübingen train station is planned to be expanded to Stuttgart every half hour.
Although the city does not have a direct motorway connection, two important federal highways intersect in Tübingen : the B 27 Schaffhausen - Villingen-Schwenningen - Tübingen - Stuttgart - Heilbronn and the B 28 Strasbourg - Freudenstadt - Tübingen - Reutlingen - Ulm . The B 27 is developed like a motorway towards the north, so that the federal motorway 8 near Stuttgart can be reached quickly. The four-lane expansion from Derendingen to Dußlingen was completed in autumn 2006. The Schindhautunnel is missing in between to relieve the southern part of the city . It is also planned, the Federal Highway 28 a in the direction Rottenburg to the junction of the motorway 81 extend through four lanes. The stretch up to the Hirschauer node was completed in autumn 2007 as a four-lane road.
An environmental zone was set up in Tübingen in 2008 so that, with a few exceptions, the city can only be entered with a fine dust sticker. Exceptions are the larger thoroughfares B 27, B 28, Stuttgarter and Pfrondorfer Strasse through Lustnau, Wilhelmstrasse between Lustnau and Nordring, Nordring, Schnarrenbergstrasse into town to Breiten Weg, Breiter Weg, Gmelinstrasse into town to the University Clinic and Hagelocher Weg. In the city center, the Neckar car park on Wöhrdstrasse on Friedrichstrasse and the Metropol car park on Reutlinger Strasse on Hechinger Strasse are also excluded.
Due to the topographical conditions, there are considerable capacity problems in Tübingen in inner-city north-south traffic. As early as the 19th century, bottlenecks in the connection between the university district to the north of the old town and the railway station in the south led from 1885 to 1887 to the expansion of the Mühlstraße located in the depression between the old town and Österberg . As early as 1938, heavy traffic led to the construction of an eastern bypass on what was then Reichsstrasse 27 , which, however, could not cover all traffic connections. Therefore, in 1979 the four-lane became the western bypass downtown Schlossberg tunnel as part of the B 28 put into operation. To relieve the Mühlstraße, a half-sided blockage for motorized individual traffic in the south direction was set up in 1992 . A redesign of the street space in Mühlstraße carried out in 2009 with the aim of better protected cycling led to problems in bus traffic, although the width of the lane used by the buses had not been reduced. A general widening of the road cross-section is not possible in this area.
Worldwide more than 50 Tübingen streets are named after Tübingen.
The proportion of cycling in domestic traffic in Tübingen is around 23 percent, which is the order of magnitude of typical cycling cities. In terms of bicycle traffic, it is estimated that the quality of the current bicycle traffic network does not correspond to the very high importance of bicycle traffic in Tübingen. The local topography does not favor cycling either.
Coming from Schönbuch, the Hohenzollern Cycle Path runs through the city , which as a long-distance cycle route connects the greater Stuttgart area with Lake Constance and is therefore an important link in the German long-distance cycle network. The Neckar Valley cycle path also runs through the city. This path accompanies the Neckar from its source to the mouth as a river bike route for 410 km .
Long-distance hiking trails
The Jakobspilgerweg, known as Via Beuronensis and signposted since 2009, begins at Bebenhausen Monastery in Tübingen . It leads over the Swabian Alb to Constance on Lake Constance . From there it leads through Switzerland, then through France and Spain to Santiago de Compostela . It is marked throughout with a stylized scallop shell .
The Schwäbisches Tagblatt , the local newspaper with the Südwest-Presse as a cover section, reports on local events in the Tübingen area . It is therefore a one-newspaper circle in which a header appears. In addition, the free advertising paper Tübinger Wochenblatt is distributed once a week .
The Southwest Broadcasting operates in Tübingen, a country club, from among others, the "Radio Tübingen" regional program within SWR4 produced Baden-Wuerttemberg and broadcast. Other radio programs are the Uniwelle Tübingen , the desert wave , the free radio for Tübingen and Reutlingen and the bright wave . The private regional television station RTF.1 also broadcasts from the Reutlingen and Tübingen area . In addition, the university television of the Eberhard Karls University Tübingen CampusTV Tübingen reports on student events and regional topics.
Authorities, courts and institutions
Tübingen is the seat of the regional council and the district office of Tübingen.
In Tübingen is the seat of the Baden-Württemberg pension institution for doctors, dentists and veterinarians, an agency subordinate to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs Baden-Württemberg .
The city is the seat of the Tübingen church district of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg .
The Tübingen city library has a main office (in Nonnengasse) and three branches (Derendingen, Waldhäuser-Ost, Wanne). With a stock of around 218,000 media, over 1,102,000 loans were achieved in 2015.
education and Science
University, university clinics and other universities
The Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen is one of the oldest and most renowned German universities and was founded in 1477. This educational institution was at times the place of study for men of the resistance movement of July 20, 1944 . In the foyer of the New Auditorium will be remembered since 1984 these resistance fighters with a plaque.
In 2016, 27,500 students were enrolled at the Eberhard Karls University. This puts the city of Tübingen in 38th place in the ranking of the largest German university cities.
The Leibniz Kolleg , a former institution of the university, which is now managed by a foundation, makes a significant and nationwide unique contribution to study orientation .
The university is connected to the Tübingen University Hospital with 17 different clinics and around 1,500 beds. The clinic has been run as an independent institution under public law since 1998.
The Evangelical Monastery of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg has existed since 1536. Furthermore, the Evangelical University for Church Music Tübingen is located in Tübingen , which moved away from Esslingen am Neckar in 1999 .
Tübingen has a state seminar for didactics and teacher training (grammar schools). The city is also a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society.
- Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
- Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
- Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems
- Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research
- German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)
- Friedrich Miescher Laboratory for biological working groups in the Max Planck Society
- Institute for Danube Swabian History and Regional Studies (idgl); This research facility, which is subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior in Baden-Württemberg, was founded on July 1, 1987
- Leibniz Institute for Knowledge Media (Knowledge Media Research Center)
More than 15,000 children and young people go to school in Tübingen. In total, there are more than 30 schools in the city area, including 15 elementary schools, two Werkrealschule, three Realschulen, five grammar schools, three vocational schools, a special school, a school for the mentally handicapped and a school for educational assistance as well as a Waldorf and a free active school.
Hauptschulen and Werkrealschulen
Special education and counseling centers
For a large part of the Tübingen population, viticulture was the dominant branch of business until the 19th century. The vintners of that time were called Gôgen and mocked. Even today, so-called Gôgen jokes are told , which are particularly rough and reflect the arduous life of the vineyards in earlier times. In the first half of the 20th century, viticulture in Tübingen almost completely came to a standstill, as the cultivation of high-quality wines in the Tübingen area is not possible. The abundant southern slopes offer sufficient warmth, but not soils suitable for viticulture. The upper layers of the earth form only a relatively thin layer over the underlying rock made of gypsum keuper , colored marl and parlor sandstone . The soils of the slopes are therefore barren and unsuitable for agricultural use. Accordingly, the majority of this area is fallow today.
On the south sides of Schlossberg, Spitzberg and Schnarrenberg , the terracing of the slopes from the days of viticulture is largely preserved, but in many places it is overgrown by forest or scrub. Since 2004 there is again a private winery in the city. Outside the actual urban area, there are a number of private wineries on the southern slope of the Spitzberg above the Hirschau district and on the southern edge of Schönbuch in the Unterjesingen district . The Tübingen vineyard sun Halden belongs to the area of Upper Neckar the wine-growing region Württemberg .
Tübingen wine is only available to a limited extent in Tübingen and the surrounding area today due to the small amount cultivated. Often it is served for a limited time in broom taverns . Schloss Hohentübingen sparkling wine is not made from Tübingen wine and is available in some restaurants in the old town.
In 2001, with the purchase of the real estate of the Schellingstrasse residential project in Tübingen, the first residential project under the umbrella of the tenement syndicate outside of the Freiburg region was created. There are now four tenement syndicate residential projects in Tübingen. In autumn 2010 the Tübingen municipal council decided to support the “Vierhäuser Projekt” residential project with a loan of 150,000 euros.
Solar construction obligation
Culture and sights
The town hall and the old town have been completely preserved. There are numerous half-timbered houses and many narrow streets. The Neckar front with the Hölderlin Tower is a well-known photo motif of the city and one of its most famous landmarks .
The hour strikes from the town hall and a carillon sounds several times a day .
Churches and monasteries
The collegiate church of Tübingen from 1470 is the main Protestant church in the city. There the Württemberg dukes Eberhard im Bart (died 1496), Duke Ulrich (1550) and Duke Christoph (1568) are buried in the choir of the collegiate church, which is separated off by the rood screen. Since 2014, the collegiate church has had a carillon that plays different melodies.
The second old church in the city is the Jakobuskirche , first mentioned in 1337 , which emerged from a chapel. The essentially Romanesque church was redesigned in the Gothic style in the 16th century.
From the Augustinian monastery founded in the 13th century, the Evangelical Abbey emerged after the Reformation. The Franciscan monastery, founded around 1272, was converted into the Collegium Illustre , today's Wilhelmsstift , after the Reformation .
The Catholic parish church of St. Johannes was built from 1875 to 1878, the Protestant Eberhard Church in 1911. An interesting example of New Building in the Weimar Republic is the New Apostolic Church, built by Karl Weidle in 1931 .
Many new churches were built after the Second World War . Evangelical churches are the Martinskirche from 1955, the Stephanuskirche from 1968, the Albert Schweitzer Church and the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Church, which was built between 1983 and 1985. Catholic churches from this period are St. Michael (1949), St. Petrus (1956) and St. Paulus (1974).
For the churches in the Tübingen districts, see the Religion section .
Further sights are the Hohentübingen Castle , the Eberhard Karls University , the town hall , the city museum , the Goethe house , the nun's house , the Bebenhausen monastery , the Bebenhausen nursing yard , the French quarter (“city of short distances”, under construction from 1991, as well as the Loretto quarter ), the Österbergturm , Bismarck tower and the Steinenberg tower .
Well-known Tübingen museums are the Kunsthalle Tübingen , the museum in Hohentübingen Castle as an important part of the museum of the University of Tübingen MUT, where exhibits from monument-oriented scientific areas are exhibited under the leadership of the university, the Tübingen City Museum with the Lotte-Reiniger - silhouette collection and the car and Toy museum pit stop Tübingen in Brunnenstrasse.
The Museum of the University of Tübingen MUT is the only university facility in the world that houses artefacts with world heritage status, such as the oldest surviving figural works of art and musical instruments of mankind, mammoth ivory figures and fragments of bone flutes. These come from the Vogelherd Cave ( Swabian Alb ), which has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage “ Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura ” since 2017 . These objects were archaeologically excavated by the Institute for Prehistory and Early History at the Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen. In addition, various art, but also natural and geoscientific collections - a total of 66 - of the MUT, such as the graphic collection, the mineralogical collection or the paleontological collection of the university with numerous dinosaur specimens, can be visited. Other university collections open their doors by prior arrangement. Since 2012 there is also the exhibition "MindThings - KopfSache", a cooperation between the Museum of the University of Tübingen MUT, the Department of Psychology and the University's Career Service.
In addition, there is the G91 building, converted by Herbert Rösler , which is used for exhibition purposes.
The most famous theater in the city is the Landestheater Tübingen ( LTT ). There is also the Zimmer Theater Tübingen , a small and contemporary theater in Bursagasse in the middle of the old town. The room theater also operates a venue in the former Löwen cinema. There are also several student theater groups at the university and performances by independent theater groups in the sociocultural center Sudhaus . Every year in July / August, the Tübingen Summer Theater takes place at different venues, alternating between the LTT, the Zimmer Theater and the Lindenhof Theater .
Numerous choirs and orchestras, which are assigned to the university or the parishes or which are independent, shape the music scene in the city. The Tübingen motet is well known in the collegiate church as a weekly musical Saturday evening devotion based on the Leipzig model.
The most important venue for rock and pop music is the Sudhaus , the cultural center of the Sudhaus e. V.
The culmination point of the Tübingen jazz scene is the jazz club with its own domicile Jazzkeller in Haaggasse, the venue for regular jam sessions and 15 to 20 live concerts a year. In addition to the jazz club, the Jazz im Prinz Karl association has also made a name for itself as an organizer of national jazz concerts since it was founded in 1977 . There are also the music series Jazz in the Studio and the Jazz & Classic Days . From 2017 the events will take place at Club Voltaire .
From 1975 to 1992 the "Tübingen Folk and Songwriters Festival" shaped the musical life of Tübingen. Organized every year by Club Voltaire and the socio-cultural Tübingen scene on a special topic, events with national and international music greats attracted tens of thousands to Tübingen over the Whitsun days. Club Voltaire received the Culture Prize of the Kulturpolitischen Gesellschaft in 1985 for its festival program.
Outstanding among the wind groups are the Derendingen music association, which has been in existence since 1911 with over 40 active members and its own youth brass band, the Harmonie Unterjesingen winegrowers' band with over 60 active musicians, youth band and flute training, and the Pfrondorf music club with 30 active members and a youth wind orchestra. All of them enrich the cultural life of the university city with an annual open-air concert.
The Schwäbisches Tagblatt , based in Tübingen, is the daily newspaper with the highest circulation in the Tübingen district.
Parks and cemeteries
Green spaces form places of rest, strolling and playgrounds in the city center of Tübingen and are highly frequented local recreation areas . In the center of the city is the old botanical garden with old and species-rich trees and the monument "Genius of Glory" dedicated to Holderlin . On the green Neckarinsel is the more than 180 year old picturesque plane tree avenue opposite the Neckarfront with monuments to Friedrich Silcher and Ottilie Wildermuth , not far from the park at the plant lake between the train station and the three "old" Tübingen grammar schools: Uhland , Kepler and Wildermuth grammar school . Between the Neckar and the old town lies the Österberg , which is almost completely undeveloped on one side and is used by walkers and paragliders in summer and tobogganers in winter. The Tübingen parks are also meeting places for students and learning locations in summer.
The New Botanical Garden Tübingen on the Morgenstelle houses greenhouses with different temperatures, including a fuchsia house with a collection of plant species named after the Tübingen botanist Leonhart Fuchs .
The city's 14 cemeteries, including the mountain cemetery and the city cemetery with the numerous graves of prominent citizens, are also part of the inner-city green spaces . The burial site of the Anatomical Institute is located on grave field X of the city cemetery , where almost 600 victims of state violence who did not die of natural causes are buried: political opponents of the Nazi system, forced laborers , deserters , prisoners of war . Memorial plaques with their names remind of them. In 1980 the university added another memorial plaque for the victims of Nazi medicine.
The privately operated Tübingen Zoo was located at the foot of the Spitzberg from 1907 to 1919 .
The basketball players of SV 03 Tübingen play as Tigers Tübingen in the 2nd Bundesliga . The Derendingen Academics and the 2nd team of SV 03 (“Tigerle”) are represented in the regional basketball league . The Tübingen model also plays in the Regionalliga Süd. In addition, the first division teams of TV Rottenburg (volleyball) and TuS Metzingen (women's handball) play all or individual home games (TuS) in Tübingen. Until the Tigers were relegated in 2018, Tübingen was the only city in Germany in which three representatives of indoor sports played their home games in the first Bundesliga at the same time.
Since October 2004 there has been a large sports hall on Europastraße, which was initially called the TüArena and is now called the Paul Horn Arena . You can swim in a modern outdoor pool and two indoor pools, including the historic Uhlandbad . In addition, the University's Institute for Sports Science has a wide range of options.
Other sports clubs in Tübingen are TSG Tübingen (founded in 1845; badminton, football, handball, climbing, artistic gymnastics, lacrosse (Tuelax), athletics, parkour , rhythmic gymnastics, tennis and volleyball), SSC Tübingen (1988; American football ( Red Knights Tübingen ), soccer, volleyball), SV Bühl (1925; soccer, tennis, men's and women's gymnastics, children's gymnastics, Pilates, Nordic walking, fitness gymnastics, dance courses for children, back gymnastics, table tennis), TV Derendingen 1900 (basketball, Soccer, tennis, table tennis, gymnastics), TSV Hagelloch (1913; soccer, gymnastics, athletics, volleyball, handball), TSV Hirschau (1923; soccer, tennis, table tennis, volleyball, gymnastics / track and field, leisure time), TSV Lustnau (1888; badminton, soccer, handball, athletics, rehab, tennis, table tennis, gymnastics), SV Pfrondorf 1903, SV Unterjesingen 1923 (soccer, athletics, gymnastics) and SV Weilheim (1979; aerobics, badminton, basketball, L athletics, tennis, table tennis, volleyball, walking). The ATV Arminia zu Tübingen is a non-competitive sports association at the Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen.
Only clubs dedicated to one sport may be a. the bowling club BSV Tübingen (1964), the Tübingen sport fencers , the hockey club Tübingen (1984), the aviation clubs Tübingen (1950) and Unterjesingen (1934), the Tübingen rowing club Fidelia (1877), the RV ( cycling clubs ) Tübingen ("RV Pfeil ") And Derendingen (both 1905), the cycling community Tübingen (bicycle trial), the equestrian clubs RSV Roseck (Unterjesingen), riding and driving association Bühl, city guard on horseback 1514 (oldest association in Tübingen) and Tübingen riding company, the chess associations Schachgemeinschaft Hohentübingen (2006) and SV Tübingen 1870, the Tübingen swimming club (1913), the squash island sports club (1980), the Schützengesellschaft Tübingen (1562), Bühl (1892), Derendingen (1954), Pfrondorf and Hagelloch (1963), the academic ski - Club Tübingen (1908), the ski club Hirschau (1975), the TC ( tennis club) Tübingen (1909), the karate team Tübingen (2009), the TSC Astoria Tübingen , the dance club TTC Rot-Gold Tübingen (1972) Tübingen Hawks Baseball & So ftball eV (1985) and the Tübingen karate team (2011).
The university sports organized by the Institute for Sports Science with an extensive competition and popular sports program are also characteristic of the sporting life of the city of Tübingen . At the forefront of the university and the social life of Tübingen formative sporting events are the 100-kilometer relay race and the annual city run.
In Tübingen there are currently 36 student associations , which shape the cityscape of Tübingen in particular through their stately houses. Above all, the front Österberg and the Schloßberg are lined with connecting houses. The punt race , which takes place every year in early summer, also lives from the participating student associations. More than a quarter are beating connections, the rest is made up of non-beating, “mixed” or all women connections.
- Arab Film Festival, mid / late January
- Exhibition “For the Family” (fdf), beginning of March
- CineLatino in April or May
- Punt race on the Neckar on Corpus Christi day (in May or June); 1:00 p.m. costume parade, 2:00 p.m. start of the race around the Neckar Island
- Ract! Festival, a “ free and outdoors ” music event in June or July with bands and workshops
- Tübinger Wassermusik, a concert in a special atmosphere. It takes place on the Neckar. The audience sits in punting boats.
- French Summer Festival - in the Franco-German Cultural Institute
- Tübingen Summer Island, late July - early August
- Bedtime stories in early August
- Summer University in early August
- Umbrian-Provencal market in mid-September
- Tübingen city run in mid-September
- Retromotor a classic car festival on the third weekend in September
- Film festival FrauenWelten at the end of November
- Arsenal at the moat
- Atelier in front of the Hague Gate
- Blue bridge with 3 rooms
- Museum at the Lustnauer Tor with 3 halls
The list of personalities of the city of Tübingen contains personalities born in Tübingen as well as those who worked in Tübingen but were born elsewhere.
- Württemberg city book. Volume IV, sub-volume Baden-Württemberg (= German city book. Handbook of urban history. Volume 2). On behalf of the Working Group of the Historical Commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities , the Association of German Cities and the German Association of Municipalities , ed. by Erich Keyser . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1961, .
- Description of the Oberamt Tübingen. Edited by the royal statistical-topographical bureau (= The Württemberg Oberamtsbeschreibung from 1824 to 1886. Volume 49). New edition. Unchangeable photomechan. Reprint [of the edition] Stuttgart, Lindemann, 1867. Bissinger, Magstadt (near Stuttgart) 1970, Fraktur ). (in
- Martin Biastoch : Tübingen students in the German Empire. A socio-historical investigation (= Contubernium - Tübingen contributions to the history of universities and science. Volume 44). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1996, ISBN 3-7995-3236-6 (also: Tübingen, University, dissertation, 1993/1994).
- Wilfried Setzler , Benigna Schönhagen , Hans-Otto Binder : Small Tübingen city history. Silberburg-Verlag, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-87407-666-0 .
- Tubingensia. Impulses for the city and university history. Festschrift for Wilfried Setzler on the occasion of his 65th birthday (= Tübingen building blocks for regional history. Volume 10). Edited by Sönke Lorenz and Volker [Karl] Schäfer in conjunction with the Institute for Historical Regional Studies and Historical Auxiliary Sciences at the University of Tübingen. Editor: Susanne Borgards. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Ostfildern 2008, ISBN 978-3-7995-5510-4 .
- The district of Tübingen (= the urban and rural districts in Baden-Württemberg ). 3 parts. Published by the Baden-Württemberg State Archives Administration in conjunction with the Tübingen district. Part 1: General part. Druckerei Tübinger Chronik, [Tübingen] 1967, ISBN 3-17-258321-X ; Part 3: The Tübingen district. Official district description. Kohlhammer [in Komm.], Stuttgart a. a. 1974, ISBN 3-17-001015-8 . ; Part 2: The Tübingen district. Official district description. Kohlhammer [in Komm.], Stuttgart a. a. 1972,
- H. Reim: The early Bronze Age menhir from Weilheim, City of Tübingen. In: Jost Reischmann (Ed.): 900 years of Weilheim. A home book. Administrative office Tübingen-Weilheim, Tübingen-Weilheim 1991, , p. 55 ff.
- Jürgen Hald: The Iron Age in the Upper Gäu. Studies on the settlement history of Hallstatt and Latène times (= material booklets on archeology in Baden-Württemberg. Issue 86). Theiss, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-8062-2369-9 (also: Tübingen, University, dissertation, 2008).
- Klaus Harpprecht , Photos: Stefan Moses: Tübingen: Citizens, Boys, Spirit and God. In: Geo-Magazin . Hamburg 1979, 9, pp. 38-60 (informative experience report).
- Tübingen. The film. The history. Documentary film, Germany, 2012, 43:40 min., Script and director: Anita Bindner, production: Haus des Dokumentarfilms , cinema release: November 14, 2012, first broadcast: August 31, 2014 on SWR , series: Geschichte im Südwesten, summary .
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- Official website of the university city of Tübingen
- TÜpedia - the Tübingen city wiki
- Panorama Tübingen old town, collegiate church, Hohentübingen Castle via live webcam
- Tübingen . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 15, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 895.
- Entries about Tübingen in historical encyclopedias at Zeno.org .
- UNESCO World Heritage in the Museum of the University of Tübingen MUT: press information, photos and 3D animations of the objects. In: unimuseum.de, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Museum of the University of Tübingen MUT
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Tübingen mittendrin, Geodesy and Botany ( Memento from April 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). In: tuebingen-info.de .
- Hansjörg Jung: Many roads lead to the center. (No longer available online.) In: Sindelfinger Zeitung / Böblinger Zeitung . October 22, 2015, archived from the original on December 8, 2015 ; Retrieved December 5, 2015 .
- Madeleine Wegner: Clouded happiness at the center of the country. Center in Tübingen or Böblingen? In: Schwäbisches Tagblatt . November 9, 2015, accessed December 5, 2015 .
- Residents with main and secondary residence by district and status on December 31, 2018 (PDF; 245 kB).
- Johannes Baier: The Geological Educational Path on the Kirnberg (Schönbuch) - The Keuper's Past. Fossils 31 (5), 36-40; Wiebelsheim 2014.
- Johannes Baier: The new geological nature trail in Kirnbachtal (Keuper, Schönbuch) . Digest 71 (2), 81-89; Heidelberg 2020.
- Johannes Baier: The drilling at Österberg in Tübingen from 1831. - Annual report. Announcements of the Upper Rhine Geological Association, N. F. 96, Stuttgart, 2014, , pp. 331–340.
- The district of Tübingen. Official district description. Edited by the Baden-Württemberg State Archives Administration in conjunction with the Tübingen district, Stuttgart 1967, p. 157 ff.
- H. Reim: The early Bronze Age menhir from Weilheim , City of Tübingen. In: J. Reischmann (Ed.): 900 years of Weilheim. A home book. 1991, p. 55 ff.
- J. Hald: The Iron Age in the Upper Gäu: Studies on the settlement history of Hallstatt and Latène times. Stuttgart 2009, p. 169 f.
- Further etymological descriptions on the etymology of the place name Tübingen. In: TÜpedia, March 30, 2016, 1:24 p.m., accessed on September 8, 2019.
- Ludwig Karl Schmid: History of the Counts of Zollern-Hohenberg and their county according to mostly unprinted sources. A contribution to the history of the Swabian and German Empire. Stuttgart, Gebrüder Scheitlin, 1862, 626 pages.
- Theodor Haering : "The moon roars through the Neckar valley ..." A romantic walk through Tübingen at night along with all sorts of useful and entertaining considerations. Wunderlich, Tübingen 1935, pp. 205–206.
- Wilfried Setzler: Small Tübingen City Chronicle ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
- Robert Kurz: Black Book Capitalism: A Swan song on the market economy. 2nd edition, 2002 ( exit-online.org ( Memento from May 18, 2019 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 2.4 MB, accessed on September 8, 2019]).
- Ulrich Köpf: Historical-critical view of history: Ferdinand Christian Baur and his students. 8th Blaubeurer Symposium. Franz Steiner Verlag, 1994, p. 97.
- Helmut Marcon, Heinrich Strecker, Günter Randecker: 200 years of economics and political science at the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen. Life and work of the professors. The economics faculty of the University of Tübingen and its predecessors (1817–2002) (= economics ). Volume 1. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-06657-8 , p. 212 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
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- The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the Victims of the National Socialist Persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 32 Jewish residents of Tübingen by name, who were deported and mostly murdered . Memorial book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Tübingen - residence. In: bundesarchiv.de, accessed on October 11, 2017 (results take into account Jewish people who lived in Tübingen, and possibly also in other places).
- Memorial for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation, volume 1. Federal Agency for Civic Education , Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 92 ff.
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- City tour on the traces of Jewish life. In: tuebingen.de, accessed on October 11, 2017.
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- Udo Rauch (city archivist): Tübingen at the end of the war. Memento dated October 8, 2006. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- City portrait of Tübingen: Reformation city of Tübingen. Germany. In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on October 11, 2017 (on the history of the Reformation in Tübingen).
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 534 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 535 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 539 .
- Only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices.
- Second home tax will be increased. Press release of March 7, 2012. In: tuebingen.de, accessed on September 8, 2019.
- Statute on the collection of a second home tax in the university town of Tübingen (Second home tax statute) in the version dated November 18, 2013 ( Memento from September 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). (PDF; 71 kB) In: tuebingen.de, accessed on May 20, 2019.
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- City of Tübingen Religion , 2011 census
- City of Tübingen population structure religion , accessed on September 16, 2019
- Population by religion statistics 2019 , accessed on August 20, 2020
- City of Tübingen Development of the membership of the population in a religious community since 1993 , accessed on September 16, 2019.
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- Homepage. In: buddhismus-in-tuebingen.de, accessed on January 4, 2016.
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- Wolfram Hauer: Local school development and urban living environment: the school system in Tübingen from its beginnings in the late Middle Ages to 1806. Franz Steiner Verlag, 2003, pages 24-25.
- Louis Baur: The municipal budget of Tübingen: from the year 1750 up to our time. Historically and statistically illuminated by the author of the reviews of the past of Tübingen. Riecker, 1863, p. 9.
- Louis Baur: The municipal budget of Tübingen: from the year 1750 up to our time. Historically and statistically illuminated by the author of the reviews of the past of Tübingen. Riecker, 1863, pp. 116-117.
- University town of Tübingen: Mayor election on October 22, 2006. (PDF; 47 kB) In: tuebingen.de. Retrieved November 8, 2010 .
- University town of Tübingen: Mayor election on October 19, 2014. (PDF; 61 kB) Accessed on October 19, 2014 .
- Karl Eduard Paulus: Description of the Oberamt Tübingen. P. 269. Wikisource
- Research on medieval history. Volume 23-24. Akademie-Verlag, 1975.
- Karl Klüpfel, Max Eifert: History and Description of the City and University of Tübingen. Volume 1. Ludwig Friedrich Fues, Tübingen 1849, p. 66.
- Waldemar Teufel: Universitas studii Tuwingensis: d. Tübingen university constitution in pre-reformer. Time (1477-1534). Franz Steiner Verlag, 1977.
- Eberhard Friedrich Moser: Real-Index and excerpt from the Ducal-Wurttemberg Court Court Regulations and the corresponding Ducal General and Special Rescripts, including court court decrees. Heerbrandt, Tübingen 1784, p. 319 ( scan in Google book search).
- Stephan Kienlin on tuepedia.de .
- Melchior Metzger (called Calwer) on tuepedia.de .
- LVIII. The Eypert-Sturm'sche Foundation in Tübingen. In: Ferdinand Friedrich Faber: The Wuerttemberg family foundations. 15th issue. XLII-LXIX Foundation. Franz Koehler, Stuttgart 1856, pp. 23–37, here: p. 24 ( scan in Google book search).
- Christoph Friedrich Gayler: Historical memorials of the former free imperial city izt royal Württemberg district town Reutlingen from its origins to the end of the reformation in 1577. Volumes 1–2. Verlag B. G. Kurtz, Reutlingen 1840, p. 448 ( scan in Google book search).
- Wolfram Angerbauer : The Chancellery at the University of Tübingen and its owners 1590-1817. Franz Steiner Verlag, 1972, p. 52.
- Württemberg commission for regional history, Württemberg history and antiquity association, commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg: Journal for Württemberg regional history. Volume 63. W. Kohlhammer.
- Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg: Holdings J 67: Collection of printed funeral speeches and other special occasion speeches (with files on the funeral sermon collections of the Württ. Landesbibliothek and the Princely Hohenlohe Archives in Neuenstein).
- He was taken hostage by the French after the cremation of Vaihingen. Karl Pfaff: History of the Princely House and Land Wirtemberg: revised from the best sources. Parts 2-3. J. B. Metzler'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart 1839, p. 91 ( scan in Google book search).
- Now living and flourishing state, Des Löblich Schwäbischen Crayßes. G. P. Tilger, Freystett 1750, p. 100 ( scan in Google book search).
- Jakob Heinrich Then on tuepedia.de .
- The legal dispute of the heirs of the deceased princesses Wilhelmine Friedrike, Fuerstin von Oettingen Wallerstein, and Henriette. Elbensche Buchdruckerei, Stuttgart 1825, p. 23 ( scan in Google book search).
- Eberhard Friedrich Moser: Real-Index and excerpt from the Ducal-Wurttemberg Court Court Regulations and the corresponding Ducal General and Special Rescripts, including court court decrees. Heerbrandt, Tübingen 1784, p. 315 ( scan in Google book search).
- Christoph Adam Dörr on tuepedia.de .
- Johann Jacob Rehfues on tuepedia.de .
- Johann Immanuel Bossert on tuepedia.de .
- Helmut Marcon, Heinrich Strecker, Günter Randecker: 200 years of economics and political science at the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen. Life and work of the professors. The economics faculty of the University of Tübingen and its predecessors (1817–2002) (= economics ). Volume 1. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-06657-8 , p. 278 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Philipp Maußhardt: The nine predecessors of the Tübingen mayor: Not all were men of honor. The town hall chiefs range from the good official to the "hangman of Belgrade". In: Schwäbisches Tagblatt. October 20, 1990.
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- University town of Tübingen: Development of the number of unemployed (SGB III and SGB II from 1/2005). Retrieved October 13, 2018 .
- Companies in the TTR
- Economy - From Crafts to High Tech ( Memento of October 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
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- Glockenspiel (MP3; 223 kB).
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