|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|County :||Schwarzwald-Baar district|
|Height :||758 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||165.48 km 2|
|Residents:||85,181 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||515 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||07721, 07720, 07425, 07705|
|License plate :||VS|
|Community key :||08 3 26 074|
|LOCODE :||DE VIS|
|City structure:||2 city districts and 9 smaller city districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Jürgen Roth ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Villingen-Schwenningen in the Black Forest-Baar district|
Villingen-Schwenningen [ ˈfɪlɪŋən ˈʃvɛnɪŋən ] is located in the southwest of Baden-Württemberg . With 85,000 inhabitants, the Baden-Württemberg twin town that emerged from the municipal reform in 1972 is a regional center and university location as well as the district town and largest town in the Schwarzwald-Baar district . It is also the administrative seat of the Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg region .
The district of Villingen was an independent imperial city in the Holy Roman Empire from 1218 to 1283 and since then has had the imperial eagle as its coat of arms. This was included as a heraldic component in today's city arms of the twin cities.
Villingen-Schwenningen is the largest municipality in Germany with a double name .
The distance between the two centers of the twin town of Villingen-Schwenningen is about eight kilometers. Villingen lies between the eastern edge of the Black Forest and the high trough of the Baar an der Brigach . The Brigach is one of the two source rivers of the Danube - the other is the Breg - that flow together in Donaueschingen . Further east, already on the Baar , is Schwenningen. The area of the Schwenninger Moos is also the source area of the Neckar ( Neckar origin ). The urban region extends over altitudes of 658 to 969 meters.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Villingen-Schwenningen 2015–2020
Hail risk area
Within Germany, the Schwarzwald-Baar district is the area with the highest hail risk . The hailstorm of June 28, 2006 ranks sixth in the history of catastrophic hail events worldwide. That day was sunny and hot at first. In the evening a so-called supercell thunderstorm formed over the city . Shortly after 7.30 p.m., hailstones up to 11 cm in diameter hit Villingen, Schwenningen and Trossingen. 18,000 roofs were damaged in Villingen-Schwenningen, cars were demolished and more than 100 people were injured. The fire brigade was on the road with more than 1,400 missions for ten days. The roof repairs sometimes took two years. In terms of damage potential and cost volume, this natural event turned out to be the sixth most expensive hail storm in history worldwide, behind hail events in Reutlingen (2013) , Munich (1984) , in Dallas, Denver, St. Louis (all USA) and Sydney (Australia ). The Schwarzwald-Baar district is located in the 2500 km² so-called European hail zone . Since 2009, a long-term scientific project by Saarbrücken University has been investigating the risk of hail in Villingen-Schwenningen.
Several cities and municipalities border the city of Villingen-Schwenningen. Starting in the northwest of the city region, they are named geographically in a clockwise direction :
Unterkirnach , Sankt Georgen in the Black Forest , Mönchweiler , Königsfeld in the Black Forest , Niedereschach , Dauchingen (all Black Forest-Baar district), Deißlingen ( Rottweil district ), Trossingen ( Tuttlingen district ) as well as Tuningen , Bad Dürrheim , Brigachtal , Donaueschingen and Vöhrenbach (all Black Forest -Baar Circle).
The urban area of Villingen-Schwenningen consists of the urban districts of Villingen and Schwenningen and the municipalities and today's districts of Herzogenweiler, Marbach, Mühlhausen, Obereschach, Pfaffenweiler, Rietheim, Tannheim, Weigheim and Weilersbach, which were incorporated as part of the regional reform in Baden-Württemberg in the 1970s . In November 2019, the city districts had the following population figures:
- Villingen 38.970
- Schwenningen 35.015
- Pfaffenweiler 2.223
- Marbach 2,105
- Obereschach 1.635
- Tannheim 1,309
- Weigheim 1,387
- Weilersbach 1,295
- Rietheim 1.030
- London 781
- Duchess 168
Some parts of the city have more spatially separated residential areas with their own names, which often have very few residents; There are also residential areas with their own names, the names of which have emerged in the course of development and the boundaries of which are usually not precisely defined. In detail, these are the following areas:
- to Herzogenweiler : Glaserhof, Glasermühle
- to Marbach : Marbach-Ost train station
- to Mühlhausen : Roter Berg
- to Obereschach : Aubenmühle, Oberer Guggenbühl, Öle, Schlietenhof, Sommertshausen, Unterer Guggenbühl, Waldhummelhof
- to Pfaffenweiler : Häringshöfe, Säge, Spitalhöfe
- to Rietheim : Mühlenhof
- to Tannheim : forester's house, sawmill, Untermühle
- to Villingen : Am Germanswald, Bertholdshöfe, Feldnermühle, Hölzlekönig, Nordstetten , Salvest, Viehhof, Volkertsweiler and Zollhaus
The district of the city - with over 16,500 hectares, one of the largest in area in the state of Baden-Württemberg - shows a course that is atypical for Baden-Württemberg. The suburbs of Unterkirnach and the district of Villingen are closely interlinked. While most of the forest areas around Unterkirnach are in the Villingen district, most of the open areas are located in the Unterkirnach district. The Villingen – Unterkirnach border alone is around 60 km long and forms numerous en or exclaves . Examples are the Gewanne in Stockwald, Groppertal, Hippengehr, Salvest, Viehhof and Neuhäusle.
The reason for the distinctive borderline is the fact that Unterkirnach was a dependent, dependent place of the city of Villingen until the beginning of the 19th century. In the course of the detachment of the town from the city, the open areas in the Kirnach and Brigachtal valleys were added to the new independent community of Unterkirnach, while the forest, one of the largest communal forests in Baden-Württemberg (7,559 ha) - to this day - near the city of Villingen remained. The edge of the forest and thus the boundary of the district depicts the local geological conditions: The forest grows on the barren red sandstone , while the meadows are laid out in the more fertile granite / gneiss .
Villingen-Schwenningen is the main center of the Black Forest-Baar-Heuberg region , to which the middle centers Donaueschingen, Rottweil, Schramberg and Tuttlingen are assigned. For most of the communities in the Schwarzwald-Baar district, Villingen-Schwenningen also takes on the function of the central area. Only the city of Donaueschingen and the communities of Blumberg , Bräunlingen and Hüfingen belong to the central area of Donaueschingen.
The fact that Villingen belonged to the Baden region and Schwenningen to the Wuerttemberg region until the district and community reform in 1972 has an effect to this day. In view of the two large districts of the city, there is a lot twice and in slightly different forms. Villingen-Schwenningen is therefore also known as a "twin town".
- Villingen (07721) has a different phone code than Schwenningen (07720).
- The institutions and clubs in the shared city belong to various regional associations, so that, for example, the Baden sports clubs cannot compete against the Württemberg ones.
- The parishes belong to different regional churches ( Evangelical Church in Baden / Evangelical Church in Württemberg ) or dioceses ( Archdiocese of Freiburg / Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart ).
- There is a town hall in each of the two districts (the seat of the Lord Mayor is Villingen).
Until December 31, 2017, the Baden judges' notary's office existed in Villingen with fully qualified lawyers, while in Schwenningen the Württemberg district notary's office existed. This special feature was abolished with the notarial reform of Baden-Württemberg on January 1, 2018, since then there have only been freelance notaries in the entire state.
Such peculiarities in the twin cities, which for the most part have grown historically, have not yet been overcome in all points, despite a long common history. The city administration is trying to market this twin-city peculiarity to tourism by designating Villingen-Schwenningen as the "Baden-Württemberg city".
The status of the region as a twin city is shown by two cities that initially grew in a historically strikingly heterogeneous manner: Villingen in Baden (western part of the twin city) and Schwenningen in Württemberg are formerly independent cities that were only a few kilometers away from each other but separated by an administrative border. Both areas now function as two large districts. Villingen-Schwenningen has been a major district town since it was founded in 1972 : The two former cities "Villingen im Schwarzwald" (formerly the former large district town Villingen) and "Schwenningen am Neckar" (formerly the large district town within the former Rottweil district) had this name affixed independently each other since April 1, 1956.
Another special feature is that Villingen-Schwenningen is the largest of the municipalities in Germany that are over 700 m above sea level . From an administrative point of view, Villingen-Schwenningen, as the regional center of the Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg region, is also the highest regional center in Germany to date.
The history of the former city of Villingen on the one hand and the former city of Schwenningen on the other hand is very different. The bourgeois town history of Villingen goes back to the early Middle Ages. Belonging to Upper Austria was decisive for Villingen for almost 500 years . Only from 1806 to 1918 did Villingen belong to the Grand Duchy of Baden . Schwenningen in Württemberg, on the other hand, has for a long time retained a rather village-like character with a pronounced rural and craft tradition. Only with industrialization in the 19th century did the population increase rapidly. Schwenningen developed into an important center of the watch industry. It was not until 1907 that the “largest village” in the Kingdom of Württemberg (1806 to 1918) with around 13,000 inhabitants was elevated to the status of a city.
From 1918 to 1933, during the Weimar Republic , Villingen was part of the Republic of Baden , while Schwenningen was part of the People's State of Württemberg . With the seizure of power by the Nazis in 1933 and Baden Wuerttemberg were brought into line. After the Second World War, Villingen was temporarily part of South Baden , Schwenningen to Württemberg-Hohenzollern . With the merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden , Baden (southern Baden) and Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Villingen and Schwenningen merged into the new state of Baden-Württemberg. Villingen was the district town of a district in southern Baden, while Schwenningen was part of the Rottweil district as the "large district town".
The merger of Villingen and Schwenningen on January 1, 1972 is closely linked to a far-reaching regional reform in Baden-Württemberg . As a result of this reorganization, the number of rural districts decreased from 63 to 35 in 1973; the number of independent municipalities decreased between 1968 and 1975 from 3379 to 1111. In addition, twelve regional associations were formed in the state as corporations under public law. The two mayors, Gerhard Gebauer (SPD) from Schwenningen and his colleague from Villingen, Severin Kern (CDU), had already agreed in 1968 to merge the two large district towns. The aim was to create a new regional center. This amalgamation was intended to give the region within Baden-Württemberg greater economic and political weight. The merger of the two cities was supported by the main political forces. As early as 1969, the two cities agreed on important local political projects in a joint committee. Noteworthy resistance emerged only in Villingen. The citizens decided the debate at the ballot box in March 1971: in Villingen 64.2 percent supported the merger, in Schwenningen 77.4 percent. In November 1971 the citizens elected the candidate Dr. Gerhard Gebauer with 97 percent of the votes for the first Lord Mayor of Villingen-Schwenningen.
The process of merging the two cities has not yet been completed. Far-reaching economic structural changes such as the decline of the watch and entertainment electronics industries have contributed to this, which had a lasting effect on the development of the regional center.
Cornerstones of the city's history
On the western edge of Villingen, an old settlement border stretches from north to south, the so-called red sandstone border , which separates the inaccessible Black Forest in the west from the open limestone region of the Baar plateau, which has been populated since the Stone Age , to the east . The first settlements were to the east of today's Villingen on the left of the Brigach .
In the Middle Ages in Villingen the chronicle of emerged Heinrich Hug (1495-1533), the time of the Peasants 'War describes and diaries from the period of the Thirty Years' War, the abbot George Michael Gaisser (1621-1655) of the monastery of St. Georgen , which after Villingen had fled. Forerunners in the historical research of the city of Villingen were the Freiburg church historian Johann Georg Benedikt Kefer (1744-1833), a native of Villingen, and the vocational school teacher JN Schleicher, who from 1851 reorganized the city archive. In 1854 he left Villingen. In 1876 Christian Roder came to Villingen, he organized and collected the old writings of the archive and in 1883 reissued the Hugsche Chronik. In 1876 the Villingen bookseller Ferdinand Förderer (1814-1889), editor of the Black Forest , and the pastor Johann Nepomuk Oberle (1807-1891) founded a collection of antiquities together with like-minded people. They collected old cultural goods and also called on the population to do so. The collection was housed in the old town hall. After purchasing the tapestries in 1910 and the Bichweiler collection as well as the Black Forest collection of Oscar Spiegelhalder in 1929, the city decided to expand the former Franciscan monastery, but the global economic crisis forced savings, so that under Paul Revellio the exhibition took place first in the department store and later in the former orphanage . Because of the Second World War, the collection had to be relocated several times; a total of eleven external depots were created. The collections were then housed in the Old Town Hall. The excavation of the Magdalenenberg from 1970 to 1974 required the construction of a new museum .
- 616 BC Chr .: A hill very close to the southwest of Villingen, the Magdalenenberg , turned out to be the Hallstatt-era “Prince 's grave mound ” and the largest grave mound in Central Europe during excavations carried out in 1890 under the direction of the chief forester Ganter and 1970–1973 under the direction of the prehistorian K. Spindler . The exact date results from the dendrochronologically determined felling date of the oaks from which the central burial chamber was made.
- The presence of Romans is believed to have occurred between 100 and 300 AD.
- Alamannen have settled to the left of the old town spring .
- 817: Villingen and Schwenningen are first mentioned in a document from Emperor Ludwig the Pious
- March 29, 999: Emperor Otto III. awarded the market, coin and customs rights of Villingen to Count Birchtilo / Bezelin of Villingen
- 1119: The Zähringer founded Villingen on the opposite, right side of the Brigach. The street cross typical of Zähringer towns was created.
- 1218: After the Zähringers died out in 1218, Villingen became an imperial city .
- 1271: Villingen was completely destroyed by a wildfire .
- 1283: The Fürstenbergs received Villingen from Emperor Rudolph von Habsburg as an imperial fief . Villingen lost its imperial freedom again.
- 1324: The guild letter, also recognized by the Counts of Fürstenberg, reorganized the political life of the city through provisions for the election of mayors, guild masters and judges. The main trade at that time was wool weaving.
- 1326: Villingen was sold to Austria and belonged to Upper Austria until 1805 .
- 1349: Over half of the population died of the plague .
- 1524/1525: The town was threatened during the Peasants' War , but never seriously besieged. On the contrary, it actively intervened on the part of Upper Austria in the war against the peasants by raiding the surrounding villages (e.g. Schwenningen).
- University of Freiburg found refuge from the plague in Villingen . On May 7, 1611, Markus Roy received his doctorate here as "Doctor of both rights".
- In 1572, school regulations were issued on June 24 by a resolution of the city, which prescribed lessons for summer and winter. Separated by gender, boys had six hours of lessons a day and girls three hours. There was no legal compulsory school attendance, but a moral obligation to attend school. The framework conditions for the Villingen school system and on the entire Baar were laid down by the Bishop of Constance, Marc Sittich , in the Constance diocesan synod of 1567 .
- from 1633: The city was besieged three times by Swedes during the Thirty Years War , but neither the 1633 siege nor the 1634 water siege by the General Feldzeugmeister Georg Friedrich von Holtz zu Niederholz were successful.
- In 1703 a French army of around 35,000 men crossed the Rhine again during the War of the Spanish Succession under Marshal Villars , took the Kehl fortress and finally turned against the Kinzig valley . There were only 4,000 defenders of the Swabian Empire under the command of Prosper Ferdinand von Fürstenberg-Stühlingen . He recognized the hopeless situation and, with luck, was able to withdraw to Wolfach . Gengenbach , Zell am Harmersbach and Haslach were taken by the French, Hausach razed to the ground. The Wolfachers, however, were lucky. After some hesitation, Villars had his army march south through the Gutach Valley to Villingen. There he failed on May 4th and 5th a coup d'état on the inadequately fortified city. On May 12th, he met the Bavarian troops under Elector Maximilian II Emanuel in Tuttlingen . In the same year they jointly defeated the imperial troops in the first battle of Höchstädt . The Kinzig valley was occupied by France.
- War of the Spanish Succession , an overwhelming force of tens of thousands of French under Marshal Tallard besieged the city using the latest methods of the Vauban fortress war . But the city was bravely defended, breaches struck immediately, night attacks with incendiary bombs were repulsed with discipline, and rainy weather came to the rescue. The attackers suffered great losses, so that Tallard withdrew on July 21. With the French defeat in the second battle of Höchstädt in August 1704, the occupation of the Kinzig valley ended.
- In 1805 the city went to Württemberg and 1806 to Baden .
- 1848: The revolution spread to Villingen and Schwenningen.
- 1859: The newly founded Protestant congregation buys the former St. John's Church and has been celebrating its services here in the St. John's Church since then.
- In 1873 the Black Forest Railway was built from Offenburg to Constance .
- August 1, 1914: Mobilization for the First World War , many Villingers never returned from the battlefield.
- 1933: In the March election to the Reichstag in Villingen, 33.4 percent went to the NSDAP and 33.1 percent to the center .
- 1938: The prayer room of the Jewish community in Gerberstrasse was destroyed by SA men in the November pogrom in 1938 . Today a fountain and a plaque commemorate this place of worship and the Jewish victims of the Shoah
- During the German Reich from 1940 to 1945, Villingen was the seat of the main camp VB in military district V of the Wehrmacht for the imprisonment of prisoners of war.
- 1945: On April 20, French troops entered. The city was surrendered without a fight.
- 817: Schwenningen is mentioned for the first time in a document.
- 1444: Schwenningen comes to Württemberg and is assigned to the Tuttlingen Office or Upper Office.
- Peasants' War , Villinger attacked the village of Schwenningen on June 20 and burned it almost completely.
- 1824: In the area of today's Salinenstrasse, the Saline Wilhelmshall with six houses was built.
- 1830: Schwenningen is fair to the market.
- 1842: Schwenningen came from the Tuttlingen district to the Rottweil district , from which the Rottweil district emerged in 1938 .
- 1848: Founding of the watches - Commercial Association .
- 1858: Johannes Bürk founded the first watch factory for portable night watchman control watches in Schwenningen. Other factories were founded: 1860 Mauthe watch factory , 1883 Schlenker & Kienzle, 1888 Schlenker-Grusen, 1890 Johann Jäckle, metal goods, 1902 Johannes Schlenker (ISMET), 1925 Steinel. Schwenningen called itself "the largest clock city in the world" in the middle of the 20th century.
- 1869: The Rottweil – Schwenningen – Villingen line is opened by the Württemberg State Railways .
- socialist trade union .
- 1900: Inauguration of the “Royal Württemberg Technical School for Precision Mechanics, Electromechanics and Watchmaking”, today a state precision engineering school with a technical high school.
- 1907: Schwenningen, until now the largest village in Württemberg , is promoted to town.
- 1933: In the March election to the Reichstag in Schwenningen, 31.5 percent went to the NSDAP , 21.7 percent to the KPD and 21.6 percent to the SPD .
- National Socialist era, the victims of the concentration camps in the surrounding satellite camps of Schömberg , Schörzingen , Dautmergen and Erzingen were cremated in the crematorium . The urns are in a collective grave and in 117 individual graves in the cemetery , which are commemorated by memorial stones. The dead also included victims of the " euthanasia " campaign T4 and foreign forced laborers .
- 1945: On April 20, after the arrival of the French, the city is surrendered without a fight.
- 1950: First trade fair event " Südwest is exhibiting "
- 1956: The Kienzle watch factory produces the first battery-operated watches; the first solar watch "Heliomat" comes onto the market in the same year.
- 1970s: The introduction of quartz movements marked the decline of the Schwenningen watch industry.
- 1972 As part of the community and district reform, Villingen and Schwenningen merge to form the town of Villingen-Schwenningen after a positive vote by the citizens.
- 1976 Award of the honor flag of the Council of Europe to Villingen-Schwenningen for his efforts to establish good relations with the partner cities.
- In 1985 the Baden-Württemberg Home Days took place in Villingen-Schwenningen .
- 1994 Villingen-Schwenningen achieved first place in the Focus environmental report as a city with the highest quality of life of all German cities with over 80,000 inhabitants.
- 2001 After thirty years, Villingen-Schwenningen receives a joint city coat of arms.
City districts and coats of arms
|Herzogenweiler belonged to the Principality of Fürstenberg, became part of Württemberg in 1805, then to Baden in 1806 and initially belonged to the Hüfingen Office, from 1813 to the Villingen District Office, from 1819 again to the Hüfingen Office, 1844 to the Donaueschingen District Office and again from 1851 to the Villingen District Office, from 1939 the District Villingen emerged .|
|Marbach belonged to Upper Austria and came to Württemberg in 1805, Baden in 1806 and then belonged to the Villingen district office.|
|Mühlhausen belonged to the imperial city of Rottweil , came with this to Württemberg in 1803 and then belonged to the Rottweil district, from 1810 to the Tuttlingen district and from 1938 (again) to the Rottweil district .|
|Obereschach belonged to the Order of St. John / Maltese , became Württemberg in 1805 and Baden in 1806 ( exchange and epuration agreement ). It then always belonged to the Villingen district office.|
|Pfaffenweiler had belonged to Upper Austria by the 18th century at the latest and therefore shared the history of the city of Villingen, that is, it became Württemberg in 1805 and Baden in 1806. After that, the Pfaffenweiler belonged to the Villingen district office.|
|Rietheim belonged to Upper Austria , came to Württemberg in 1805, Baden in 1806 and was then assigned to the Villingen district office.|
|Tannheim belonged to the Principality of Fürstenberg, became part of Württemberg in 1805, then to Baden in 1806 and initially belonged to the Hüfingen Office, from 1813 to the Villingen District Office, from 1819 again to the Hüfingen Office and from 1844 to the Donaueschingen District Office, from which the Donaueschingen district emerged in 1939 .|
|Weigheim belonged to the Principality of Fürstenberg, came to Württemberg in 1805 and was assigned to the Tuttlingen District Office. In 1938 the place became part of the Rottweil district .|
|Weilersbach belonged to the Rottweiler Brotherhood, came to Württemberg in 1803 and was initially assigned to the Rottweil Oberamt, but was given in exchange to Baden in 1810 and then belonged to the Villingen District Office.|
The area of the city of Villingen-Schwenningen has developed as follows (unless otherwise stated, the municipalities belonged to the Villingen district before 1973 ):
- On January 1, 1970, the community of Mühlhausen ( Rottweil district) was incorporated into the town of Schwenningen am Neckar (Rottweil district).
- On December 1, 1971, the municipality of Obereschach was incorporated into the city of Villingen in the Black Forest.
- On January 1, 1972, the two cities of Villingen in the Black Forest and Schwenningen am Neckar were combined to form the new city of Villingen-Schwenningen. At the same time, the Villingen district was renamed “Villingen-Schwenningen District”.
- On April 1, 1972, the communities Herzogenweiler, Pfaffenweiler and Rietheim (all district Villingen-Schwenningen) and Tannheim (previously district Donaueschingen ) were incorporated into the new town of Villingen-Schwenningen.
- On January 1, 1974, the municipality of Marbach was incorporated into the city of Villingen-Schwenningen.
- On January 1, 1975 the communities Weigheim (until the end of 1972 in the Rottweil district) and Weilersbach were incorporated into the town of Villingen-Schwenningen.
In the Middle Ages and the early modern period , Villingen and Schwenningen only had a few hundred inhabitants. The population grew only slowly and kept falling due to wars, epidemics and famine. Only with industrialization in the 20th century did population growth accelerate. Villingen only had 7,800 inhabitants in 1900, compared to 17,000 in 1939. Due to refugee allocations, the number of inhabitants rose to 23,000 by 1945, although Villingen had 1,010 dead in World War II (197 in World War I). In 1971 there were 39,000. Around 10,000 people lived in Schwenningen in 1900; in 1971 there were 35,000. On January 1, 1972, the two cities were united to form the new city of Villingen-Schwenningen with around 80,000 inhabitants. Since then, the population has fluctuated around this limit. On June 30, 2005, the “ official population ” for Villingen-Schwenningen was 83,921 according to an update by the Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices).
Denominations and religions
Religious history of Villingen
Villingen initially belonged to the diocese of Constance and was subordinate to the archdeacon "in front of the forest". Later the city became the seat of a country chapter. Between 1520 and 1530 the Franciscan Provincial tried to introduce the Reformation , but this failed because of the government of Front Austria , to which the city belonged. Villingen therefore remained predominantly Catholic until the 19th century . The original parish church of Villingen was today's cemetery church, the Romanesque tower of which is still preserved. The Cathedral of Our Lady , a twin-tower basilica from the 12th century, was the “Leutkirche”, which was already included in the city's founding plan. It is today's main Catholic church in Villingen.
The Curate of St. Fidelis split off from their parish in 1927 and became a parish in 1942. The associated church was built in 1953/54. In 1956, the St. Konrad Curate split off from the parish of St. Fidelis and became a parish in 1970. The associated church was built in 1964/67. Another Catholic church is the Church of St. Brother Klaus, built in 1962/64 in the northeast of the city. It had its own curate since 1963 and a parish since 1969. The church of the youngest parish Heilig Kreuz was consecrated in 1973. Today, all five communities, together with the St. Konrad / Rietheim branch, form the Catholic pastoral care unit in Villingen.
In addition to the parish church (Münster) there were several monasteries in Villingen. The Johanniter / Malta founded in 1253 in Villingen one Coming and built a church. The Kommende Villingen belonged to the Catholic Grand Priory Germany of the Order of St. John / Maltese until 1806, with its seat in Heitersheim . A Franciscan monastery existed from 1268, but it was closed in 1797. The church was consecrated as early as 1298. In 1451 an Antonite house is mentioned. In the 13th century there were also nuns who lived according to the rules of the Augustinians. However, this association went up in the Dominican Order, which was dissolved in 1782. The Bickenkloster or St. Clara Monastery was a Poor Clare monastery that was largely destroyed in 1633, but rebuilt in 1731 and closed in 1782. The Ursuline Convent, today's monastery of St. Ursula am Bickentor , emerged from him . As early as 1536 there was also a monastery with Benedictine monks from St. Georgen. Their monastery complex with the church of St. George was furnished in a baroque style. Finally, there was a Capuchin monastery from 1655, which was closed in 1806.
Protestants moved to Villingen in the 19th century . They were initially looked after from Mönchweiler. The first Protestant congregation was established in 1854, and in 1892 it was merged into the St. John's Parish. In 1859 the community bought the former 13th century Johanniterkirche, now the Johanneskirche. In 1952 the Paulus parish and in 1960 the Markus parish were separated from it. In 1972 the Petrusparrei was established (meanwhile merged with the Markusgemeinde) and in 1975 the Luke parish. A parish of its own was also established in the Marbach district in 1976. Together with the five Villingen parishes and the neighboring parish of Niedereschach, this forms the Evangelical Parish Villingen as a whole. The parishes mentioned also look after the Protestants in the districts of Tannheim, Herzogenweiler, Pfaffenweiler and Rietheim (Marbach parish), Mühlhausen and Weigheim (Paulus parish, Schwenningen) and Weilersbach (Niedereschach). With the exception of Mühlhausen and Weigheim, they belong to the Villingen church district of the Evangelical Church in Baden .
Religious history of Schwenningen
Like Villingen, Schwenningen initially belonged to the diocese of Constance and was subordinate to the archdeacon "in front of the forest".
Schwenningen was part of Württemberg since 1444. As a result of belonging to the Duchy of Württemberg , the Reformation was introduced in 1535 . Therefore, in contrast to Villingen, Schwenningen was purely Protestant until the 19th century .
In 1275 there was a church in both Oberwenningen and Unterschwenningen. The Michaelskirche existed in Oberschwenningen and the St. Vincenz Church in Unterschwenningen. Although the Vincenzkirche was gradually downgraded to a subsidiary church of St. Michael, it became the sole parish church of Schwenningen after the Reformation. Michaelskirche was demolished. In 1563 the Vincenzkirche received a new tower, in 1700 a new nave and in 1837/38 a transept and an elevation of the tower. A second parish was established at the current town church as early as 1835 as a result of the strong influx of Protestants.
In 1907 the Paulus parish (church from 1910), in 1922 the Johannespfarrei (emergency church from 1931, new building in 1959/60) was separated. The St. John's Parish was created from the St. John's Parish in 1965. The St. Mark's Parish (church from 1957) was also created. In addition to the churches mentioned, there is also a cemetery chapel from 1908. All of Schwenningen's Protestant communities belong to the Tuttlingen deanery of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg . The Protestants from the Weigheim district, who are looked after by the neighboring community of Schura , also belong to this regional church .
With the influx of Catholics as a result of industrialization (watch industry), the St. Francis Church was built in 1892/93 . The Church of the Assumption of Mary was built in 1952 with the arrival of many expellees. The Catholic parishes of Schwenningen belong to the Rottweil deanery of the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese .
City districts and Protestant church
Most of today's districts of Villingen-Schwenningen also remained predominantly Catholic after the Reformation, because they belonged either to Upper Austria or to the Principality of Fürstenberg. Therefore, in most parts of the city there is also a Catholic parish or branch parish and a church.
The Herzogenweiler community was initially looked after by Vöhrenbach. Today it is a branch of Pfaffenweiler. The St. Wendelin chapel was built in 1908. A St. Stephen's Chapel is mentioned as early as 1320. Marbach was a branch of Kirchdorf. However, a branch church of St. James the Elder was built as early as 1710 and expanded in 1935. Mühlhausen came to Rottweil in the 16th century. The Catholic Church of St. George was built in the 12th century, renovated in 1714/15 and received a new tower. In Obereschach there was an old St. Ulrich's chapel, which was replaced by a new building in 1821. The neighboring village of Mönchweiler also belongs to the parish of Obereschach. The Dreifaltigkeitskirche Pfaffenweiler was only built in 1965/66, but the tower dates from 1720. A church is mentioned there as early as the 12th century. It belonged to the St. Georgen monastery. However, a separate parish was not established again until 1869. This also looks after the branch community of Herzogenweiler. In Rietheim there is a St. Konrads Chapel, first mentioned in 1487, which was enlarged in 1909. Rietheim was initially looked after from Kirchdorf, since 1797 it has belonged to the parish of Villingen and since 1927 to St. Fidelis. Tannheim was initially also a branch of Kirchdorf and was raised to its own parish in 1806. The associated St. Gallus church was not built until 1898. The Weigheim Church was rebuilt in 1763 after a fire, including the tower of the previous building from 1694. The ship was extended in 1891. There is also a St. Wendelins Chapel built in the 18th century. A pastor has also been mentioned in Weilersbach since the 13th century. The church was first mentioned in 1360/70. The old church of St. Hilarius was replaced by a new building in 1953/55.
All of the above-mentioned Catholic communities in the urban area of Villingen-Schwenningen belong to the Schwarzwald-Baar deanery of the Archdiocese of Freiburg with the exception of the parishes in the former Württemberg districts of Schwenningen, Mühlhausen and Weigheim, which belong to the Rottweil deanery of the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese .
In addition to the two large churches in Villingen-Schwenningen, there is also a Serbian-Orthodox congregation and congregations that belong to free churches , including the Stephanus congregation in the Mülheimer Verband , the Evangelical Methodist Church , the Baptist Brothers Congregation, and the Free Christian Congregation Lantwatten -4 (KL-4), the Christian Faith Church , the Christ Church and the Christian Center, a Church of God .
The New Apostolic Church was represented in both large districts, of which the church built in 1924 in the Villingen district was closed in 2020.
Even Jehovah's Witnesses are represented in Villingen-Schwenningen.
Villingen are the mosque DITIB Merkez Camii in Güterbahnhofstraße and the mosque of the Islamic Community Milli Görüs on Kaiserring. In Schwenningen the Al-Salam-Verein operates a mosque, the Al-Huda-Verein a prayer room.
According to the 2011 census , 40.9% of the residents of Villingen-Schwenningen are Catholic, 32.4% Protestant, 4.1% belong to Orthodox churches, 2.1% Protestant free churches and 20.4% of another - which includes Muslims - or no religious community.
All the city councils are represented in the transparency portal parliamentwatch.de. There anyone can publicly ask the elected local politicians questions.
At the beginning of the city of Villingen stood the mayor appointed by the city lord and the twenty-four. The guilds were also represented on the council from the 13th century. A mayor is named for the first time in 1297. According to the guild letter of 1324, there was a council to which the mayor , the mayor, the judges and guild masters and several guilds belonged. At first there were a total of 80 members on the council, later this was reduced to 12 judges and 10 guild masters, later even fewer. In 1756 Austria introduced a new council constitution. In the 19th century, when Villingen was part of Baden, there was a mayor and a local council. There was also a citizens' committee, which was divided into a large and a small committee. In the 20th century, the mayor was given the title of mayor.
At the head of the city of Schwenningen was the Vogt appointed by the Württemberg rule . There has been a mayor since 1819 and in 1821 he was named Schultheiß, from 1907 Stadtschultheiß and since 1927 mayor. The bailiff was assisted by a subordinate who was usually the bailiff's successor. Since 1833 he was called Ratschreiber. There was also the village court, and later a local council.
After the Second World War, the mayors of Villingen and Schwenningen, as well as the mayors of the city, which has been unified since 1972, were directly elected by the electorate for a term of office of 8 years (sometimes 12 years). You were and are the chairman of the local council. The general deputy of the Lord Mayor is the 1st alderman with the official title " Mayor ".
Mayor and Lord Mayor of Villingen
- 1796–1809: Hieronymus Knoll
- 1809-1816: Ignaz Mayer
- 1817–1827: Ludwig Fischer
- 1827–1834: Josef A. Vetter
- 1834–1847: Karl Wittum
- 1847–1849: Johann Baptist Stern
- 1849: Johann Schleicher (May 14th to July 12th)
- 1849–1851: Johann Baptist Stern
- 1851–1857: Friedrich Hubbauer
- 1857–1859: Johann Baptist Stern
- 1859–1868: Karl Wittum
- 1868–1883: Julius Schupp
- 1883–1903: Heinrich Osiander
- 1903–1912: Emil Braunagel
- 1912–1930: Guido Lehmann
- 1931–1933: Adolf Gremmelspacher
- 1933: City Councilor Gutmann, acting
- 1933–1937: Hermann Schneider
- 1937–1940: Karl Berckmüller
- 1940–1945: Hermann Riedel, 1st alderman
- 1945–1946: Walter Bräunlich
- 1946: Erwin Hartmann, acting, (May to September)
- 1946–1950: Edwin Nägele
- 1951–1972: Severin Kern
Mayor and Lord Mayor of Schwenningen
- 1797–1816: Erhard Bürk
- 1816–1825: Thomas Weyler
- 1825–1835: Matthias Rapp
- 1835–1841: Johann Georg Koch
- 1841–1851: Andreas Bürk
- 1852–1856: Christian Strohm
- 1856–1858: (Official notary) Buzengeiger
- 1858–1887: Erhard Müller
- 1887–1912: David Würth
- 1912–1925: Emil Braunagel
- 1925–1930: Ingo Lang von Langen
- 1930–1949: Otto Gönnenwein
- 1949–1962: Hans Kohler
- 1960–1972: Gerhard Gebauer (OB from 1962–1972)
Lord Mayor of Villingen-Schwenningen
- 1972–1994: Gerhard Gebauer (SPD)
- 1994–2002: Manfred Matusza (CDU)
- 2002–2018: Rupert Kubon (SPD)
- since 2019: Jürgen Roth (CDU)
Local councils and district advisory council
For the municipality Muehlhausen Baden-Württemberg was in accordance with § 65 Gemeindeordnung formed a district advisory council, whose eight members after each municipal election by the council -Schwenningen Villingen are elected from. The other eight municipalities (excluding Villingen and Schwenningen) are both towns ff within the meaning of § 67th of the Municipal Code, that is, they each have one of the eligible voters in each local election right to be elected Ortschaftsrat with a mayor as chairman. The number of local councils is six in Herzogenweiler and ten in all other localities.
After the municipal council decided on July 18, 2012 to build a € 46.5 million town hall on the green field between Villingen and Schwenningen, a citizens 'initiative was founded to collect signatures for the citizens ' initiative to build a central town hall . With the referendum held on October 21, 2012, the municipal council resolution was overturned, with a turnout of 42.1%, 79.0% (81.1% in Villingen, 75.9% in Schwenningen) were in favor of the building project to stop and continue to operate the existing town halls in Villingen and Schwenningen.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "Split of silver and blue, inside a wavy bar in mixed up colors, above in front a left-turned, gold-armored and -tunged red eagle, above in the back a swimming mute swan in natural colors (silver swan, black hump, golden beak and tongue)."|
Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms awarded in 2001 on the occasion of the upcoming 30th anniversary of the city combines elements of the previous coat of arms of Villingen ("Split of silver and blue, inside a gold-armored and -zungter red eagle.") And Schwenningen ("Divided by blue and silver, above a silver swan, below a four-spoke, blue gear. ”).
Until the award of this coat of arms by the regional council of Freiburg on December 11, 2001, the twin cities did not have their own coat of arms and had to use the coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg. As early as 1972, Prof. Schnibbe, Furtwangen, designed a coat of arms on which the swan, flying upright, was very aggressive towards the Villinger eagle opposite. This coat of arms was not accepted. At the beginning of 2001, Gerhard Graf, Karlsruhe, redesigned the coat of arms on the basis of Prof. Schnibbe. The swan has been redrawn floating on the underside of the wave beam and at eye level with the eagle. This design of the coat of arms was described by the General State Archives Karlsruhe as heraldically correct and was acceptable for the city.
The historic Villingen city coat of arms with crest, peacock feathers and curlicues from 1530 was awarded to the city for its successes in the Peasants' War and for adherence to the old faith, while the Schwenningen coat of arms did not have a very long tradition. It was only accepted when the city was raised in 1907. The swan, which was then included in the coat of arms, can already be seen in the seals of the place from 1797, while the cogwheel was added as a symbol of the watch industry instead of the previously mentioned Neckar origin (with the letters N and U).
The city of Villingen-Schwenningen and the former cities of Villingen and Schwenningen maintain city partnerships with the following cities :
|Friedrichsthal wayside shrine||Germany||1937|
According to the 2007 municipal survey by the Federation of Taxpayers of Baden-Württemberg, municipal tax revenues totaling EUR 70.426 million in 2006 and estimated tax revenues for 2007 totaling EUR 78.188 million are offset by the following municipalities' debts:
- 2006 total of 111.3 million euros in debts (namely: 53.478 million euros in debts of the treasury budget and 57.831 million euros in debts of the municipal companies / special assets)
- 2007 total of 122.3 million euros in debts (namely: 63.273 million euros in debts of the treasury budget and 59.146 million euros in debts of the city's own operations / special assets).
Culture and sights
The Theater am Ring offers theater performances of all genres. There is a large house with opera, drama and ballet as well as children's and youth theater performances and a small hall for theater talks and readings.
The Franziskaner Konzerthaus , which opened in 1982, was created from the conversion of a former medieval church. The concert hall hosts the series of master concerts as well as events of the local music associations and the Villingen-Schwenningen symphony orchestra .
The Villingen-Schwenningen Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1912 by Martin Oberle as the “Villinger Orchesterverein”. The orchestra was only able to achieve greater success as the “Villingen Chamber Orchestra” after the Second World War. The Kienzle factory concerts and the cloister concerts in the old Franciscan monastery are well known. At the end of the 1970s it developed into a symphony orchestra. The orchestra is still run as a registered association.
There are three symphonic brass orchestras in Villingen-Schwenningen : Stadt- und Bürgerwehrmusik Villingen , Stadtharmonie Villingen e. V. as well as the town music of Schwenningen . All three consist of a large wind orchestra, a youth wind orchestra, a school orchestra and other smaller ensembles, and each of the two Villingen associations has a marching band. In addition to these three associations, there is also the Harmonie Schwenningen music association in the core cities , and each of the Villingen-Schwenningen suburbs has its own music association. The Protestant and Catholic Churches also contribute to cultural life with their ensembles.
Sights / museums / archive
The city is located on the German Clock Route .
- The Franciscan Museum Villingen is dedicated to the city and regional history from the early days to the modern age. Among other things, the finds from the excavations on Magdalenenberg, one of the three Spiegelhalder collections on Black Forest folklore and numerous other exhibits, including works by the Villingen artists Hans Kraut , Hans Amann , Anton Berin , Waldemar Flaig and others, are shown
- The Schwenningen Local History and Clock Museum deals with the cultural history of Schwenningen and has the Hellmut Kienzle Collection, an important collection of clocks from the 16th to 19th centuries
- The Museum Altes Rathaus Villingen shows changing exhibitions of works by Villingen artists of classical modernism such as Richard Ackermann, Paul Hirt, Ludwig Engler or Waldemar Flaig
- City archive in Villingen
- Municipal gallery with “Lovis Cabinet” in Schwenningen
- Villingen-Schwenningen City Library
- Watch Industry Museum Villingen-Schwenningen
- International Airplane Museum in Schwenningen
- Heimatstuben Herzogenweiler, Tannheim and Mühlhausen and the farmer's museum in Mühlhausen
- City-Rondell (former Mauthe watch factory ), Weltzeit adventure department store with 15 large clocks
- In the vicinity of Villingen-Schwenningen are the ruins of Kirneck and the castles Warenburg and Runstal
- The Magdalenenberg , which was refilled after the excavation, is located about two kilometers southwest of the old town of Villingen
Sights in Villingen
Most of the medieval town center of Villingen has been formally preserved, including the early Gothic cathedral (13th – 16th centuries), the late Gothic town hall (1534), the city wall with three of the originally four gate towers, the university tithe barn, the old one Prelature (13th - 16th centuries) and the Franciscan Museum of City History in Villingen, which was reopened in 1999 as part of the 1000th anniversary celebration. There are also many finds from the Magdalenenberg . The streets of the city center are characterized by the renovation and new construction of the post-war years and more recently. The old town hall in Villingen was built in the 13th century. At the end of the 19th century, the late Gothic facade was provided with an impressive history painting, which came from the painter Karl Eyth and was removed at the end of the 1920s. The Zehndersche Haus in Bärengasse is a historic half-timbered building, built in 1690. Another interesting building is the observation tower on the tub , built in 1888 . The composed of Bavarian landscape architect Paul Siebold in the 1930s, designed and created as a job-creation measure Villinger park with majolica -Figuren Erna Kientz Bird in the workshop of ceramist Richard Bampi is protected as a garden monument.
There are the following churches in Villingen: The Catholic parish church, the Minster of Our Lady, was built in the Middle Ages. It underwent several changes and was changed to Baroque style in the 18th century. The Benedictine church was built by Michael Thumb from 1688 . It was only completed in 1719 by Jodokus Beer, who also belonged to the Auer Guild . The Bickenklosterkirche was built in 1737 as a hall church. The former old town parish church of St. Maria (today the cemetery church) was rebuilt in 1864. The tower from the 12th century has been preserved. The former St. John's Church from the 13th century has served as the Protestant St. John's Church since the middle of the 19th century. The lay church of the Capuchin monastery was last converted into a commercial building in 1987.
Newer Catholic churches in Villingen are St. Fidelis (built 1953/54), St. Konrad (built 1964/67), St. Brother Klaus (built 1962/64) and Heilig Kreuz (1971). New Protestant churches in Villingen are the Pauluskirche from 1955 and the Markuszentrum from 1962.
The Villingen city fortifications
Originally the Villingen city fortifications consisted of the inner city wall, which has largely been preserved to this day, albeit in a much higher version, the inner moat and the so-called "fullness" (outer city wall) with a thickness of several meters, the inner and outer retaining walls with filler material the trenches were compacted. The bulk was lower than the inner city wall and was suitable for positioning cannons and other artillery. Although of medieval origin, the function of abundance was comparable to the French fortifications of the 17th and 18th centuries. Century. In front of the abundance was the outer moat, which was secured from the outside by a retaining wall. During the Swiss War in 1499, the city wall, which was built in the High Middle Ages, was reinforced by roundels and gate bastions and expanded from the end of the 17th century until the inner wall roughly matched its present appearance at the beginning of the 18th century. In the 19th century, parts of the city fortifications were demolished, including the outer wall with front gates, the low gate and the trenches. Further losses followed in the 20th century when the city wall was replaced by new structures in several places. The city fortifications were only protected from further damage when the Monument Protection Act came into force in 1972. Today, the area from the Inner Graben to the outside is largely a part of the green ring systems around the old town.
|Existing towers and gates||Lost towers and gates|
|Upper gate||Harz Tower|
|Bickentor||Tower at the Benedictine|
|Kaiserturm (Gerberturm, Wachtel or Schnabelturm)||Roundabout on the outer city wall (north-west corner)|
|Romäusturm (Diebsturm, St. Michael's Tower)||Powder rondelle at the upper gate|
|Elisabethenturm (former watchtower)||Lower gate|
|Glockenhiisle (converted for residential purposes)||Obertorerker|
|Rondell at the Bickentor||Bickentorerker|
|Bastions on the outer, eastern city wall|
Sights in Schwenningen
The town hall in Schwenningen was built between 1926 and 1928 based on a design by the Stuttgart architect Hans Herkommer . On the facade is a mosaic by August Babberger with the title “War and Peace” and the signature “For the city to decorate, to honor the dead”. The local history and clock museum at the market square was first built in 1697 as a half-timbered farmhouse and has been used as a museum since 1931.
The former St. Vincenz Church is the oldest Protestant church in Schwenningen and is now called the "Stadtkirche". She received a new tower in 1563 and a new ship around 1700. In 1794 the nave, which had become too small, was to be extended. This church extension planned in detail by the church council builder Wilhelm Friedrich Goez was not carried out. It was not until 1837/38 that the church was enlarged by adding a transept. At the same time, the tower was increased.
Also worth seeing is the Protestant parsonage, which received its present form in 1747, but was built in 1560. This makes it the oldest verifiable building in Schwenningen. From 1909 to 1910, the second Protestant church, the Pauluskirche, was built according to a design by the Stuttgart architect Martin Elsaesser , in which the Vesper Church takes place today in winter . From 1956 to 2004 the chapel in the old cemetery, built in 1908, was used as the “St. Mark's Church”. In 1959/60 today's Johanneskirche was built, in 1972 the Rinelenzentrum, then the Markuszentrum, today the seat of the diaconal facility Diakone ambulant Schwarzwald-Baar . The Franziskuskirche, built in 1892/93, is the main Catholic church in Schwenningen. The Church of the Assumption was built in 1952.
For the churches in the other parts of the city, see the Religions section .
Also worth seeing are the nature reserve Schwenninger Moos ( Neckar origin ), the air rescue center with the stationing of the rescue helicopter " Christoph 11 ", the international aviation museum, the clock industry museum in the former clock factory Bürk , the home and clock museum, the fire brigade museum, the city gallery and the new Helios Arena as a venue of the DEL - Hockey association SERC Wild Wings .
Villingen is known for its structure of traditional Swabian-Alemannic carnival and carnival. Traditionally , the focus is on the “ Villinger Narro ”, often referred to as the “aristocrat of the Alemannic carnival”. He is one of the oldest fool figures of the Swabian-Alemannic carnival . In the last third of the 19th century, the Rhenish carnival wave reached Villingen and the entire Swabian-Alemannic region. To secure the existence and as a result of the return to the old forms of Carnival and with the establishment of the Association of Swabian-Alemannic Fools' Guilds in Villingen in 1924, the carnival was pushed back from the German southwest into its strongholds on the Rhine. In Villingen, however, the opposite development occurred. The Katzenmusik , an association that until then had taken on the carnival of the little man and fooling around the military in addition to the historical Narrolaufen , took a step at the end of the 1920s that led to a re-carnival of the local carnival. The Glonki Guild - currently, after Narrozunft (founded in 1882) and caterwauling, the third largest carnival association of the city - was founded in 1933 after the so-called. " Seizure of power established" and also followed the carnival pattern. This created a duality that shapes the image of the Villinger Fasnet to this day. After the Second World War, a few groups were added, as in the 1970s, which additionally changed the traditional image of the Carnival and continue to promote the Carnival in Villingen. An almost metropolitan carnival parade is the big parade on Shrove Tuesday, when heaps of sweets are thrown from carts into the crowd. However, this move is still led by the historical Narro guild. Local and foreign groups also take part in this parade with their fantasy characters. On the morning of Carnival Monday, the main day of the Villinger Fasnet, the historic parade of the Villinger Narro moves through the city. In the afternoon, the so-called “Maschgerelauf” takes place from the upper gate, during which the historical Villinger Fasnet is explained and brought closer to the tourists. Before, in between and afterwards there are further parades of the fool's clubs. There is no day that is reserved for the historical carnival tradition.
The Romäus is a Villingen soldier and local hero of gigantic stature, around whom numerous stories and legends are entwined. One of the heroic deeds of Romäus was the secret theft of the city gate of the neighboring city of Rottweil, which competed with Villingen, by himself. He is said to have sat in the Romäusturm (former theft tower) named after him, which is painted with a larger than life picture of him. This painting follows a historicist depiction from the end of the 19th century. Before that, an oversized portrait of the local hero was already attached to the outer city wall to the right of the former Obertorerker. In this form it is attested on the Rottweiler Pürschgericht map from 1564 by David Rötlin. When the outer fullness was broken off, a new painting was attached to the Diebsturm, which has since been called the Romäusturm.
Villinger homeland novel and name of the city after the dialect expression "Ratze" for rat. The Swedes besieging Villingen in the Thirty Years' War wanted to drown the city like a “rat's nest” by means of the Schwedendamm, but fortunate circumstances prevented this. Hermann A. Neugart portrayed this episode from Villingen's history in his homeland novel “Das Ratzennest: From the fateful days of a thousand-year-old city”.
The nail cross is Villingen's protective cross from the 14th century, which can be seen in the left tower chapel of the Villingen Minster. His worship is said to protect the city from all evil. The Nägelinskreuz is credited with the fact that no city siege led to the capture of the Villingen city center and none of the city center buildings were destroyed in the world wars.
freetime and sports
- The city's best- known sporting figurehead is the ice hockey club SERC Wild Wings , which has played in the first division for over 22 years and has been back in the German ice hockey league since the 2013/14 season after 10 years of abstinence . Their home arena is the Helios Arena , which was built between 2007 and 2010 through the renovation of the outdated ice rink on Bauchenberg at a cost of 10.5 million euros.
- There are numerous football clubs, of which the FC 08 Villingen currently plays as the top-class club in the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg.
- The Wiha Panthers Schwenningen have been playing in the Barmer 2. Basketball Bundesliga ProA since 2019 and are the top-class playing club in the region. In the 2010/11 season the team played in the 2nd Bundesliga ProB. The sport of basketball as a competitive sport has only existed in Villingen-Schwenningen since 1997. The basketball team has marched from the lowest regional league B to the 2nd Bundesliga in 13 years.
- The first women's volleyball team of TV 1848 Villingen has been playing in the third division south , which was newly created in 2012 , since relegation from the 2nd Bundesliga South , which the team was promoted to in 2010 .
- Badminton is played by FSV Schwenningen in the association and district leagues.
- Field hockey is played by HC Villingen (Association League) and HV Schwenningen (Association League ).
- BV Villingen-Schwenningen , founded in 1994, has been playing in the 1st snooker Bundesliga since 2016 .
- The BCVS Villingen-Schwenningen takes 3rd place in the archery finals in Wiesbaden on February 23, 2019.
State Garden Show 2010
In 2010, Villingen-Schwenningen was the venue for the 30th State Horticultural Show , the focus of which was in the Schwenningen district from May 12 to October 10, 2010. The motto of the event was "Nature connects". 28.9 million euros were invested, 17 million euros came from the country.
The garden show was used to renovate the station area in Schwenningen. For this purpose, a large aquarium, a play island for children and many walking paths were built on the site. In Villingen, on the Hubenloch near the old town, one of the highest rose gardens in Germany was renovated, the banks of the Brigach were partially redesigned and the green belt along the Villingen city wall was restructured. A 3.2-kilometer circular route through the garden show provides information with 66 information stations. A Black Forest rose was specially bred for this garden show. The mascot "Mooses" got its name from the Schwenningen nature reserve "Moos".
On the edge of the garden show grounds, the Neckar Tower was opened in good time , a 13-storey glass building in a contemporary design, in which restaurants, commercial and office space as well as student apartments are housed. Furtwangen University uses five floors as office and seminar rooms.
- Oak in Tannheim with a BHU of 8.03 m (2015).
Economy and Infrastructure
There are two train stations and five stops in Villingen-Schwenningen . The station Villingen lies on the Black Forest Railway ( Offenburg - Singen (Hohentwiel) ). Individual intercity trains run on the Black Forest Railway, which stop in Villingen and connect the city directly with destinations as far as northern Germany. Regional trains continue to run every hour ( InterRegioExpress and Regionalexpress , as of 2018). In addition, Villingen is the end of the Rottweil – Villingen railway line , which is also where the Schwenningen train station is located. Since 2003 the ring train has been connecting the Schwarzwald-Baar district with the districts of Tuttlingen and Rottweil . Other stops in the city are Marbach West, Marbach Ost, Zollhaus, Eisstadion and Hammerstatt. From 1904 to 1966, Marbach was the starting point for the Marbach – Bad Dürrheim railway line , but passenger traffic was stopped here as early as 1953.
Other modes of transport
DeinBus.de connected Villingen-Schwenningen twice a day by long-distance bus with Freiburg , Tübingen and Stuttgart Airport , but has now stopped all connections to and from Villingen-Schwenningen. Villingen-Schwenningen has been served daily by Flixbus on the Berlin - Konstanz and Munich routes since 2014 . Likewise, the former destinations served by DeinBus.de.
The city can be reached by car via the federal highway 81 Stuttgart - Singen and the federal highways 27 (Stuttgart - Schaffhausen ), 33 ( Offenburg - Konstanz ) and 523 (Villingen - Tuttlingen ). The B 33 runs through the city center of Villingen without crossing . In the south you can reach the B 31 via the B 33 at Hüfingen , which leads to Freiburg im Breisgau .
The Schwenningen airfield with an attached aviation museum is located in the Schwenningen-Ost industrial area .
In Villingen-Schwenningen there are mainly electrical, measuring equipment and watch industries. Important companies of the post-war period were or are, among others, SABA (today HGBS ), Kienzle Apparate GmbH ( VDO Automotive , today Continental Automotive GmbH plant Villingen), the Württembergische Uhrenfabrik Bürk , Eugen Trost , Kienzle Uhrenfabrik , Mauthe , Binder Magnete (today Kendrion Binder Magnete ), ISGUS (formerly ISGUS J. Schlenker-Grusen), Kaba GmbH (part of the Kaba Group ), the lighting manufacturers Hess AG and Waldmann Group, and the packaging specialist Aptar Villingen GmbH (formerly MegaPlast GmbH). Since May 7, 1997, Villingen-Schwenningen has also been the seat of Deutsche Post's mail center 78 . Revox (hi-fi audio) is also located there with development and production .
In the central area of Villingen-Schwenningen, the Schwarzwald-Baar Klinikum Villingen-Schwenningen GmbH operates the district's central clinic . The well-known aftercare clinic Tannheim is located in the suburb of Tannheim .
Authorities, courts and institutions
Villingen-Schwenningen is the seat of administration of the Schwarzwald-Baar-circle region Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg and the Chamber of Commerce Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg . There is also a regional center of the German Pension Insurance Baden-Württemberg, which was newly built. Other authorities are a tax office and an employment agency . There is also a district court that belongs to the district court of Konstanz (the district court of Konstanz also has a branch in Villingen-Schwenningen), as well as chambers of the Freiburg Labor Court . There is also a branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank.
Three regional daily newspapers with local editions appear in Villingen-Schwenningen : Der Südkurier (coat section from Konstanz), the Black Forest Bote (coat section from Oberndorf am Neckar) and the Südwest-Presse (with the title "Die Neckarquelle", coat section from Ulm).
The Southwest Broadcasting operates a regional office in the Villinger downtown. From here the program "Radio Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg" is broadcast within SWR4 Baden-Württemberg . The private area broadcaster responsible for Villingen-Schwenningen is Radio 7 (Ulm) . The new Radio Neckarburg ( Rottweil ) is the responsible private local broadcaster.
Are located in Villingen-Schwenningen University of Baden-Württemberg Police , the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University Villingen-Schwenningen , a location of Furtwangen University, Villingen Institute of Public Health of the Steinbeis University Berlin , the Staatliche Feintechnikschule with professional school ( including a technical high school (FTS) and the state vocational school for the hotel and catering industry .
The following are available at general schools:
There are three high schools ( Gymnasium am Deutenberg Schwenningen (GaD), Gymnasium am Hoptbühl and Gymnasium am Romäusring Villingen), two secondary schools (Karl-Brachat-Realschule Villingen and Realschule am Deutenberg Schwenningen), two special needs schools (Janusz-Korczak -Schule and Berthold-Schule), ten primary schools ( Gartenschule Schwenningen, Primary School Im Steppach Villingen, Haslachschule Villingen, Hirschbergschule, Karlschule Schwenningen and Warenberg Primary School Villingen as well as one elementary school each in the districts of Marbach, Rietheim, Tannheim and Weigheim-Mühlhausen), one Secondary school (Am Deutenberg Schwenningen) as well as seven elementary and secondary schools (some with Werkrealschule ) namely Bickeberg School Villingen, Peace School, Golden Bühl School, GHS Pfaffenweiler, GHS Obereschach, Klosterring School Villingen and Südstadtschule Villingen. The Golden Bühl School and the Bickeberg School are now under construction.
The Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis is the sponsor of the Albert-Schweitzer-School (Housekeeping, Agricultural and Socio-Pedagogical School Villingen), the Commercial School I, the David-Würth-School (Commercial School II) and the Commercial School Villingen-Schwenningen as well as the Carl -Orff school for the mentally handicapped with a school kindergarten, the Christy Brown School for the physically handicapped and the school for the language handicapped in Schwenningen .
Several private schools complete the range of schools in Villingen-Schwenningen. These include the municipal evening secondary school, the St. Ursula schools in Villingen (grammar school, secondary school, day school sponsored by the school foundation of the Archdiocese of Freiburg ), the Free Christian Georg Müller School (primary and secondary school), the Inlingua language school, the Motima GmbH School for Physiotherapy, the private hospital school at the Tannheim aftercare clinic , a private school for educational assistance in the VS child and family center, the Rudolf Steiner School (Free Waldorf School ), a private special school kindergarten for the physically handicapped and the nursing school at the Villingen municipal hospitals.
The list of personalities of the city of Villingen-Schwenningen contains the honorary citizens of Villingen-Schwenningen, personalities born in what is now the city area and those who worked in Villingen-Schwenningen but were born elsewhere.
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- City of Villingen-Schwenningen: Figures, data, facts - Villingen-Schwenningen. Retrieved March 6, 2018 .
- Südkurier dated February 28, 2009
- StiASG , document EE5 E15a. 60 Online on e-chartae , accessed June 12, 2020.
- On the identity of the person see Alfons Zettler: Who was Count Bertold, who was founded in 999 by Emperor Otto III. received the market rights for Villingen? In: Annual issue of the history and homeland association Villingen 23, 1999/2000, pp. 9-14 ( digitized version ).
- J. Fuchs: Villingen in the 12th and 13th centuries in: Villingen und die Westbaar , VeröffAlemInst 32, 1972, p. 92
- Freiburg diocesan archive . New series, Volume 5, p. 264.
- Christian Roder, Schulwesen in Villingen In: Zeitschrift für Geschichte des Oberrheins , New Series, Volume 31, p. 222
- Hanß Karl: History of the Ortenau in documents. Volume 3. The cities of Ortenau and their secret capital Strasbourg. Offenburg 1999, p. 185.
- Peter M. Wagner: NPD strongholds in Baden-Württemberg , Duncker & Humblot, Freiburg im Breisgau 1996, p. 79, preview in the Google book search
- Memorial for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation, volume 1. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 101
- About Villingen. History and local history association Villingen e. V., accessed on August 15, 2016 .
- Election results for the city of Schwenningen am Neckar. Retrieved December 30, 2013 .
- Gymnasium am Deutenberg - One hundred and fifty years of high school in Schwenningen aN, Villingen-Schwenningen, 1990, p. 123.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 504 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 517 .
- Villingen Catholic Pastoral Care Unit. Retrieved June 30, 2017 .
- Evangelical town church Schwenningen. Retrieved May 10, 2019 .
- Official website of the KL4
- Fusion to a new congregation. schwarzwaelder-bote.de, January 3, 2020, accessed on March 6, 2020.
- Mosques in Villingen-Schwenningen
- election results. Retrieved July 14, 2019 .
- parliamentwatch.de : Villingen-Schwenningen ( Memento of the original from June 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Casimir Bumiller: Mayor and Lord Mayor since 1796 . In: Casimir Bumiller (ed.): History of the city of Villingen-Schwenningen. Volume II. The Way to Modernity. 1st edition. Verlag der Stadt Villingen-Schwenningen, Villingen-Schwenningen 2017, ISBN 978-3-939423-63-8 , p. 671 .
- New town hall building on the dump , Stuttgarter Zeitung online, September 13, 2012 Removal for the new town hall , Stuttgarter Zeitung online, October 23, 2012; Public announcement of the result of the referendum on October 21, 2012 ( memento of the original from March 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The coat of arms of the city of Villingen-Schwenningen. Retrieved December 31, 2013 .
- City of Villingen-Schwenningen: Partnerships - Villingen-Schwenningen. Retrieved March 6, 2018 .
- Stadtmusik Schwenningen eV Accessed on December 20, 2013 .
- biography and works of the painter Waldemar Flaig. Retrieved December 20, 2013 .
- University tithe Scheuer Villingen
- Gaisser house in new splendor | SÜDKURIER Online
- Folkhard Cremer: A new-object Werkbundbau between traditionalism and expressionism. The Schwenningen town hall by Hans Herkommer . In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg , 42nd year 2013, issue 2, pp. 115–120. ( PDF ( Memento of the original from December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. )
- Folkhard Cremer: A jewel of expressionist architecture. The crematorium at the Schwenningen forest cemetery . In: Preservation of Monuments in Baden-Württemberg , 42nd year 2013, issue 3, pp. 169–174. ( PDF ( Memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. )
- TV 1848 Villingen | Dept. of volleyball |
- Norbert Trippel: Walk in to the garden show . In: Südkurier of May 8, 2010
- Norbert Trippel: It blooms for 152 days . In: Südkurier of May 8, 2010
- Armin Schott: A contaminated industrial wasteland transformed into blooming garden land! "Nature connects" - the lasting elements of the State Garden Show , in: Almanach 2011. Yearbook of the Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, volume 35, pp. 140–151, here p. 146
- Information provided by the promotion company for the Baden-Württembergische Landesgartenschauen mbH , accessed on December 31, 2009
- S. Blocher: Neckartower full to the roof. Schwarzwälder Bote , September 16, 2010, accessed on July 31, 2016 .
- Entry in the directory of monumental oaks . Retrieved January 10, 2017
- Christian Roder : Heinrich Hug's Villinger Chronicle from 1499–1533 , Tübingen 1883.
- Badisches Städtebuch; Volume IV 2nd sub-volume Baden-Württemberg Volume 1 from “German City Book. Handbook of urban history - on behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities ”, ed. by Erich Keyser, Stuttgart 1959.
- Württemberg city book; Volume IV 2nd sub-volume Baden-Württemberg Volume 2 from “German City Book. Handbook of urban history - on behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities ”, ed. by Erich Keyer, Stuttgart 1961.
- Paul Revellio : Contributions to the history of the city of Villingen , Villingen 1964.
- Publication series of the city of Villingen: Inventory of the holdings of the city archive Villingen , 2 volumes, 1970.
- Otto Benzing: Stories from the Neckar Origin . Hermann Kuhn, Villingen-Schwenningen, Schwenningen district 1977.
- Josef Fuchs: Pfründ Archive Villingen , 1982.
- Otto Benzing (Hrsg.): Sources for Schwenninger history from 890 to 1600. All available documents in the original version, in excerpts or in brief contents, in each case in the Latin or Middle High German original form and translated into New High German (= publications from the archive and chronicle of the City of Villingen-Schwenningen ), Verlag Hermann Kuhn, Villingen-Schwenningen 1983, ISBN 3-87450-006-3 .
- August Reitz: From the Neckar's source . 5th edition. Neckar-Verlag, VS-Villingen 1983.
- Friedrich Jacobs: Villingen as a whole under monument protection. In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg , 21st year 1992, issue 3, p. 88 ff. ( PDF; 6.7 MB )
- Villinger sports history; A Villinger chronicle of the individual physical exercises from the Middle Ages to after the Second World War. “From games to sports” by Klaus Willner, 1998.
- Gerhard Fingerlin , Albrecht Greule : Schwenningen. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 27, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-018116-9 , pp. 521-523.
- Siegfried Heinzmann: Schwenningen - My city is turning a hundred . Hermann Kuhn Verlag, Villingen-Schwenningen 2006, ISBN 978-3-87450-046-3 .
- Anita Auer, Peter Graßmann: How does Villingen-Schwenningen tick? The magazine for the exhibition , Franziskanermuseum Villingen-Schwenningen, (= Publications of the City Archives and the City Museums Villingen-Schwenningen, vol. 41), Villingen-Schwenningen 2017, ISBN 978-3-939423-68-3
- Official website of the city of Villingen-Schwenningen
- Official website of the village of Obereschach
- Architecture in Villingen on "Baukunst Baden"
- Johanniterhaus Schwenningen in the database of monasteries in Baden-Württemberg of the Baden-Württemberg State Archives
- Johanniterkommende Villingen in the database of monasteries in Baden-Württemberg of the Baden-Württemberg State Archives