According to the international definition, a daily newspaper is a printed product that appears at least four times a week, now mostly daily from Monday to Saturday , that offers comprehensive reporting and is aimed at a general audience. Daily newspapers are differentiated according to their area of distribution as regional newspapers and national newspapers . The tabloid is a special form of the daily newspaper . Almost all daily newspapers in Germany now appear in the morning edition, which means that subscription and delivery to retailers takes place in the early hours of the day of publication.
As a forerunner of the daily newspaper, in ancient Rome the consul Gaius Julius Caesar 59 BC. Chr. Introduced until at least 235 n. Chr. Probably not always appeared daily news bulletins Acta diurna apply.
The first modern newspaper appeared on July 1, 1650 in Leipzig : Two years after the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Leipzig printer and bookseller Timotheus Ritzsch converted his weekly newspaper, which had been published four times a week since 1643, into a daily newspaper. The new Incoming Newspapers appeared six times a week from 1650 onwards. Each issue consisted of four pages measuring approximately 13.5 by 17 centimeters. The edition was about 200 copies. The incoming newspapers were set in metal letters and printed by hand on a wooden printing press .
Tasks and characteristics of a daily newspaper
Four features characterize a newspaper: 1. Publicity, that is, the general accessibility of the publication . 2. The topicality , the publication of the message should be as close as possible to the associated event. 3. The newspaper must appear regularly ( periodicity ). 4. the universality, the editorial and thus the content diversity of the newspaper. A daily newspaper must appear at least four times a week, otherwise it is referred to as a weekly newspaper .
A daily newspaper has the task of informing the population, commenting on the events and analyzing them. It is therefore very important for the daily dissemination of information and thus also for the formation of opinion in society.
The five most important and classic sections of a daily newspaper are politics, economy, culture, local affairs and sports; In addition, today there are often science, travel, entertainment and more. A newspaper consists of individual folded layers of paper that are not stapled together. These layers are also called books. In the case of daily newspapers, politics is always in the first book, and economics is usually in the second; then culture and sport follow. A daily newspaper consists of two parts, the editorial part and the advertising part. Both must be clearly different from one another in terms of design.
In the past there were almost exclusively full editorial teams who wrote and created all the articles for their publications themselves. Today, especially with local and regional newspapers, there is a trend towards general editorial offices, mainly for cost reasons .
Readers can express their opinion with letters to the editor , now often also in the form of an e-mail or blog comment. For the newspaper, a letter to the editor means feedback and strengthens the bond between readers and newspapers. Today newspaper publishers also provide other services for their readers, for example they organize events or trips, and they often sponsor cultural events.
The daily newspaper is often only printed at night and then delivered straight away: around 80% of the daily newspaper's sold circulation is sold or delivered to subscribers between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. For this there must be a functioning distribution system ( press distribution ). Daily newspapers are either sold in stores, the so-called press wholesalers, or by subscription (approx. 50%). On the other hand, commercial newspapers , like the Bild newspaper for a long time , are only sold individually. The sold circulation of daily newspapers has decreased continuously in recent years, especially in retail sales.
National newspapers are often read at work for professional reasons and appeal to an upscale target group. Regional newspapers, on the other hand, should address a broader segment of the population. Frequently, both a regional and a national daily newspaper are read, although some national daily newspapers also have local editions.
An Allensbach survey from 2002 on the subject of “Trust in the media” showed that 32% of those surveyed in Germany enjoy television more credibility than newspapers, in which 19% have greater trust.
The daily newspaper market in different countries
Daily newspapers in Germany
In 2004, 299 of a total of 443 German districts (districts and cities) were so-called single - newspaper districts that were only supplied by a daily local or regional newspaper. Many of these titles cooperate closely with others and are partly identical to them. All newspapers that appear with a common cover are also referred to as a " journalistic unit ". In 2006 there were 137 such units in Germany, which, in view of the wide range of collaborations, are seen as the best statistical approximation for newspaper head offices and thus as a measure of journalistic diversity.
In 2009 there were 351 daily newspaper titles in Germany with a total daily circulation of 25.31 million, of which 334 were local or regional daily newspapers (circulation: 14.85 million). According to the eighth date collection of German daily newspapers that Walter Schütz on behalf of the Academy of Music and Drama in Hannover conducted, there were 2,012 333 company legally independent newspaper publishers in Germany. These 333 newspapers were looked after by 130 full editorial teams and publish 1,527 different local editions.
From 2002 to 2012, the total circulation of German daily newspapers fell from 27.49 to 21.13 million copies (including ePaper sales).
National daily newspapers
The Kölnische Zeitung was considered to be the first supraregional and undisputed leading German-language daily throughout the 19th century .
Only a few German daily newspapers are considered to be national newspapers that are recognized nationwide. The definition of these national newspapers is difficult because it has not yet been possible to find exact criteria. Most of the daily newspapers that are considered supraregional continue to sell more than half of their circulation in their regional area in which they have local editorial offices, and are therefore also regional newspapers at the same time.
The most sensible differentiation from purely regional newspapers is achieved through the criterion of nationwide availability in retail sales in kiosks and supermarkets as well as through the nationwide perception and opinion-forming function of the main editorial offices. The newspapers recognized in this way contain - with the exception of the tabloid Bild - a quantitatively and qualitatively clearly above-average political, features and economic section. Since the weight in the formation of public opinion depends on the size, equipment and competence of the editorial team, it differs between the newspapers. In addition, it changes over time, so a list cannot be considered permanent.
The national daily newspapers in Germany with a circulation of 20,000 or more are:
|Daily newspaper (abbreviation)||Place of the publisher||Copies sold
(source IVW 2/2020)
(source MA 2019 II )
|Print run (self-reported)|
|Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ)||Munich||307.973||1,280,000||-|
|Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ)||Frankfurt am Main||183.008||830,000||-|
|the daily newspaper (taz)||Berlin||51,563||240,000||-|
|New Germany (nd)||Berlin||19,531||-||-|
|Young World (jW)||Berlin||-||-||25,600 - 27,900|
* Boulevard ** with an economic focus
The supraregional newspapers are often classified in the political spectrum of Germany: The Süddeutsche Zeitung is considered to be left-wing liberal, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) as conservative-liberal, the world as conservative. The left-wing alternative, the daily newspaper (taz), has significantly lower circulation figures .
The Berliner Tagesspiegel , which describes itself as the "Newspaper for Berlin and Germany", stands on the border between a national daily newspaper and a regional newspaper with national standards . The Börsen-Zeitung is also published throughout Germany in Frankfurt am Main with an economic focus.
Daily newspapers crisis
In 2013, the crisis in which almost all daily newspapers in Germany find themselves became unmistakable due to the bankruptcy of the Frankfurter Rundschau and the discontinuation of the Financial Times Deutschland . Daily newspapers in other countries have similar problems. The reasons given include:
- Declining advertising revenue . In 2012 they only amounted to around 40% of total income and had already fallen steadily before that. In contrast, sales revenues, which for decades only played a subordinate role, rose proportionally to 52.8% of all revenues.
- A circulation that has been declining for years has resulted in falling sales revenues (unless prices have increased). The circulation fell on average by 2% per year (in the 2nd quarter of 2012 compared to the same quarter of the previous year by 2.4%). Daily sales of around 18.4 million copies in 2012 were compared to over 27.3 million in 1991.
- Since the achievable advertising price depends on the circulation, a falling circulation leads to falling advertising revenues in the long term .
- So-called electronic newspapers cannot compensate for the decline in income.
The German daily newspapers suffer primarily from falling advertising revenues. The official statistics of the BDZV show that income has been falling continuously since 2007. Despite falling circulation, the daily newspapers have been able to increase their income from the sale of subscriptions and individual issues every year since 2002. But this does not make up for the advertising losses; The total turnover of German daily newspapers fell from 10.23 billion euros in 2000 to 7.7 billion euros in 2012 - a decrease of almost a quarter of the total turnover. The losses in the advertising market are increasing; after a decline of 8.93% in 2012, daily newspapers lost another 9.37% of their advertising turnover in 2013 compared to the previous year.
|year||Net advertising revenue (€ billion)||Change compared to previous year (%)||Income subscription / single sale (billion €)||Change compared to previous year (%)||Total turnover (billion €)||Change compared to previous year (%)|
See also: newspaper
Daily newspapers in Switzerland
Due to the language conditions in Switzerland, one can differentiate between French, Italian and German-language newspapers. The Neue Zürcher Zeitung is considered a liberal-conservative newspaper, the Tages-Anzeiger as a left-wing liberal. In French-speaking Switzerland , Le Temps is a national newspaper. The most widely read daily newspapers in western Switzerland are the tabloid Le Matin , followed by 24 heures (with the headline Tribune de Genève ).
The daily newspapers with the highest circulation are the tabloids. The commuter newspaper 20 Minuten is the newspaper with the highest circulation, closely followed by the tabloids Blick in German and Le Matin in French-speaking Switzerland. In addition to the appearing in the morning free newspaper 20 minutes (respectively 20 minutes in western Switzerland) of Tamedia in the evening in public places and railway stations evening view of Ringier distributed.
The major daily newspapers in the regions, mostly with local headers, are: Aargauer Zeitung , Basler Zeitung , Berner Zeitung , Der Bund ( Bern ), Luzerner Zeitung , St. Galler Tagblatt and Südostschweiz ( Chur ).
Daily newspapers in Austria
The national, large-format daily newspapers in Austria are Der Standard , Die Presse , der Kurier , Salzburger Nachrichten and Wiener Zeitung . The latter - founded in 1703 - is the oldest daily newspaper that is still published worldwide.
On September 1, 2006, the 17th Austrian daily called Österreich came onto the market with an initial circulation of 250,000 (up to 600,000 on weekends). The publisher is the Austrian journalist and media maker Wolfgang Fellner .
On June 5, 2006, Vorarlberger Nachrichten was named “Newspaper of the Year 06”.
Daily newspapers in Denmark
The national high-quality daily newspapers in Denmark are Berlingske Tidende , Politiken and Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten . Børsen , Dagbladet Information and Kristeligt Dagblad are of lesser circulation and importance . There are also the boulevard- oriented Ekstra Bladet and BT
Daily newspapers in France
The largest French daily newspapers differ significantly in their basic political stance. The sheets with the highest circulation are Le Figaro (2014: 325,459 copies) and Le Monde (2014: 298,529 copies, of which 21,526 abroad). Le Monde is the most widely read French daily newspaper abroad . Traditionally conservative, Le Figaro is part of Groupe Dassault , an industrial, defense and media company that owns over 70 newspapers. Le Monde is left-wing liberal and until June 2010 was mostly owned by the editors. It now belongs to Pierre Bergé , who is close to the French left . It is the only French daily newspaper that appears in the late afternoon.
Le Parisien / Aujourd'hui en France (2014: 233,751 copies) can be assigned to the boulevard. It is sold exclusively in France and has lost a lot of its reach in recent years (-16.6% from 2012 to 2014).
There are also three other daily newspapers, the left-liberal Liberation (2014: 100,600 copies), the conservative Catholic La Croix (2014: 104,000 copies) and the communist L'Humanité (2014: 43,700 copies).
Daily newspapers in Luxembourg
The largest daily newspapers in Luxembourg are the Luxemburger Wort , the Tageblatt. Newspaper fir Lëtzebuerg and the Lëtzebuerger Journal . The newspapers vum Lëtzebuerger Vollek and Le Quotidien are of lower circulation and importance .
Daily newspapers in the Netherlands
The high-circulation paid daily newspapers in the Netherlands are De Telegraaf , AD , de Volkskrant and NRC Handelsblad . In West Germany these Dutch newspapers can usually be found in newsagents and updated daily. Since 1999, nationwide free newspapers with editorial content have also appeared, which quickly developed into serious competition to the paid newspapers.
Daily newspapers in Great Britain
The press landscape in the United Kingdom is divided into the more serious “Quality Press” on the one hand, and the Popular Press , which mainly deals with celebrities and human destinies, on the other. The four big reputable daily newspapers are the Daily Telegraph (conservative), The Times (conservative-right), The Guardian (left and social-liberal) and (since 2016 only digital) The Independent (left-liberal). All four also maintain Sunday newspapers . The Financial Times is also a newspaper with an economic focus. In general, British newspapers position themselves politically to a much greater extent than is the case in Germany and regularly make election recommendations.
The Sun , the Daily Mail , the Daily Mirror and the Daily Star are examples of the multitude of products in the tabloid press . They all have a (sometimes significantly) higher circulation than the daily newspaper with the highest circulation of the "Quality Press", the Daily Telegraph . In principle, the circulation of all British newspapers has fallen sharply in recent years, especially the newspapers of the "Quality Press", but they are losing immensely in readers and subscribers. The Independent discontinued its print edition on March 26, 2016 and has only appeared in digital form since then.
- Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann , Winfried Schulz, Jürgen Wilke (eds.): Fischer Lexikon. Journalism mass communication . Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-596-12260-0 .
- Werner Faulstich (Ed.): Basic knowledge of the media . Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7705-2918-9 .
- Newspapers 2006 . Federal Association of German Newspaper Publishers, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-939705-00-4 .
- Urszula Dolder, Vera Zahn: Newspaper Distribution Atlas 2019/20 - Distribution areas and distribution-analytical data of the daily newspapers. ZMG newspaper market research company (ed.). Frankfurt am Main 2018, ISBN 978-3-922537-59-5 .
- Current covers of daily newspapers worldwide. Newseum
- Report on the journey of a newspaper from the printer to the reader
- Revised Recommendation concerning the International Standardization of Statistics on the Production and Distribution of Books, Newspapers and Periodicals. In: UNESCO , Office of International Standards and Legal Affairs. November 1, 1985.
- Trust in the media | Statistics. Retrieved August 7, 2018 .
- The German newspaper landscape - developments and perspectives. ( Memento of January 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) May 27, 2010; for comparison: 353 / 21.19 million, Federal Association of German Newspaper Publishers: Newspapers 2006 . Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-939705-00-4 .
- Steffen Grimberg: Everything that matters. In: Sonntaz. 39, 14./15. July 2012.
- Home | Information community to determine the distribution of advertising media e. V. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on December 21, 2012 ; accessed on August 7, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Newspaper MA: “Süddeutsche”, “FAZ”, “Welt” and “taz” with surprising increases in readers, “WamS” and “FAS” even more clearly in the plus meedia.de, July 24, 2019
- “The FAZ is predominantly described as conservative-liberal, liberal-conservative. There is nothing wrong with this designation. It will stay that way. ”Werner D'Inka (co-editor of the FAZ) 2007 in Old Wine in New Bottles . Deutschlandfunk, October 6, 2007; Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- Christoph Sydow: Insolvency of the "Frankfurter Rundschau": The tide has turned. November 13, 2012, accessed April 2, 2013 .
- The German newspapers in numbers and dates. (PDF; 785 kB) Excerpt from the "Newspapers 2012/13" yearbook. BDZV , November 2, 2012, accessed April 2, 2013 .
- Michael Heffler, Pamela Möbus: The advertising market 2013: TV advertising dominates the advertising market . In: Media Perspektiven . June 2014, p. 314-324 .
- Economic situation ( Memento of the original from September 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , BZDV, rubric: The German newspapers in figures and data. As of October 30, 2013.
- On the economic situation of newspapers in Germany in 2014. ( Memento from January 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) BDZV
- Association pour contrôle de la diffusion des médias : 2014 figures.
- The Independent becomes the first national newspaper to embrace a global, digital-only future. In: theindependent.co.uk. February 12, 2016, accessed July 10, 2017 .