Parti socialiste (France)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parti socialiste
Socialist Party
Logo of the PS
Olivier Faure (2012)
First secretary Olivier Faure
speaker Gabrielle Siry, Boris Vallaud , Pierre Jouvet, Dieynaba Diop
Treasurer Pernelle Richardot
founding 4th May 1969
Place of foundation Alfortville
Headquarters 59 Rue Jules Vanzuppe
94200 Ivry sur Seine
formerly Paris
Youth organization Mouvement des Jeunes Socialistes
newspaper La Revue Socialiste
Alignment Social Democracy
Democratic Socialism
Colours) Pink , red
National Assembly 2017
senate 2017
Number of members 102,000 (March 2018)
International connections Socialist International , Progressive Alliance
European party Party of European Socialists (PES)
EP Group Group of the Progressive Alliance of Social Democrats in the European Parliament (S&D)

The Parti socialiste ([ paʁˈti ˌsosjaˈlist ], abbreviation PS ), German  socialist party , is a political party in France . It pursues a democratic- socialist or social-democratic program and belongs to the Social Democratic Party of Europe , the Progressive Alliance and the Socialist International . In the Fifth Republic it has so far provided several prime ministers and two presidents : François Mitterrand (1981–1995) and François Hollande (2012–2017).

Party history

The PS emerged in 1969 from the Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière (SFIO; French section of the Workers' International) and the Parti Radical Socialiste or Parti Socialiste Unifié and was founded in May 1969 at the party congress in Alfortville on the initiative of Alain Savary . At the following party congress in Issy-les-Moulineaux in July 1969, the founding process was completed and Alain Savary was elected Secretary General.

Traditionally, the French left was divided into the larger Communist Party (PCF) and several small socialist currents and parties, with the workers predominantly organizing themselves in the PCF, while the strongly anti-communist SFIO developed more and more into a party of honor in the course of post-war history. In the 1960s, when the socialist presidential candidate Gaston Defferre only achieved 5 percent, the socialist and social democratic currents in France were renewed in around 120 different clubs. In May 1968 , when Paris and the whole of France were temporarily standing still due to a wave of strikes, the weakness of this lack of programmatic and organizational unity of the socialist left, which led to the creation of the PS, was revealed. Only the unification of the non-communist left in the PS as the third-strongest political force at the time made it possible to reactivate the alliance with the PCF, which ultimately resulted in François Mitterrand's presidency .

The Mitterrand era

In 1971 the PS merged with the Fédération de la Gauche Démocrate et Socialiste or the Convention des Institutions Républicaines (CIR). François Mitterrand was first secretary of the PS from 1971 to 1981. The party experienced a reorientation under his leadership at the party congress in Épinay-sur-Seine . In 1972 Mitterrand and Georges Marchais signed a joint government program of socialists and communists, which was the basis for joint successful election campaigns and was based on a rejection of capitalism .

With the election of François Mitterrand as president in 1981, the PS came to power for the first time. Mitterrand's time as PS chairman ended; Lionel Jospin was PS chairman from 1981 to 1988 . The government spent about two years trying to stimulate demand (with nationalizations , salary increases and working hours cuts ). In 1983 the PS took a new direction, which de facto meant the party's turning away from a socialist to a pragmatic, social democratic economic policy. Because of the austerity measures introduced by Jacques Delors against the poor economic situation and the budget deficit , on which the PS and PCF could not agree, their governing coalition broke up. On July 17, 1984, the Mauroy III cabinet ended; he was followed by the Fabius cabinet (PS / PRG ).

Since then, the PS has been the larger and dominant political force on the left, both in the National Assembly and in French political life in general.

The PS traditionally consisted of four currents ( Courants ):

  • the Courant Mitterrand , the largest, left-pragmatic current with supporters of the former CIR, who was later represented by Lionel Jospin , Laurent Fabius , Ségolène Royal and Bertrand Delanoë (also known as social-libéral or social-democrate )
  • the Courant Mauroy / Defferre , the "mayor's wing", which was recruited from former SFIO members and represented by Pierre Mauroy and Gaston Defferre
  • the Courant Rocard , left-wing social democratic members of the former PSU and the trade union confederation CFDT , their demand was the collective self-administration of the company by the employees until the 1980s , later they also represented left-liberal ideas as a counterweight to the traditional emphasis on the state - under the leadership of Michel Rocard as well
  • the orthodox-Marxist-oriented wing under Jean-Pierre Chevènement , which was organized in the Center d'Études, de Recherches et d'Éducation Socialistes (CÉRÉS).

In 1989, Mitterrand called for more European integration through economic and monetary union as a condition for his acceptance of the German reunification process ; Important decisions on the introduction of the euro were taken at the European summit in Strasbourg (December 8 and 9, 1989) .

On August 2, 1990, Iraqi troops occupied Kuwait on the orders of the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein . A coalition of 20 states , led by the USA, then made preparations for the Second Gulf War and prepared combat operations. Mitterrand advocated French participation in the Second Gulf War (Opération Daguet). Jean-Pierre Chevènement and his supporters, who opposed this war, left the PS and founded the movements Mouvement des citoyens (MDC) and Gauche Socialiste (GS).

Mitterrand's election (fight) program "110 Proposals" had mainly listed deficit spending measures; these should create additional jobs and permanently increase demand . The national debt rose; unemployment too. This was probably one of the main reasons for the severe defeat of the PS in the 1993 parliamentary elections .

In 1993 the youth association Mouvement des Jeunes Socialistes (MJS) obtained its structural independence from the party.

To Mitterrand

Martine Aubry giving a speech (2008)

The Socialists' favorite to succeed Mitterrand was Jacques Delors , but in December 1994, a few months before the 1995 presidential election , he announced that he would not stand. In a primary election , Lionel Jospin finally prevailed with just under two-thirds of the votes against the then First Secretary of the PS, Henri Emmanuelli . Jospin lost the presidential election to Jacques Chirac .

Immediately after the presidential election, Jospin became First Secretary of the Parti Socialiste. He led the PS in the early elections in 1997, which the party at the head of the Gauche plurielle was able to win surprisingly. Jospin became prime minister in a cohabitation , his successor at the party leadership François Hollande . The economy recovered under Jospin as Prime Minister (1997 to 2002). During this time, the Amsterdam Treaty was also implemented , the euro was introduced , the Pacte civil de solidarité (PACS, comparable to the German registered civil partnership ) and state-owned companies were privatized . The Jospin government also initiated the introduction of the 35-hour week.

In the meantime new currents have formed in the PS, such as

On April 21, 2002, the party experienced a real trauma in the presidential elections when its candidate and incumbent Prime Minister Lionel Jospin missed the second ballot with only 16 percent of the vote, which was reached instead by Jacques Chirac and the right-wing extremist Jean-Marie Le Pen . The supporters were forced to support Chirac, a presidential candidate who stood for policies that were alien to the party, in order to fend off Jean-Marie Le Pen. Jospin's defeat came as a surprise to most observers at home and abroad, as surveys had previously forecast a head-to-head race between Jospin and Chirac, but Le Pen was rated well below his eventual election result. The defeat led Jospin to withdraw from active politics, and as a result the PS also lost the elections to the National Assembly in June 2002.

The 2003 Dijon party congress , marked by the 2002 election defeats, was marked by both a return to core values ​​and concerns about the increasing popularity of the right-wing extremist Front National . This led to a distancing from traditional French-style socialism with its philosophy, which is more to the left in European comparison, towards a more social-democratic direction, for which Guy Mollet became a symbol.

In the 2004 regional elections, the Socialists won in all regions of metropolitan France with the exception of Alsace and Corsica, and were confirmed by their performance in the European elections a few months later. However, it cannot be clearly determined whether these positive results for the party were more a rejection of the politics of the government at the time: the criminally relevant scandals of President Jacques Chirac and the chairman of his party Alain Juppé were also seen by observers as a reason for understood the recovery of the PS.

The debate about the European constitution

The debate about the European Constitution split the party, as the debate was used both within the party and by political opponents to gain influence with regard to the 2007 presidential elections or to weaken the party. In an internal party referendum at the end of 2004, the majority of party members initially voted in favor of ratifying the European Constitution.

In the referendum on May 29, 2005 on the European Constitution, the PS was deeply divided: While party leader François Hollande pleaded for adoption, Henri Emmanuelli and Laurent Fabius worked against the adoption of the constitution. When the supporters were defeated in the referendum, at the following party meeting on June 4, 2005, members who, contrary to the majority view of the party, had campaigned for a rejection of the constitution - although representatives of the majority opinion within the population - were removed from the party leadership at the national level locked out. François Hollande, in his function as party chairman, announced an early party congress for November 18, 2005.

More concretely and across individual currents, French socialism can be divided into four main fractions:

  • those who see the main task of the socialists in a more progressive administration of the liberal system, following the example of Tony Blair , for whom an adjustment to the system appears necessary in order to make it more just in the future
  • those to whom social changes, like Zapatero, mean more than social changes
  • those who do everything in the struggle for social equality and structural changes in the market economy following the example of Jospin
  • those who, as Marxists of the left wing, hold on to the fact that capitalism is outdated as a form of society - divided opinion on the results of the referendum, but thereby generally strengthened in their line.

From 2007: deep crisis and recovery

As a candidate for the Parti Socialiste for the 2007 presidential election, Ségolène Royal prevailed against Laurent Fabius and Dominique Strauss-Kahn . Royal made a name for himself in the election campaign against her party and led an election campaign that was highly tailored to her person. She was able to achieve a good election result: with 25.87 percent, she achieved the best result of a presidential candidate of the PS since François Mitterrand in the first ballot , in the second ballot she was defeated by Nicolas Sarkozy ( UMP ) with 47 to 53 percent.

Following the presidential election and the parliamentary election that followed, which was also lost, the political disputes within the Parti Socialiste intensified, also due to Sarkozy's initial great popularity and his approach of integrating leading politicians from the French left into his government. The disputes escalated at the party congress in Reims in 2008. In the vote on the work program, the current around Ségolène Royal received the most votes with 29 percent, but was far from having its own majority. The currents around Bertrand Delanoë (25 percent), Martine Aubry (24 percent) and Benoît Hamon (19 percent) also failed to agree on a common working basis.

Martine Aubry, Benoît Hamon and Ségolène Royal ran for the primary election of the PS's First Secretary, which immediately followed the Reims Congress. The incumbent First Secretary François Hollande had already announced in the run-up to the congress that he would not run for office again, the Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, who was favored according to surveys, declined to run and called for the election of Martine Aubry. Ségolène Royal won the first ballot on November 20, 2008 with 42.9 percent of the vote, ahead of Martine Aubry (34.5 percent) and Benoît Hamon (22.6 percent). For the runoff election the following day, Hamon called for Aubry to be elected. Martine Aubry saw the first result for this runoff election as the winner with 42 votes ahead of Royal (50.02 to 49.98 percent). The Royal camp accused the party leadership (which had supported Aubry) and the Aubry camp of manipulating the elections. The party leadership then had a recount carried out, which confirmed Aubry's victory, with a slightly larger margin of 102 votes; this result was subsequently confirmed by the party congress. The announcement by the Royal camp to challenge the result in public courts was dropped in the course of the following months. There was speculation in the media that the PS could split into two or even four groups, which, however, excluded representatives of all currents.

The disputes over the party congress in Reims are considered to be one of the reasons for the severe defeat of the Parti Socialiste in the European elections in 2009: The PS only got 16.5 percent of the vote (-12.4 percentage points compared to 2004) and was able to take the leading position in the left camp just ahead of the Greens (16.3 percent).

Martine Aubry and the leadership of the PS, in which Aubry incorporated all major currents except for Royal, succeeded in stabilizing the Parti Socialiste again. It was also helped by the fact that the government of Nicolas Sarkozy lost its popularity and some of its measures, in particular reforms in the social sector, met with massive popular protests.

In the 2010 regional elections, the PS was able to slightly increase its 2004 result. In the first ballot he received 29 percent of the vote. Overall, the political left, led by the PS, won all regions of European France with the exception of Alsace and gained Corsica in the process. In the cantonal elections in 2011, the PS was able to win again together with the other parties of the left. As a result, this led to the fact that the left won a majority in the French Senate for the first time in the 2011 Senate election, with the PS winning 28 senators.

François Hollande, President of France (2012-17)

Election victories in 2012

For the nomination of the presidential candidate in 2012 , the Parti Socialiste opted for primaries in which non-members could also participate (primaires citoyennes) . Martine Aubry, Jean-Michel Baylet from the PRG , François Hollande, Arnaud Montebourg, Ségolène Royal and Manuel Valls applied. François Hollande won the primaries in the runoff election against Martine Aubry.

François Hollande won the presidential election in the runoff election on May 6, 2012 with 51.62 percent of the vote against incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy . After 10 years of opposition, the PS was again represented in the government and appointed the president (for the first time since 1995). In the parliamentary elections in June 2012 , the PS received 29.4% of the vote, narrowly missing the absolute majority of the mandates and with other left parties achieved a clear majority in parliament. For the first time in the Fifth Republic , the Left provided the President and the majority in both chambers of parliament ( National Assembly and Senate ).

François Hollande's presidency

The election of Hollande as the new president was followed by a change in the party leadership: Martine Aubry resigned from her post, and Harlem Désir was elected her successor in October 2012 .

The government under Hollande and Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault quickly lost popularity. This led to a clear defeat of the PS in the local elections in 2014. After this defeat, the Ayrault government resigned and Manuel Valls became the new prime minister . There was also a change at the top of the party, where Jean-Christophe Cambadélis replaced Harlem Désir. Also in the European elections in 2014 the PS lost a lot and only got 14 percent of the votes and third place behind the Front National and the UMP . In the 2014 Senate elections, the PS lost 17 seats and the Left overall lost a majority in the Senate. In the 2015 département elections, the left lost a total of 28 presidents of the département councils while making a gain; the PS now has 26 (previously 48).

The government years were characterized by a dispute over the economic, social and financial policy of the government. After President Hollande announced a change of course towards a liberal policy oriented towards budget consolidation at the beginning of 2014, which the government implemented especially after switching to Manuel Valls, an intra-party opposition formed, the core of which are around 40 members of parliament, the so-called frondeurs . In April 2014, 41 MPs from the PS abstained from the vote on the stability program introduced by Manuel Valls, 3 voted against. At the end of August 2014, the Valls government resigned after Economics Minister Arnaud Montebourg and Education Minister Benoît Hamon sharply criticized government policy and Hollande. In the vote on the government declaration of the newly formed Valls II government , which at Hollande's express request no longer included critics of economic policy, 31 socialist MPs abstained, which meant that the government missed an absolute majority. After the frondeurs announced their rejection, the government was only able to avoid a vote defeat on a comprehensive economic reform program ( Loi Macron ) in June 2015 by resorting to an exception provision in the constitution that allows a law to be enacted without the consent of the National Assembly, if there is none Motion of censure is successful.

For the PS congress in Poitiers, the program text submitted by the incumbent First Secretary Jean-Christophe Cambadélis, which largely supported government policy and was signed by most of the party sizes outside the frondeurs , achieved a clear majority of 60 percent; the text submitted by the frondeurs reached 29 percent. In the subsequent primary election of the first secretary, Cambadélis received a good 70 percent of the votes against Christian Paul, who was set up by the frondeurs .

Crash in the 2017 elections

For a long time it was unclear whether François Hollande would run again as a candidate in the 2017 presidential election. On December 1, 2016, Hollande announced that he would not stand again. As expected, Prime Minister Manuel Valls announced his candidacy shortly afterwards and resigned from the Prime Minister's office. Several applicants from the frondeurs environment had already announced their candidacy, in particular the former Minister of Economics Arnaud Montebourg and the former Minister of Education Benoît Hamon . Overall, the people listed in the table below took part in the primary election that the PS carried out together with several allied parties in the so-called Belle Alliance Populaire ; two further applications were rejected due to a lack of supporting signatures.

In the first round of voting on January 23, 2017, Benoît Hamon and Manuel Valls received the most votes (around 36% and 31% respectively), but both fell far short of an absolute majority. The runoff election took place between them on January 29th. Hamon clearly won this with 59% of the vote.

Result of the primaries of the Belle Alliance Populaire 2017
candidate First ballot
on January 22nd
Second ballot
on January 29th
be right % be right %
Benoît Hamon (PS) 596,647 36.03 1,181,872 58.69
Manuel Valls (PS) 521.238 31.48 831.871 41.31
Arnaud Montebourg (PS) 290.070 17.52 - -
Vincent Peillon (PS) 112,718 6.81 - -
François de Rugy ( UDI / PE ) 63,430 3.83 - -
Sylvia Pinel ( PRG ) 33,067 2.00 - -
Jean-Luc Bennahmias ( UDE / FD ) 16,869 1.02 - -
Blank ballot papers 11,766 0.7
Invalid votes 10.114 0.61
Total votes 1,655,919 100.00

After Hamon, originally rated as having no chance , was able to catch up with the leading candidates Emmanuel Macron , François Fillon and Marine Le Pen in polls immediately after the primary election , he lost more and more in the polls in the further course of the election campaign until he was before the first ballot on April 23, 2017 only in fifth place behind the named and Jean-Luc Mélenchon was. On March 29, Manuel Valls publicly announced that he would vote for Emmanuel Macron in the election. This statement by Valls was in open contradiction to a promise to support the primary election winner, which Valls had made like all other primary candidates. It exacerbated the crisis, in which the party was not just since the election campaign, and led to sharp criticism of Valls. His behavior was viewed by many members and supporters of the PS as a betrayal of the party. But Hamon was also criticized for having contributed to the discord within the party as a member of the Frondeurs before the election campaign and for not having made any efforts to unite the left and, in particular, to involve the Valls and Hollande camps.

In the presidential election, Hamon received 6.36 percent of the vote, by far the worst result of a PS candidate in the party's history. The PS also crashed in the following parliamentary election and received only 7.44 percent of the vote in the first ballot. In the second ballot she was able to win 30 parliamentary seats.

On the evening of the second round of parliamentary elections, party leader Jean-Christophe Cambadélis resigned. In contrast, the parliamentary group leader Olivier Faure , who was only elected in December 2016, was confirmed in office. At the end of June, Manuel Valls announced his resignation from the PS, he had already not run as a candidate for the PS in the parliamentary elections. At the beginning of July 2017, Benoît Hamon also announced that he would be leaving the PS.

When the vote on the political program of the Philippe government on July 4, 2017, the majority of the parliamentary group of the Parti Socialiste, which now operates under the name Nouvelle Gauche , abstained .

Since 2017

On July 8, 2017, the party executive set up a sixteen-member provisional party leadership, but Ericka Bareigts resigned only one day later . Unlike originally planned, the tour also includes a person from Hamon's environment.

In March 2018, the PS conducted the primary election, customary in the run-up to a party congress, of the political programs of the individual currents and thus, in fact, of the party's first secretary. The program text presented by Olivier Faure , chairman of the PS parliamentary group, received 48.6 percent of the votes. The first signatory of the second-placed program text , Stéphane Le Foll (26.1 percent), declared that he would not stand for the runoff election for the office of First Secretary, so that Faure was the only candidate for this position; he received 86 percent of the vote in this primary election on March 29. When the program was voted on, another text by Emmanuel Maurel came to 19.0 percent, while that of Luc Carvounas reached 6.4 percent. Only around 37,000 of the party's 100,000 members voted, the lowest voter turnout in its history in a program vote.

A few days after the primary election, the party's youth organization, the Mouvement des Jeunes Socialistes (MJS), announced that it wanted to break away from the Parti Socialiste; one will in future support the movement of Benoît Hamon , Génération.s. Parallel to the PS party congress in Aubervilliers, a MJS congress changed the statutes accordingly; However, only those in favor of the replacement took part in the congress, while opponents announced at the party congress of the PS that they would remain in the PS and claim the name of the movement.

Present situation of the party in French politics

With around 100,000 members, the PS is the fourth largest party in France (after En Marche ! , Les Républicains and the Parti communiste français ).

Since 1958, the beginning of the Fifth Republic , two socialists have been elected president, namely François Mitterrand in 1981 (re-elected in 1988) and François Hollande in 2012. So far, nine members of the party have held the office of prime minister , five under Mitterrand's presidency ( Pierre Mauroy 1981–1984 , Laurent Fabius 1984–1986, Michel Rocard 1988–1991, Édith Cresson 1991–1992 and Pierre Bérégovoy 1992–1993), Lionel Jospin 1997–2002 under Jacques Chirac's presidency and Jean-Marc Ayrault 2012–2014, Manuel Valls 2014–2016 and Bernard Cazeneuve 2016–2017 under President François Hollande.

In the National Assembly , the PS in the Nouvelle Gauche parliamentary group had 31 MPs after the 2017 election, including three members from other parties. On the other hand, two MPs who ran for the PS in the election have joined the La République en Marche parliamentary group. In the 14th legislative period, the PS still had an absolute majority of the mandates.

As of October 1, 2011, the PS represented the strongest parliamentary group in the Senate for the first time in the history of parliament and, together with other left-wing parties, had a majority for the first time. It lost this majority again in 2014.

5 of the 18 regions - the party suffered a significant defeat in the regional elections in France in 2015 - and 27 of the 101 departments have a socialist president.

Inner party currents

The PS has traditionally been shaped by a large number of political currents, which are regrouped again and again and, especially before party congresses, form different alliances. The differences between the currents are partly justified in terms of content, but partly also through dislikes or loyalties between their leaders.

Roughly four directions can be distinguished within the PS:

  • the socialist left wing: Arnaud Montebourg and Benoît Hamon in particular are formative figures at the moment , although the latter left the PS after the 2017 election defeat, but still has influence. Current trends are Maintenant la gauche around Marie-Noëlle Lienemann , Jérôme Guedj , Gérard Filoche and Emmanuel Maurel as well as Un Monde d'Avance , founded by Benoît Hamon and Henri Emmanuelli . Even the frondeurs who were not organized in one of the two currents mentioned during Hollande's term of office are usually assigned to this wing. The wing openly opposed government policy under Hollande, especially since Valls was appointed prime minister, voted several times against government bills and in May 2016 introduced a vote of no confidence in the Valls government in order to stop the reform of labor legislation just failed.
  • the social democratic left wing: the leading figure here is Martine Aubry , current is the Réussir , which she leads . From this wing, too, the economic policy of Hollande and Valls was in part sharply criticized. The wing has avoided an escalation at the crucial points: Aubry and her entourage signed the program text of the incumbent first secretary Jean-Christophe Cambadélis in the run-up to the party congress in Poitiers and did not support the vote of no confidence in the Valls government in May 2016.
  • the centrist wing: The leading figure in this wing was François Hollande (who as President of the Republic was not officially active in the PS), most recently with Repondre à gauche . It was on this wing that supporters of Hollande's policy gathered.
  • The right wing or social-liberal wing: The most recent influential figures were Manuel Valls and Gérard Collomb , although Valls left the party after the 2017 election and Collomb, as Interior Minister in the Philippe government, has an unclear status in the PS. The wing is organized in the Pôle des Réformateurs current . Like the centrist wing, the social-liberal wing supported Hollande's government policy, but focused more on Valls and Emmanuel Macron than on Hollande.

There is also a network around Ségolène Royal ( Désirs d'avenir ), which is located between the centrist and the social-liberal wing, but has been considered weak since Royal's defeat in the 2011 socialist primary. The environment of Laurent Fabius was also of great importance for many years , which can hardly be classified in the classic scheme because Fabius kept changing his positions. Since his appointment as President of the Conseil constitutionnel , however, Fabius is no longer officially active in the PS.

Election results in presidential elections

year candidate Share of votes in the 1st ballot Share of votes in the 2nd ballot
1974 François Mitterrand 43.25% 49.19%
1981 François Mitterrand 25.86% 51.76%
1988 François Mitterrand 34.11% 54.02%
1995 Lionel Jospin 23.30% 47.36%
2002 Lionel Jospin 16.18%
2007 Ségolène Royal 25.87% 46.94%
2012 François Hollande 28.63% 51.64%
2017 Benoît Hamon 06.36%



prime minister

First secretaries

Other personalities

List of party conventions

  • May 1969: in Alfortville
  • July 1969: in Issy-les-Moulineaux
  • June 1971: in Épinay
  • June 1973: in Grenoble
  • January / February 1975: in Pau
  • June 1977: in Nantes
  • April 1979: in Metz
  • January 1981: in Créteil
  • October 1981: in Valence
  • October 1983: in Bourg-en-Bresse
  • October 1985: in Toulouse
  • April 1987: in Lille
  • March 1990: in Rennes
  • December 1991: in the Arche de la Défense
  • July 1992: in Bordeaux
  • October 1993: in Bourget
  • November 1994: in Liévin
  • November 1997: in Brest
  • November 2000: 2nd Grenoble Party Congress
  • May 2003: in Dijon
  • November 2005: at Le Mans
  • November 2008: in Reims
  • October 2012: in Toulouse
  • June 2015: in Poitiers
  • April 2018 in Aubervilliers

In addition, a “summer university” ( Université d'été ) takes place in La Rochelle every year at the end of August , a congress with somewhat more open debates than at the regular party congresses.


  • Gérard Grunberg (2009): The Uncertain Future of the Socialist Party of France. DGAP analysis France
  • Pierre Bezbakh: History of French Socialism. From the French Revolution to 2008 . Forward book, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86602-073-3 .
  • Wolfgang Jäger : The Socialist Party and the Communist Party of France . In: Dieter Oberndörfer (Ed.): Socialist and Communist Parties in Western Europe. Publication of the social science research institute of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung . Volume 1: Südländer (= Uni-Taschenbücher . Volume 761). Leske + Budrich (UTB), Opladen 1978, ISBN 3-8100-0240-2 , pp. 35-132.
  • Christina Rüther: Europeanization of Political Parties? Options and restrictions using the example of the Parti socialiste from 1971 to 2005 . Dissertation, KU Eichstätt-Ingolstadt 2009 ( full text ).

Web links

Commons : Parti socialiste (France)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Spiegel Online September 25, 2010: Mitterrand demanded euros in return for the unit .
  2. full text
  3. See e.g. B. Gilbert Ziebura : France: History, Society, Politics: Selected Articles . VS 2003, ISBN 978-3-8100-3517-2 , p. 179 f. ( online )
  4. Samuel Potier: Duel serré entre Aubry et Royal pour la direction du PS. In: . November 21, 2008, accessed September 30, 2011 (French).
  5. Le PS s'enfonce dans la crise après l'élection sur le fil de Martine Aubry. In: . AFP , November 22, 2008, accessed July 5, 2016 (French).
  6. ^ Martine Aubry nouvelle Premier secrétaire du PS après un long psychodrame. In: . AFP , November 25, 2008, accessed July 5, 2016 (French).
  7. ^ François-Xavier Bourmaud: Les socialistes ne veulent pas croire à la scission. In: . November 24, 2008, accessed September 30, 2011 (French).
  8. ^ L'équipe et la ligne politique d'Aubry votées au PS. In: . December 6, 2008, accessed September 30, 2011 (French).
  9. Stefan Simons: A shift to the right puts Sarkozy in a mess. In: Spiegel Online . March 21, 2011, accessed September 30, 2011 .
  10. Congrès de Toulouse: Les résultats nationaux. Parti Socialiste, October 22, 2012, accessed October 22, 2012 (French).
  11. Sondages: Hollande et Ayrault enrayent leur chute de popularité. In: December 16, 2013, accessed April 15, 2014 (French).
  12. ^ Bastien Bonnefous: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis élu à la tête du PS. In: . April 15, 2014, accessed April 15, 2014 (French).
  13. ^ Christian Schubert: Hollandes new message. In: . January 15, 2014, accessed September 5, 2015 .
  14. Analyze du scrutin n ° 786, Première séance du 29/04/2014. Assemblée nationale, April 29, 2014, accessed September 5, 2015 (French).
  15. ^ François-Xavier Bourmaud: Hollande et Valls projetés dans une crise sans précédent. In: . August 25, 2014, accessed September 5, 2015 (French).
  16. Analysis du scrutin n ° 90, Première séance du 16/09/2014. Assemblée nationale, September 16, 2014, accessed September 5, 2015 (French).
  17. ^ Loi Macron: un troisième recours au 49-3 pour une adoption définitive. , July 9, 2015, accessed September 5, 2015 (French).
  18. ^ Lilian Alemagna: Loi Congrès du PS: quatre motions en lice. In: . April 11, 2015, accessed September 5, 2015 (French).
  19. Results of the vote des motions: les motions A et B en tête. (No longer available online.) Parti Socialiste, May 22, 2015, archived from the original on September 24, 2015 ; Retrieved September 5, 2015 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. ^ Nicolas Chapuis: Cambadélis élu premier secrétaire du PS. In: . May 28, 2015, accessed September 5, 2015 (French).
  21. ^ French President Hollande does not run again. In: . December 1, 2016, accessed August 27, 2020 .
  22. ^ Arnaud Montebourg candidat à l'élection présidentielle. In: . August 21, 2016, accessed September 9, 2016 (French).
  23. Arthur Berdah, Sophie de Ravinel: Benoît Hamon official cialise sa candidature à la primaire à gauche. In: werk = . August 16, 2016, accessed September 9, 2016 (French).
  24. a b Primaires Citoyennes. (No longer available online.) In: Parti socialiste, archived from the original on April 2, 2017 ; Retrieved on April 23, 2017 (French, results of the two ballots; detailed information as Excel files also available from there for the first and second ballots ). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  25. For the list of candidates: Sept candidats retenus pour la primaire de la gauche par la haute autorité. In: . December 17, 2016, accessed December 17, 2016 (French).
  26. Valls soutient Macron: les électeurs socialistes divisés entre choix "responsable» et «infamie". In: . March 30, 2017, accessed April 23, 2017 (French).
  27. Résultats des législatives 2017: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis démissionne de la tête du Parti socialiste. In: . June 18, 2017, accessed July 10, 2017 (French).
  28. ^ Assemblée nationale: Olivier Faure réélu à la tête du groupe PS. In: June 22, 2017, accessed July 10, 2017 (French).
  29. Manuel Valls quitte le Parti socialiste et rejoint le groupe LRM à l'Assemblée. In: . June 27, 2017, accessed July 10, 2017 (French).
  30. ^ Abel Mestre: Benoît Hamon annonce qu'il quitte le Parti socialiste. In: . July 1, 2017, accessed July 10, 2017 (French).
  31. Analyze du scrutin n ° 1. Première séance du mardi 4 juillet 2017. scrutin public. (pdf) Assemblée nationale, July 4, 2017, accessed on July 10, 2017 (French).
  32. a b Le Parti socialiste a désigné sa direction collégiale provisoire. In: . July 8, 2017, accessed July 10, 2017 (French).
  33. Réaction du PS au retrait d'Ericka Bareigts de la direction collégiale. Parti Socialiste, July 9, 2017, accessed July 10, 2017 (French).
  34. Astrid de Villaines: A Aubervilliers, les socialistes en congrès veulent "relever la tête". In: . April 7, 2018, accessed April 8, 2018 (French).
  35. ^ A b Astrid de Villaines: Stéphane Le Foll annonce qu'il se retire, Olivier Faure assuré de prendre la tête du Parti socialiste. In: . March 16, 2018, accessed March 25, 2018 (French).
  36. ^ Astrid de Villaines: Roxane Lundy: "Le Mouvement des jeunes socialistes va prendre son indépendance vis-à-vis du PS". In: . March 23, 2018, accessed March 25, 2018 (French).
  37. ^ Pablo Guimbretière: Le divorce est consommé chez les Jeunes socialistes. In: . April 7, 2018, accessed April 8, 2018 (French).
  38. Based on the list of deputies in the French Wikipedia
  39. Elles / ils animent Maintenant la Gauche. Maintenant la Gauche, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  40. ^ Nos représentants. (No longer available online.) Un Monde d'Avance, archived from the original on December 25, 2016 ; Retrieved December 25, 2016 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  41. Cédric Pietralunga: Les socialistes frondeurs partent en ordre dispersé à la primaire de la gauche. In: . December 1, 2016, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  42. Loi travail: échec de la motion de censure voulue par les frondeurs de gauche. In: . May 11, 2016, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  43. Notre Equipe. (No longer available online.) Réussir, archived from the original on December 25, 2016 ; Retrieved December 25, 2016 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  44. ^ PS: Aubry demande à Hollande une "réorientation de la politique économique". In: . October 19, 2014, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  45. «Trop, c'est trop! »: La charge de Martine Aubry versus François Hollande et Manuel Valls. In: . February 24, 2016, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  46. Julien Chabrout: Congrès du PS: Martine Aubry et Claude Bartolone en tandem. In: . April 24, 2015, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  47. Martine Chevaletet, Éric Hacquemand: Motion de censure: Valls sauvé par les amis d'Aubry. In: . May 12, 2016, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  48. a b Lilian Alemagna: Chez les socialistes, les courants n'ont plus prize. In: . October 29, 2012, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  49. Emmanuel Berretta: Vincent Peillon sur le chemin du retour? In: . December 7, 2016, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).
  50. Nathalie Raulin, Lilian Alemagna: La gauche bat de l'aile droite. In: . August 15, 2016, accessed December 25, 2016 (French).