Nicolas Sarkozy (Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa ( nikɔ'la saʁkɔ'zi ]; born January 28, 1955 in Paris ) is a French politician . From 2007 to 2012 he was President of the French Republic . In the second half of 2008, Sarkozy was President of the European Council . From 2004 to 2007 Sarkozy was party leader of the conservative Union pour un mouvement populaire (UMP), from November 2014 to August 2016 he was again; during this time the party was renamed Les Républicains .) [
In 2012 he lost the presidential election (April 22nd and May 6th) against François Hollande , the candidate of the Parti socialiste (PS). In November 2016, Sarkozy applied unsuccessfully for a new candidacy for the 2017 presidential election .
Sarkozy's father, Pal, comes from a Hungarian family (Sárközy de Nagybócsa or in Hungarian "nagybócsai Sárközy") who was ennobled in Vienna in 1628 by Emperor Ferdinand II in his capacity as King of Hungary . The family owned a castle and lands in Alattyán ( Jászberény small area , Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county ), about 100 km southeast of Budapest . 1944 fled Sarkozy's father before the invasion of the Red Army in Hungary via Austria to Germany . After the war, he was recruited for the Foreign Legion by a French recruiting office (in Baden-Baden ) . After completing his recruitment period in Sidi bel Abbès (French Algeria), he was originally to be deployed in Indochina . Due to a medical certificate, however, he was able to move to Marseille in 1948 . In 1949 he met Nicolas Sarkozy's future mother, Andrée Mallah, in Paris . Pal Sarkozy, who was married four times, also appears publicly as a painter. In December 2011 , El País reported on the upcoming exhibition of his pictures in the Uruguayan seaside resort of Punta del Este in the Galería de las Misiones there .
Sarkozy's mother Andrée Mallah is a descendant of Sephardic Jews from Thessaloniki . Her grandfather, who was of Jewish faith, was named Mordechai Mallah and was a wealthy jeweler from Thessaloniki. Mallah and his wife Reina had seven children. Aaron Benico Mallah - Sarkozy's grandfather - was the youngest of the children. Aaron Benico Mallah married the Catholic Adèle Bovier in 1917 and converted to Christianity. The couple had two daughters named Suzanne and Andrée .
Nicolas Sarkozy has two brothers, Guillaume (* 1951) and François (* 1958), as well as two younger half-siblings, Caroline and Pierre-Olivier (* 1970), who come from the third marriage of his father (with Christine de Ganay). When this marriage failed in 1977, his stepmother married the American diplomat Frank Wisner junior. and moved to the USA. Nicolas Sarkozy has close relationships with his step-siblings and with Frank Wisner in the United States.
education and profession
Sarkozy first visited the prestigious Lycée Chaptal in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. Since he failed the sixth grade, he moved to the Catholic private high school Saint Louis de Morceau and passed his Abitur there in 1973 . From 1975 to 1978 he studied law at the University of Paris-Nanterre (University of Paris X), from which he graduated with a maîtrise en droit in private law. After compulsory military service in the air force , he obtained a Diplôme d'études approfondies (DEA) in political science. From 1979 to 1981 he also studied at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), but remained there without a degree. Since 1981 he has been admitted to the bar (avocat) of the Paris Bar Association, and in 1987 he founded the law firm Leibovici - Claude - Sarkozy with two colleagues . He also continued his practice as a lawyer parallel to his political career.
Until 1993: political advancement
Sarkozy was involved in the Gaullist youth organization Union des jeunes pour le progrès (UJP) and in 1974 joined the then ruling party Union des démocrates pour la République (UDR). In the same year he was campaign assistant for the (unsuccessful) presidential candidate Jacques Chaban-Delmas . The neo-Gaulish Rassemblement pour la République (RPR), led by Jacques Chirac , emerged from the UDR in 1976 , in which Sarkozy quickly made a career: from 1977, at the age of 21, he worked on the Central Committee .
Also in 1977 he was elected to the municipal council of Neuilly-sur-Seine . From 1983 to 2002 he was mayor of the city to the west of the glamorous 16th arrondissement , which is one of the wealthiest suburbs ( banlieues ) of Paris. He gained nationwide fame in 1993 as a mediator in a hostage-taking in a local kindergarten. The hostages suffered no physical damage from his mission; the hostage taker was killed by a special task force. From 1983 to 1988 Sarkozy was also a member of the regional council of the capital region Île-de-France . From 1986 to 1988 he was also Vice-President of the General Council of Hauts-de-Seine , in this executive function he was responsible for the cultural policy of the department .
1993–2002: budget minister and opposition period
From March 30, 1993 to May 11, 1995, Sarkozy was budget minister of the Balladur government , of which he was also spokesman. In the election campaign for the 1995 presidential election , Sarkozy did not support his party leader Jacques Chirac , but his competitor Balladur . Chirac viewed this as treason, and the relationship between Sarkozy and Chirac has since been considered to be permanently shattered. Chirac won the election and Sarkozy was not appointed to the cabinet of the new Prime Minister Alain Juppe . After Philippe Séguin's resignation in April 1999, Sarkozy was interim chairman of the RPR. In the European elections in June 1999 he was given a seat in the European Parliament , which he renounced two months later.
2002–2007: Minister of the Interior and Economy, UMP Chairman
In the course of the 2002 presidential election, the RPR was absorbed into the center-right rallying party Union pour un mouvement populaire (UMP), which supported incumbent Jacques Chirac. Then Sarkozy was from May 7, 2002 to March 30, 2004 French Interior Minister in the government of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin . During this time he gained the reputation of a law-and-order politician who takes resolute action against crime . This made him very popular among the population.
In the French regional elections in March 2004, the Conservatives suffered a defeat, but Sarkozy himself survived the election well, as a member of the electoral district (canton) Neuilly-sur-Seine Nord in the General Council of the Hauts-de-Seine department and became its president General Council elected. Three days later, on March 31, 2004, President Chirac approved a new cabinet list, on which Sarkozy stood as “super minister” for economics, finance and industry , who thereby also assumed responsibility for the planned economic reforms in France. During this time he continued u. a. the takeover of the Franco-German pharmaceutical company Aventis by the French competitor Sanofi-Synthélabo (since then Sanofi-Aventis ) against concerns from Germany .
At the end of November 2004, Sarkozy was elected party chairman by the UMP members with 85% of the vote. Under pressure from President Chirac, he then had to give up the post of “super minister”. Since the relationship between Sarkozy and Chirac had already been strained since the "betrayal" in the 1995 elections , it is assumed that the state president took the "accumulation of offices" that resulted from the election of "super minister" Sarkozy as UMP party leader as a reason for the To put a "political damper" - now also within the party - top career of Sarkozy, perceived by Chirac as a competitor. Apparently in vain, because on June 2, 2005, Sarkozy became Minister of the Interior in the Villepin government , a ministerial post where he had already collected popular sympathy points (in the Raffarin government ).
In June 2005, Sarkozy sparked a lively debate among the French public when, on two visits to the Paris suburb of La Courneuve , he declared that in view of the high (youth) crime rate there, the phrase " clean with a high-pressure cleaner" was necessary for him ( " Le terme ' nettoyer au karcher ' est le terme qui s'impose, parce qu'il faut nettoyer cela. " ). Sarkozy's choice of words ultimately led to a falling out with his colleague at the time, the French Minister for the Promotion of Equal Opportunities , Azouz Begag . In October and November 2005, Sarkozy became a figure of hatred for those involved in the riots in Paris , because he dubbed all protesting young people (mostly of North African origin) as "rabble" ( "des racailles" ) .
In 2004, Sarkozy was denounced as part of the Clearstream II affair . For example, an anonymous informer sent an examining magistrate forged computer extracts from the Luxembourg clearing house Clearstream , which falsely suggested that Sarkozy and other celebrities had collected bribes on the sale of French frigates to Taiwan via secret accounts at Clearstream .
Sarkozy initiated legal proceedings to clarify responsibility for this smear campaign . In doing so, he insinuated that his party rival de Villepin had withheld a dossier exonerating Sarkozy from the investigating judge during his tenure as interior minister . In May 2006, the then Vice President of the aviation group EADS , Jean-Louis Gergorin , admitted to having been the author of the anonymous letters to the coroner. The background to this libel affair has not yet been fully clarified.
2007 presidential election
His (renewed) office as Minister of the Interior brought him even closer to his goal of becoming the UMP's top candidate for the 2007 presidential election . Chirac favored Prime Minister Villepin (UMP), who was always loyal to him, as "heir to the throne" for the highest office of the state, but was unable to assert himself. All other candidates ( Michèle Alliot-Marie , Rachid Kaci , Dominique de Villepin , Nicolas Dupont-Aignan ) withdrew their candidacy for the party's internal primary election of the UMP from January 2 to 14, 2007 , Sarkozy was the only one to run and was 98.1 % of the votes cast nominated.
In the run-up to the presidential elections, Sarkozy was accused of espionage in his role as Minister of the Interior at the end of January 2007 by the former Greenpeace France manager, Bruno Rebelle, who after leaving Greenpeace worked as an environmental campaign advisor in the Ségolène Royals team. The magazine Le Canard enchaîné reported on the alleged intelligence investigation on January 24, 2007. Also in the Canard enchaîné at the beginning of March 2007, reports appeared that Sarkozy had, during his time as mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, a property developer discounts on the development of a residential complex on the Île de la Jatte granted and, after its construction, acquired a double apartment there on likewise unusually favorable terms.
In the presidential election , Sarkozy was elected as the new president in the second ballot on May 6, 2007. He won the runoff election against the candidate of the Socialist Party , Ségolène Royal , with 53.06%. In the first ballot on April 22, 2007, Sarkozy had already achieved the relative majority with 31.11%, but missed the required absolute majority .
Before taking up his duties Sarkozy came under criticism in the French press and the opposition, as he his victory on election night in the Paris luxury hotel Fouquet's celebrated with friends from industry and show business and the following day on the yacht of the French industrialist Vincent Bolloré on the coast of Malta spent .
2007–2012: President of the French Republic
During his first state visit as French President in Berlin on May 16, 2007, Sarkozy declared that the Franco-German friendship was "sacred" for France and could not be called into question by anything. Even after the presidential election, he insisted that Turkey had no place in the EU. A day later, Sarkozy appointed his close confidante and campaign advisor François Fillon as prime minister and on May 18 the 15 ministers of the Fillon cabinet.
After the presidential election, Sarkozy demanded a “clear mandate” from French voters to implement his liberal economic reform program. In the parliamentary elections on June 10 and 17, 2007 , however, the UMP and its allied liberal party Nouveau Center clearly failed to achieve the targeted two-thirds majority, which according to surveys appears realistic. The Sarkozy party alliance nevertheless achieved an absolute majority. According to the preliminary official final result, UMP and NC won 345 of a total of 577 seats in the National Assembly , 14 seats less than before. Press comments spoke of the first defeat of the new president and even of a "defeat" Sarkozy.
On his first trip to Africa as President in July 2007, he made it clear that bad governance could no longer be rewarded with development aid and encouraged Africa's educated elite to stay at home. In a passionate speech on July 26th to students at the Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar , Sarkozy described colonization as a big mistake. But she is not responsible for all current problems in Africa. The Africans are also responsible for their own development. The speech was criticized by both African intellectuals and Africa experts around the world because statements that “African people have only insufficiently entered history” and “remain in a constant order” reminded of classic colonial and racist patterns.
In order to regain popularity after his bad polls, Sarkozy tried one of his classic topics, immigration policy or rather the problem of the sans papiers , the foreigners living in France without a residence permit . For 2007, a target of 25,000 deportations had been set, some of which were carried out with considerable use of force; the number was missed by 1,000.
On December 20, 2007 he visited Pope Benedict XVI. in Rome. In the Lateran Basilica he received the title of Honorary Canon of St. John Lateran . He is thus following on from a tradition that has existed since 1604, that this honorary title is conferred on the highest representative of France. The tradition was only interrupted in the worst phase of the church struggle between 1905 and 1921. On the question of the relationship between church and state, he supports the concept of positive secularity .
Allegation of covert campaign funding
According to a report by Le Monde on June 2, 2010, a Luxembourg police report alleged that Sarkozy was involved in illegal funding of Édouard Balladur's election campaign . The French government rejected the allegations. The French examining magistrate Marc Trévidic confirmed in 2010 that “retro commissions” had been paid.
In the Bettencourt affair , which has not yet been fully resolved , he is accused of receiving illegal cash donations from Liliane Bettencourt (1922 to 2017) for several years . On July 3, 2012 - after Sarkozy lost his immunity - investigators searched three addresses. On March 21, 2013, the Bordeaux judiciary brought charges against Sarkozy. The examining magistrate accused him of taking advantage of Bettencourt's poor physical and mental health in order to receive substantial sums of money from her for his 2007 election campaign.
In September 2019, the Court of Cassation , the highest French court, ruled that Sarkozy's complaint against this trial was inadmissible.
Sarkozy and the fall of the wall
On November 8, 2009, Sarkozy claimed on his Facebook page that he had already been informed of the future fall of the Wall on the morning of November 9, 1989: The criticism of this self-portrayal from the conservative press is sparked by the fact that even that The Central Committee of the SED did not know on the morning of November 9th that it would decide to open the border for the following day in the afternoon of the same day, much less an unknown French MP. The wall was not attacked with hammer blows on November 9th or from the east. According to a radio interview , the named MP Alain Juppé cannot remember exactly what happened, especially not the date. In fact, according to research by the daily Le Figaro , Sarkozy was only in Berlin on November 16. In order to save Sarkozy's account, the Elysée now reports, according to 20 Minutes, in a second, postponed version of the visits to Berlin, of a secret visit on November 9th and another on November 16th.
Roma deportations and immigration policy
In the summer of 2010, Sarkozy raised internal security as an issue. After street riots, he announced tougher measures against Roma and the withdrawal of citizenship from offenders of foreign origin. Numerous illegal Roma housing estates were cleared and hundreds of people living there were deported to Romania and Bulgaria . The returns themselves were not unusual, as France had already expelled around 8,000 Roma to their homeland since the beginning of the year; What was new, however, was the announcement of collective expulsions and the media-effective dissolution of settlements.
In Le Monde's view , the announcement of a withdrawal of citizenship represented a breach of taboo, on the one hand, because it differentiates between long-established and naturalized French, and on the other hand, because the announcement of such a measure reminds of the Vichy regime , which around 15,000 people , mostly naturalized Jews who were deprived of their nationality. Sarkozy later specified that the withdrawal of citizenship should apply to anyone who kills or seriously injures a police officer in France. After the French government decided to fly around 1,000 Roma to Bulgaria and Romania, tens of thousands of French people protested against xenophobia and racism in 130 cities in September 2010. Protest demonstrations against deportations by France also took place in Romania and Macedonia . The actions of France created considerable tension between France and the European Commission .
Military intervention in Libya
After the outbreak of civil war in Libya in the spring of 2011, Sarkozy decided to recognize the National Transitional Council as the counter-government by France, was the first to advocate targeted air strikes on Libyan targets at the European Union level and then invited to the Paris summit on March 19, 2011 one that immediately preceded the international military operation in Libya . Sarkozy was praised by French Interior Minister Claude Guéant for having led “the crusade to mobilize the United Nations Security Council, and then the Arab League and the African Union”. On March 25, Sarkozy said: "Every ruler must understand, and above all every Arab ruler must understand that the reaction of the international community and Europe will be the same every time from now on". It is said of the French philosopher Bernard-Henri Lévy that a phone call from him to Sarkozy played a decisive role in his decision for military intervention. The writer Boualem Sansal , on the other hand, explained Sarkozy's behavior with the “image problem” that he had “in the Arab world” because his prime minister and his foreign minister had their holidays financed by dictators and because he himself courted Mubarak and Gaddafi in Paris. Sarkozy only wanted to restore his credibility.
2012 presidential election
In the first round of the presidential election on April 22, 2012 , Nicolas Sarkozy reached the second ballot (runoff) with 27.18% of the valid votes in second place behind his socialist challenger François Hollande , who achieved 28.63%.
Three days before the runoff election, the two candidates discussed live in a television duel . Sarkozy had challenged Hollande to three duels; Hollande had agreed to one. Sarkozy had previously tried to win votes on “right-wing” issues such as internal security and immigration, namely votes from those who voted for Marine Le Pen in the first ballot .
The second ballot on May 6, 2012, Sarkozy lost to Hollande with 48.38 against 51.62 percent of the vote.
As a former president, Nicolas Sarkozy is automatically a member of the Conseil constitutionnel , the French constitutional court . In July 2013, he announced his resignation from the council after it confirmed the recovery of campaign reimbursement for Sarkozy's 2012 presidential campaign (for exceeding the spending cap). Since there is no provision for such a resignation, the decision means that Sarkozy remains a member of the Conseil constitutionnel, but does not attend its meetings.
The objection to the election campaign billing for Sarkozy's campaign was also linked to a fine against Sarkozy himself in the amount of 360,000 euros. This was initially paid for by the UMP. After an internal audit commission objected to this takeover and filed charges against several UMP executives for breach of trust (the proceedings were closed in September 2015), Sarkozy reimbursed the UMP for the fine he had assumed on his return to party leadership.
On September 19, 2014, Sarkozy announced his renewed candidacy for the chairmanship of the UMP. He won the primary election for chairman on November 30, 2014 with just under 65 percent, ahead of Bruno Le Maire with just under 30 percent of the vote. Observers also viewed this as preparation for a renewed presidential candidacy in 2017. According to a survey in August 2015, he had an absolute majority of 52 percent of the Republican supporters, but was 35 percent behind Alain Juppé (40 percent) among supporters of the right and the Center overall .
On August 26, 2016, Sarkozy announced his candidacy for the right and center primaries for the 2017 presidential election , while resigning from the Republican presidency to maintain the party leadership's neutrality. In the public primary election on November 20, 2016, Sarkozy was eliminated with 20.7 percent of the vote in the first ballot. On the evening of the election, he announced that he would withdraw more into private life and elect François Fillon in the runoff election on November 27, 2016 .
Two investigative proceedings, some of which are interwoven, are pending against Sarkozy (February 2017). In some other proceedings, he is not considered a suspect, but a témoin assisté (which can best be translated as a suspected witness ); further proceedings against him have been dropped. Sarkozy has not yet been convicted in any of the trials. He vehemently denies the allegations made against him.
In connection with investigations into unknown persons for illegal campaign financing - the UMP is said to have received around 50 million euros from Muammar al-Gaddafi's circle for the presidential election in 2007 - tapping logs of Sarkozy's phone calls with his lawyer became known. According to this, Sarkozy is said to have received confidential information about investigations into the Woerth-Bettencourt affair from a lawyer at the Court of Cassation ; In return, Sarkozy is said to have promised the lawyer support in applying for a post in Monaco. On July 1, 2014, Sarkozy was taken into police custody as part of the investigation . It was the first time a former French president had been taken into police custody. After more than 14 hours of questioning, Sarkozy was brought before two investigating judges after midnight, who opened criminal proceedings against him for corruption, illegal influence and violation of investigative secrecy. Most recently, the Court of Cassation confirmed in March 2016 that the wiretapping protocols may be used in the investigation and possible criminal proceedings.
Since February 2016, Sarkozy has been a suspect in the investigation into the Bygmalion affair , which involves illegal campaign financing . The advertising agency Bygmalion is said to have invoiced services for the 2012 presidential campaign amounting to several million euros not to the responsible organizing committee, but to the UMP directly. In the opinion of the public prosecutor's office, this was intended to cover up the cost ceiling for the election campaign. Such an overrun would have resulted in the elimination of the reimbursement of election campaign costs (which was canceled after 2012 due to a ruling by the responsible commission due to other irregularities, in which context Sarkozy had to pay a fine). In September 2016, the public prosecutor's office applied for criminal proceedings to be opened against Sarkozy and 13 other suspects, and in February 2017 the investigating judge agreed.
Sarkozy was in police custody from March 20, 2018 to March 22, as part of the investigation into suspected election campaign payments from Libya in 2007 . In January 2018, Sarkozy's former confidante Alexandre Djouhri was arrested in London.
Sarkozy is being investigated for “passive corruption”, illicit campaign funding and embezzlement of public funds. Sarkozy denies the allegations.
Furthermore, he has to answer for alleged bribery in a Paris court. In 2014 he is said to have tried, through his legal counsel, to obtain secret information about a wiretapping affair from a high judge at the court of cassation and promised him a promotion.
Nicolas Sarkozy married three times and is the father of three sons and one daughter. In his first marriage he was married to Marie-Dominique Culioli from September 1982, from the marriage the sons Pierre (* 1985) and Jean (* 1986) emerged.
On October 23, 1996, he married Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz , whose first marriage to Jacques Martin he himself had in 1984 in his role as mayor of the Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine . She brought two daughters from this marriage. Their son Louis was born on April 28, 1997. In the summer of 2005 the failure of the marriage became public. In January 2006 the news broke that the Sarkozy couple were trying to start over together. After Sarkozy was elected president, Cécilia Sarkozy took on individual political tasks such as the controversial visit to Muammar al-Gaddafi in Libya , which contributed to the release of imprisoned Bulgarian nurses, but did not fulfill the role of the première lady ( first lady ) according to conventional ideas.
On October 18, 2007, the Élysée Palace announced the separation (and mutual divorce) of the couple; public speculation about the reasons soon ended.
On February 2, 2008, Sarkozy and the Italian-French singer Carla Bruni married in Paris. The liaison, which had been public since December 2007, had met with enormous media coverage around the world and also caused a sensation politically, because Bruni Sarkozy, as an unmarried partner, was to accompany official receptions in Islamic countries and India. A daughter named Giulia was born on October 19, 2011. Sarkozy is the first French president to become a father during his tenure.
honors and awards
- Knight (2004) and Grand Cross (2007) of the Legion of Honor
- Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III. (2004)
- Honorary Canon of the Archbasilica of San Giovanni in Laterano (2007–2012)
- Grand Cross of the Ordre national du Mérite (2007)
- Grand Cross of the Order of St. Charles (2008)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (2008)
- Collane of the Order of the Southern Cross (2009)
- Collane of the Order of Charles III. (2009)
- Medal of Honor of the Special Combat Terrorism Unit ( RAID ) of the French police
- Commander of the Belgian Order of Leopolds
- Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise 1st Class (2010)
- Knight of the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece (2011)
- Georges Mandel, le moine de la politique. Grasset, Paris 1994, ISBN 2-246-46301-7 . (French)
- Libre. Robert Laffont-Fixot, Paris 2001, ISBN 2-266-13303-9 . (French)
- Nicolas Sarkozy and others: La République, les religions, l'espérance: entretiens avec Thibaud Collin and Philippe Verdin. Ed. du Cerf, Paris 2004, ISBN 2-204-07283-4 . (French)
- Témoignage. XO éditions, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-84563-287-8 . (French). English version: Testimony: France in the Twenty-First Century. Pantheon Books 2007, ISBN 0-375-42505-5 . German version: What to do. France, Europe and the world in the 21st century. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-570-01015-0 .
- Ensemble. XO éditions, Paris 2007, ISBN 2-84563-345-9 . (French)
- La France pour la vie. Plon, Paris 2016, ISBN 978-2-259-24894-5 (French)
- Ghislaine Ottenheimer: Les deux Nicolas. La Machine Balladur. PLON, Paris 1994, ISBN 2-259-18115-5 .
- Anita Hausser: Sarkozy. Itinéraire d'une ambition. L'Archipel, Paris 2003, ISBN 2-84187-495-8 .
- Victor Noir: Nicolas Sarkozy. Le destin de Brutus. Denoël, Paris 2005, ISBN 2-207-25751-7 . (English translation: Nicolas Sarkozy - the fate of Brutus )
- Jean G. Padioleau: La société du radar: l'Etat sarcocyste au Kärcher. L'Harmattan, Paris 2005, ISBN 2-7475-9713-X .
- Yasmina Reza: L'aube le soir ou la nuit . Flammarion, Paris 2007, ISBN 2-08-120916-0 . (German translation: early in the morning, in the evening or at night )
- Franz-Olivier Giesbert : M. le President: Scènes de la vie politique, 2005–2011. Flammarion, Paris 2011, ISBN 978-2-08-125953-9 .
- Patrick Buisson: La Cause de peuple. L'Histoire interdite de la Présidence Sarcozy.
- German-language magazine articles
- Martin Koopmann: On the way to the Elysée: the pragmatic profiling policy of the whiz kid Nicolas Sarkozy. In: International Politics. Bielefeld: Bertelsmann (2004), 59 (November – December 2004) 11–12, pp. 149–153.
- Medard Ritzenhofen: Cabal and crisis: Chirac's “fin de règne”, Sarkozy in the starting blocks. In: Documents. Bonn: Society for Transnational Cooperation, Volume 62 (June 2006) 3, , pp. 5–10.
- Jürg Altwegg: Napoleon in the media age? Sarkozy and freedom of the press. In: Documents. Bonn, Volume 62 (2006), 4, , pp. 64-68.
- Tilman Müller: Nicolas Sarkozy - the new Napoleon, an egomaniac in the Elysee. In: Stern . Hamburg (2007) 20, pp. 30-46.
- Kolja Lindner: Social Movements and Authoritarian Populism. Protests and presidential elections in France. In: Prokla. Journal for Critical Social Science, No. 148, Volume 37, Issue 3/2007, pp. 459–479.
- German-language biographies
- Daniela Kallinich: Nicolas Sarkozy. From outsider to president. Ibidem-Verlag, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-8382-0122-1 .
- La Conquete. Director: Xavier Durringer , 2011
- Literature by and about Nicolas Sarkozy in the catalog of the German National Library
- Entry on Nicolas Sarkozy in the European Parliament 's database of MEPs
- www.sarkozy.fr (French)
- Who is Nicolas Sarkozy? ( Memento from June 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), Der Tagesspiegel , May 13, 2007
- “The big Nick” , Der Tagesspiegel, November 28, 2005
- Linda Mézes: Nicolas Sarkozy, Hungary's husband in France Sarkozy's biography from a Hungarian perspective, January 11, 2007
- His full name, including the umlaut, is mentioned in official documents, for example in the following decree of December 31, 2004, in which he is made a Knight of the Legion of Honor (on the lower half of the third page) : Décret du 31 décembre 2004 portant promotion et nomination NOR: PREX0407928D .
- "Sárközy von Nagy-Borsa" in Siebmacher's Wappenbuch: The Nobility of Hungary , on www.arcanum.hu (with coat of arms)
- Nicolas-Philippe Piot: So-called names and other delicacies. Paris 2009, quoted in: Stefan Brändle (Paris): From because of "from & to". In: Der Standard , daily newspaper, Vienna, 12./13. December 2009, p. 7.
- Pal Sarkozy expone pinturas en Punta del Este (Spanish) on www.puntadeleste.com of December 27, 2011, accessed on December 27, 2011.
- Entry on Nicolas Sarkozy in the European Parliament 's database of deputies
- France 2, June 29, 2005.
- Azouz Begag Tente par François Bayrou . Le Figaro, March 13, 2007 (French)
- Quoted from the TV program Journal de 20 heures on France 2 , October 26, 2005.
- Echanges de bons procédés entre Sarkozy et le promoteur Lasserre, selon "Le Canard enchaîné". Le Monde , March 13, 2007, accessed November 15, 2010 (French).
- Resultats de l'election presidentielle. French Ministry of the Interior, May 6, 2007, accessed November 15, 2010 (French).
- Michael Kläsgen: Commentary: France's President-elect - The yacht factor. Süddeutsche Zeitung, May 9, 2007, accessed on November 15, 2010 .
- France: "" from the president - criticism of Sarkozy grows. Hamburger Abendblatt, May 9, 2007, accessed on November 15, 2010 .
- Sarkozy visits Merkel: "A sacred friendship". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, May 16, 2007, accessed on November 16, 2010 .
- Sarkozy - Faith Healer for the Paralyzed EU? NZZ , May 24, 2007, archived from the original on January 26, 2009 ; Retrieved November 16, 2010 .
- Dampers for Sarkozy bearings. NZZ , June 18, 2007, archived from the original on January 26, 2009 ; Retrieved November 16, 2010 .
- Dominique Eigenmann: Comment: Sarkozy's first defeat. Tages-Anzeiger , June 17, 2007, accessed November 16, 2010 .
Andreas Eckert: Is Africa a continent without a history? Scientists respond to Sarkozy's Dakar speech. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . September 8, 2008, p. 40.
Several books have been published on the subject:
- Makhily Gassama (Ed.): L'Afrique répond à Sarkozy. Contre le discours de Dakar . Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-84876-110-7 .
- Jean-Pierre Chrétien (Ed.): L'Afrique de Sarkozy. Un déni d'histoire . Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-8111-0004-9 .
- Abdoul Aziz Diop: Sarkozy au Sénégal. Le rendez-vous manqué avec l'Afrique . Paris 2008, ISBN 978-2-296-05631-2 .
- France's unofficial image of history. NZZ , October 13, 2007, accessed on November 16, 2010 .
- Jochen Hehn: France: Sarkozy wants to score with immigration policy. Die Welt, January 8, 2008, accessed November 16, 2010 .
- Vatican / France: Sarkozy with the Pope. (No longer available online.) Vatican Radio , December 20, 2007, archived from the original on January 25, 2009 ; Retrieved November 16, 2010 .
- Harm Klueting: Positive secularity? NZZ , June 5, 2008, accessed on November 16, 2010 .
- Karachi: Sarkozy cité dans un rapport de la police luxembourgeoise. Le Monde , June 2, 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 (French).
- Sarkozy under suspicion of corruption: Weapons for party donations. Die Tageszeitung , June 3, 2010, accessed on November 15, 2010 .
- affair Sarkozy / Luxembourg: There was "retro commissions". Day sheet. Fir Lëtzebuerg newspaper , June 18, 2010, accessed on November 15, 2010 .
- Sarkozy has to go to court in affair with L'Oréal heiress Bettencourt , Spiegel Online, March 21, 2013.
- Mur de Berlin: Sarko refait l'histoire. November 8, 2009, accessed November 16, 2010 (French).
- Benjamin Ferran and Bastien Hugues: 9/11/1989: confusion sur l'emploi du temps de Sarkozy. Le Figaro , November 9, 2009, accessed November 16, 2010 (French).
- Sylvain Lapoix - Marianne: Sarko l'Européen ou la légende de Berlin. November 9, 2009, archived from the original on November 12, 2009 ; Retrieved November 16, 2010 (French).
- Alice Antheaume and Catherine Fournier: Nicolas Sarkozy serait allé deux fois à Berlin en novembre 1989. 20minutes.fr, November 9, 2009, archived from the original on March 30, 2010 ; Retrieved November 16, 2010 .
- Offense there, citizenship gone. Zeit Online, July 30, 2010, accessed August 19, 2010 .
- Police murderers should lose citizenship. Focus Online, September 6, 2010, accessed September 7, 2010 .
- Security Policy: Protests across France against Roma deportations in Zeit Online from September 4, 2010.
- Uprising against Gaddafi: Libya divides Paris and Berlin ( Memento of March 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) in Financial Times Deutschland of March 10, 2011.
- Demand for air strikes: Sarkozy torpedoed Europe's Libya course
- French interior minister apologises for liking Libya intervention to a crusade
- Sarkozy threat angered Merkel
- When philosophers wage wars
- What comes next? Boualem Sansal on the war in Libya
- zeit.de: Sarkozy complains, Hollande counters. - Every third Frenchman sat in front of the television for the TV duel between the presidential campaigners - but the exchange of blows was hardly a decision-making aid. ; Observers do not see a winner in the television duel
- Mathieu von Rohr: The President who has to disappoint France. In: Spiegel Online. May 6, 2012, Retrieved May 12, 2012 .
- Élection présidentielle 2012. Results France entière. Ministère de l'Intérieur, de l'Outre-mer, des Collectivités territoriales et de l'immigration, May 7, 2012, accessed on May 7, 2012 (French).
- Patrick Roger: Nicolas Sarkozy "démissionne" du Conseil constitutionnel. Le Monde .fr, July 4, 2013, accessed November 22, 2016 (French).
- Guillaume Perrault: L'impossible "démission" de Sarkozy du Conseil constitutionnel. Le Figaro (online), July 4, 2013, accessed November 22, 2016 (French).
- Samuel Laurent: Comprendre l'affaire des pénalités de campagne de l'UMP. Le Monde .fr, 9 September 2015, accessed 11 September 2015 (French).
- Former President Sarkozy announces return to politics , Spiegel Online, September 19, 2014, accessed on September 19, 2014.
- Michaela Wiegel : France: Sarkozy's second chance. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . November 30, 2014.
- Alexandre Lemarié: Nadine Morano officialise sa candidature à la primaire de la droite pour 2017. Le Monde .fr, September 4, 2015, accessed on September 4, 2015 (French).
- Dominique De Montvalon: SONDAGE JDD - Juppé et Valls en pôle positions. Le Journal du Dimanche , August 30, 2015, accessed September 4, 2015 (French).
- French Primaire présidentielle des Républicains or primaire de la droite for short
- spiegel.de November 21, 2016 / Stefan Simons: surprise winner Fillon, surprise loser Sarkozy
- Matthieu Goar: Au QG de Sarkozy, "un séisme politique". Le Monde , November 20, 2016, accessed November 21, 2016 (French).
- Paule Gonzales: La Cour de cassation tranche la validité des écoutes entre Nicolas Sarkozy et son avocat. Le Figaro (online), March 22, 2016, accessed November 23, 2016 (French).
- Nicolas Sarkozy mis en examen pour corruption active et trafic d'influence. LeParisien, accessed July 1, 2014 (French).
- Sarkozy in police custody: Ex-President under suspicion of bribery , Focus online, July 1, 2014.
- La Cour de cassation valide les écoutes téléphoniques de Nicolas Sarkozy. Le Monde (online), March 22, 2016, accessed November 23, 2016 (French).
- Illegal campaign funding Paris prosecutor initiates proceedings against Nicolas Sarkozy . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . February 16, 2016, ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed February 16, 2016]).
- Adrien Sénécat: Mis en examen, le candidat Sarkozy a peu de risque d'être jugé avant 2017. Le Monde (online), August 24, 2016 accessed on 23 November 2016 .
- Simon Piel: Affaire Bygmalion: Nicolas Sarkozy renvoyé en procès pour financement illégal de campagne électorale. Le Monde (online), February 7, 2017, accessed February 7, 2017 .
- sueddeutsche.de March 21, 2018: Proceedings against Sarkozy for corruption opened
- Financement libya de la campagne de 2007: Nicolas Sarkozy en garde à vue. Le Monde, March 20, 2018.
- see also lemonde.fr: Financement libyen de la campagne de 2007: Nicolas Sarkozy est mis en examen
- spiegel.de March 22, 2018: Sarkozy complains about alleged "defamation"
- lefigaro.fr March 22, 2018: Ce que Nicolas Sarkozy a dit aux juges
- faz.net March 29, 2018: Sarkozy has to go to court for bribery
- Nicolas Sarkozy and Carla Bruni se sont mariés samedi matin à l'Elysée. Le Monde , February 2, 2008, accessed November 15, 2010 (French).
- Carla Bruni # Relationship and marriage with Nicolas Sarkozy
- Italian name for the President's daughter: The daughter of Bruni-Sarkozy is called Giulia in the Süddeutsche Zeitung of October 20, 2011.
- Offspring at Sarkozys: Carla Bruni gives birth to girls in Spiegel Online from October 19, 2011.
- Cash, Carla and Cola light in Tages-Anzeiger from April 25, 2011.
- Sarkozy's path to power in the Tages-Anzeiger on May 9, 2011.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Sarkozy de Nagy-Bocsa, Nicolas (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||French politician, MEP, President|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 28, 1955|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris|