TV duel

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

TV duels (also TV duels ) are special debates on television in which two top candidates run for high political offices. So-called TV duels are takeovers of the US election campaign debates, which have a long, originally academic tradition and do not primarily take place in television studios.

TV duels in the USA

In the United States, the first debate between two presidential candidates took place long before television was invented. In 1858, then-candidates for the United States Senate from Illinois, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, debated a single issue seven times: the future of slavery in the United States . A 60-minute block of speech was followed by a 90-minute answer and a 30-minute summary. This debate format gave the candidates the opportunity to present their positions for a sufficiently long time. The first election campaign debate broadcast on the radio took place in 1948: the two Republican candidates Harold Stassen and Thomas E. Dewey debated a ban on the Communist Party . Finally, in 1956, television broadcast the first election debate. The two Democratic candidates Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kefauver faced each other in the primaries .

John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon, 1960

The real story of the American television debates didn't begin until the 1960 presidential campaign with the first presidential debate between Republican Vice President Richard Nixon and his Democratic adversary John F. Kennedy . On September 26, 1960, Nixon and Kennedy faced each other in the first of four hour-long debates at a CBS studio in Chicago . There are myths surrounding this first of four duels like no other television debate afterwards. Nixon was the favorite, but he had had an extended hospital stay during which he had lost almost 14 kg. Haunted by countless election campaign dates, he arrived at the studio pale and sickly. He was also badly shaven. Because the sun-tanned Kennedy did not want to have make-up, Nixon also did without a make-up artist. His voice often failed in the debate. While Kennedy looked into the camera and thus addressed the audience directly in front of the television, Nixon turned to Kennedy as if he wanted to convince him. Nixon lost the duel and later the election.

This gave birth to the political myth of the television duel that made the election, in which it was more a matter of appearance than content. It also faded that there were three more debates taking place, one of which, by the way, was broadcast in split-screen because the two candidates could not be in the same studio. Likewise, their content was hardly remembered, as was the long-term trend in favor of the Democrats that was already emerging before the duels. The influence of the follow-up reporting in the media, which after the duel addressed little other than Nixon's bad appearance, is hardly discussed. Instead, to confirm the strong significance of television images, poll results are repeatedly cited, according to which Nixon would have won the debate among those who followed them on the radio. However, after a closer analysis, this can hardly be proven. A current study for the German TV duel 2005 also shows that the effects of visual elements in TV duels are greatly overestimated.

Carter and Ford, 1976

It was not until 1976 that the presidential candidates had a second election campaign debate. Previously, at least one of the candidates had refused to take part in a debate for various reasons. According to legend, Gerald Ford lost the 1976 election campaign against Jimmy Carter mainly because he made a fatal mistake in the second of three debates - foreign policy. Ford initially said about the role of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe: "There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, and there never will be under a Ford Administration." The audience hadn't noticed the mistake at all during the debate. It was only when the mass media addressed him the next day that viewers declared Ford the loser in the debate. The first of the three debates in 1976 is also considered to be the birth of the so-called "Instant Analysis", the direct analysis of the strengths and weaknesses in the appearance of the candidates by the television commentators. The journalists previously had concerns as to whether such interference in the judgment of viewers was appropriate. In the middle of the debate, the theater from which it was broadcast suffered a 27-minute sound loss, which the television commentators spontaneously used to discuss the candidates' demeanor. They also held talks with their advisors (so-called spin doctors ). In the following years such analyzes became a matter of course immediately after the end of the debates.

After the 1976 election campaign, the debates became institutionalized in such a way that no presidential candidate could refuse to participate. In 1980 and 1992 the duels became three-way fights.

In 1980 the challenger and eventual winner Ronald Reagan took part in a first debate against the independent candidate John B. Anderson because incumbent Jimmy Carter refused to take part in a debate with Anderson. In the second debate, Reagan stood alone against Carter. In 1992, Ross Perot , an independent candidate, took part again because his campaign was rated "of national interest"; a rule that only candidates who, according to surveys, can win over at least 15 percent of the voters, had previously been abolished. Perot took part in all three debates that, according to legend, decided, among other things, that Bush looked at his watch during a debate.

From 1960 onwards, the major television companies had organized the first presidential debates; from 1976 independent commissions took over the organization: up to and including 1984 the League of Women Voters , from 1988 the Commission on Presidential Debates . They also determined the formats of the debate, some of which varied considerably. The number of debates fluctuated between two and four in each election year. With the exception of the debates in 1960 and the first debate in 1980 (60 minutes), the length of the debate was 90 minutes each. The candidates had between three minutes (in the beginning) and 90 seconds (since 1996) to answer a question. The other candidate usually had between one and two minutes to reply. Since 1976, candidates have had the opportunity to give a closing remarks of between two and four minutes. Up until 1992 it was almost always the case that, in addition to the moderator, a group of three to six journalists were present who were also allowed to ask. In two debates - the second in 1992 and 1996 - the so-called townhall format was used, in which a group of indecisive voters asked the candidates questions. Because the candidates in all formats ever used in US presidential elections only replied but never discussed with one another, some observers doubted that they could even be called debates. They were therefore often called the “double public press conference” or the “joint press conference”. Before the 2012 presidential election - Obama ran for re-election; his opponent was Mitt Romney - there were three televised debates.

TV duels in the EU

For the election of the EU Parliament in 2014 , several television duels between the top candidates for Commission President of the European Union will take place. There are both duels between the candidates from the two major parties, the EPP and the SPE, as well as rounds in which the top candidates from all parties take part.

TV duels in Germany

Approaches to television duels before 2002

Even the then Vice Chancellor and candidate for Chancellor of the SPD , Willy Brandt , challenged incumbent Kurt Georg Kiesinger ( CDU ) to a TV debate based on the US model, but with more participants, before the Bundestag election in 1969 , which journalists - politicians - asked within the ZDF series answer should run. Kiesinger refused, however, and ZDF did not want such a duel either. Kiesinger also spoke out against a round with all top politicians: “ It does not suit the Chancellor of the Federal Republic to sit on a chair and wait until he is given the floor. “At the last moment he had to give in because of public pressure. The format essentially consisted of previously agreed questions, each addressed to one of the four participants.

Before the 1972 federal election , the discussion about the number of participants was repeated with the opposite sign. Brandt, now Chancellor, rejected the Union's proposal for a television duel with challenger Barzel . He justified that it was not about a chancellor election, but about a federal election. Instead, there was a so-called elephant round with the Chancellor and top candidates of the parties represented in the Bundestag under the title “Three days before the election”. The programs were broadcast live on the Thursday evening before the election on ARD and ZDF and were taken over by the radio news programs at the same time. This established a tradition that was retained until the 1987 federal election .

Before the 1976 federal election , Helmut Kohl challenged the incumbent Helmut Schmidt . However, this refused.

A TV duel was under discussion again for the 1980 federal election . A majority of citizens were against it, according to a survey by Emnid. Again the party of the challenger CDU / CSU (candidate: Franz Josef Strauss) was in favor of a TV duel, the party of the incumbent Helmut Schmidt (SPD) against it.

As of the 1990 Bundestag election , the incumbent Chancellor Helmut Kohl no longer declared himself willing to take part in the elephant rounds, which had previously taken place a few days before the elections. As a result, there were no longer any direct encounters on television between the incumbent and the candidate for chancellor of the largest opposition party.

The first televised duel in a German election campaign took place before the state elections in Hamburg in 1997 between incumbent Henning Voscherau (SPD) and challenger Ole von Beust (CDU).

In 1998, Prime Minister Gerhard Schröder and his challenger Christian Wulff debated in the Lower Saxony state election campaign . Both debates were broadcast by N3 . Years later, Wulff explained his defeat mainly by the fact that - unlike Schröder - he looked too often at the moderator and too rarely looked at the camera. In the television duel against Schröder's successor Sigmar Gabriel five years later, he is considered the winner.

In the 1998 federal election , Schröder challenged incumbent Helmut Kohl to a television duel with the positive experience from the Lower Saxony duel behind him. Kohl refused.

During the period described, there were also repeated television debates weeks or months before the Bundestag elections, in which some of the top candidates or other leading representatives or specialist politicians of the parties represented in the Bundestag were involved.

Federal Parliament election 2002

The first two real chancellor duels between the Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and the Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber only took place before the 2002 Bundestag election . The first (on August 25) was broadcast by RTL and Sat.1 (with RTL having a significantly higher audience rate) and reached 14.98 million viewers, the second (on September 8) by Das Erste and ZDF (with more viewers The first one turned on) was seen by 15.26 million people. The first television duel was moderated by Peter Limbourg and Peter Kloeppel , the second by Sabine Christiansen and Maybrit Illner . The following rules were agreed with the candidates in the first broadcast: Each of the candidates was given 90 seconds to answer an introductory question on a topic, the moderators had up to four opportunities to ask questions, and the question had to be answered within 60 seconds. Time overdrafts were displayed on the screen and the total overdrafts of both were measured. This was followed by the one hour TV Duel - The Analysis , moderated by Dieter Kronzucker and Astrid Frohloff . Guests were Renate Köcher , Lothar Späth , Manfred Stolpe and Olaf Henkel .

Overall, both duels were rated as interesting and enriching the election campaign; a continuation of the idea was also advocated. However, the majority of viewers were of the opinion that no new information was conveyed.

In 2002 there were several television debates in addition to the TV duels.

Bundestag election 2005

Survey results for the TV duel 2005

In the subsequent federal election on September 18, 2005 , the previous incumbent Gerhard Schröder wanted to have two television duels again, with the challenger Angela Merkel expressing that she could only take part in one due to scheduling problems. Schröder then accused Merkel of merely putting off alleged scheduling problems out of fear that television viewers might expose her as the chancellor candidate with poorer politics. In negotiations between Schröder, Merkel and the television companies, an agreement was reached on just one chancellor duel, for which September 4th was selected from several dates. On that date, the dispute took place between 8:30 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. It was broadcast live by five television stations (Das Erste, ZDF, RTL, Sat.1 and Phoenix ) and could be followed on several radio stations (including Deutschlandfunk ). The questions were asked by Sabine Christiansen (Das Erste), Maybrit Illner (ZDF), Peter Kloeppel (RTL) and Thomas Kausch (Sat.1). With 20.98 million viewers, this show achieved the highest ratings of all TV duels to date.

According to a small part of the press, Angela Merkel was able to win the duel, other editorials and especially the opinion polls on the duel saw Schröder as the winner in almost all points. One of the main topics of the discussion was Paul Kirchhof's visions for structuring tax law .

In 2005 there were also several television debates in addition to the TV duel.

Bundestag election 2009

Before the federal election on September 27, 2009 , there was a televised duel on September 13 between Chancellor Angela Merkel and Vice Chancellor Frank-Walter Steinmeier . The television duel between Merkel and Steinmeier was broadcast live from 8.30 p.m. simultaneously on five channels (Das Erste, ZDF, RTL and Sat.1 as well as with sign language interpreters at Phoenix). The questions were asked by Frank Plasberg (Das Erste), Maybrit Illner (ZDF), Peter Kloeppel (RTL) and Peter Limbourg (Sat.1). TV audience interest was significantly lower than in 2005. 14.26 million viewers tuned in.

As in 2002 and 2005, there were other television debates in addition to the TV duel, so on September 14, 2009 there was the “TV three-way battle” (analogous to the “TV duel”) with Guido Westerwelle ( FDP ), Jürgen Trittin ( Alliance 90 / The Greens ) and Oskar Lafontaine ( Die Linke ) took part.

Bundestag election 2013

On the occasion of the federal election 2013 on September 22nd, the chancellor duel between the current official Angela Merkel (CDU) and the SPD chancellor candidate Peer Steinbrück took place on September 1st, 2013 from 8:30 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. The show was moderated by Anne Will (Das Erste), Maybrit Illner (ZDF), Peter Kloeppel (RTL) and Stefan Raab ( ProSieben ). The duel was broadcast live on all four channels at the same time . It was also broadcast in parallel on Phoenix with a sign language interpreter. This duel was watched by 17.64 million people on all five channels combined.

The television duel is traditionally subject to a few rules. The debate in the 2013 federal election campaign was based on the following conventions:

Steinbrück is allowed to open the exchange of blows (this was drawn by lots). The two opponents will be positioned at an angle to each other, so a direct confrontation is hardly possible. The answers may not be longer than 90 seconds each, the speaking time of the two is monitored by the four moderators and shown again and again. In the end, the difference in the total speaking time of the two must not be greater than 60 seconds. The duelists are asked the same question, they are not allowed to show tables or photos. There will be no audience in the studio. Merkel will have the last word (as a result of Steinbrück receiving the first question). "

The television duel was broadcast in HD quality for the first time in 2013 . The outcome of the duel was not clear. According to a survey by the institute infratest dimap for ARD, 49 percent felt that Peer Steinbrück would be the winner after the TV duel ended. 44 percent saw Merkel ahead. In the areas of aggressiveness (88 percent to 5 percent), intelligibility (44 to 40) and better argumentation (48 to 38), the SPD candidate was ahead. The Chancellor achieved better scores in the areas of better fairness (45 to 13), more personable appearance (52 to 32), credibility (45 to 41) and competence (47 to 40). In the hard-fought target group of the still undecided voters, however, Steinbrück scored again: 52 percent found him better, 36 percent voted for Merkel. Some media rated the event as rather boring and therefore some minor issues were reported, such as the appearance of the moderator Stefan Raab, who is not very experienced in political broadcasts, and in particular Merkel's necklace, which went through the media under the term " Germany chain ".

As in 2002, 2005 and 2009, there are other television debates in addition to the TV duel, such as the "TV three-way battle" (analogous to the "TV duel") between Rainer Brüderle ( FDP ), Jürgen Trittin ( Bündnis 90 / The Greens ) and Gregor Gysi ( Die Linke ).


Sender, name of the program viewers Market share
total 14 to 49 years 14 to 59 years total 14 to 49 years 14 to 59 years
The first, the TV duel 10.11 million 3.17 million 4.73 million 29.1% 22.7% 23.5%
ZDF, the TV duel: Merkel - Steinbrück 3.71 million 0.89 million 1.55 million 10.7% 6.4% 7.7%
RTL, The TV Duel, episode 2 2.22 million 1.17 million 1.54 million 6.4% 8.4% 7.7%
ProSieben, the TV duel 1.51 million 1.12 million 1.34 million 4.3% 8.0% 6.7%
Phoenix, the TV duel 0.08 million 0.2%
Quotas of the five channels together 17.64 million 50.7%

Bundestag election 2017

On the evening of September 3, 2017, three weeks before the federal election on September 24, 2017 , a 90-minute television duel took place between Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) and her challenger Martin Schulz (SPD). Das Erste, ZDF, RTL, Sat.1 and Phoenix transferred the battle from 20:15 pm live parallel from Berlin-Adlershof . The program was moderated by Sandra Maischberger (Das Erste), Maybrit Illner (ZDF), Peter Kloeppel (RTL) and Claus Strunz (Sat.1). These took turns with their questions. A concept previously favored by the television stations for more spontaneity and a clearer structure, according to which two pairs of moderators alternate with question blocks after 45 minutes, was rejected by representatives of the Chancellor. A total of 16.11 million viewers tuned in, almost one and a half million viewers less than four years ago. With a total of more than 202,000 tweets , the duel was the most intensely discussed event on Twitter in Germany to date . According to reports from heute + and Der Spiegel , the right-wing extremist Reconquista Germanica tried to influence the discussion on social networks with the hashtag # Verräterduell .

Previously, on August 30, 2017, Sat.1 had broadcast a “Little TV Duel” with top representatives of the Left ( Katja Kipping ), Greens ( Katrin Göring-Eckardt ), FDP ( Christian Lindner ) and AfD ( Alice Weidel ). The latter two dueled on September 4, 2017 with the left ( Sahra Wagenknecht ), the Greens ( Cem Özdemir ) and the CSU ( Joachim Herrmann ). On September 21, 2017, ARD and ZDF organized a 90-minute “final round” in which the top candidates from the CSU, Left, Greens, FDP and AfD as well as representatives of the CDU and SPD took part.

Bundestag election 2021

Because three candidates for Chancellor are running for the 2021 federal election, so-called Trielle will take place on the television channels . Guests are the top candidates Armin Laschet ( CDU / CSU ), Annalena Baerbock (Greens) and Olaf Scholz (SPD). The first triall took place on May 20, 2021 between 2 p.m. and 3:15 p.m. as part of the WDR-Europaforum. It was broadcast on WDR television , on phoenix and as a live stream on the website of the WDR-Europaforum. Ellen Ehni , editor-in-chief of WDR television, was the moderator . The title of the triell was: “Keep it up? Is everything completely different? Anything in between? The European Political Concepts of the Three Chancellor Candidates ”. It was also broadcast on YouTube . On August 29, 2021 at 8:15 p.m., the second triumph took place on RTL and n-tv (both RTL group ), moderated by Pinar Atalay and Peter Kloeppel . Further TV trials are planned for September 12 ( ARD and ZDF ) and September 19 ( ProSieben , Sat.1 and Kabel eins ; ProSiebenSat.1 Media ). On September 23, 2021, a final round of the top candidates from all Bundestag parties will follow, with Armin Laschet representing both Union parties.

The upcoming TV trials at a glance:

Airtime Channel title Moderators
September 12, 2021,
8:15 pm - 9:45 pm
Das Erste / ZDF The Triell - a three-way battle for the Chancellery Maybrit Illner , Oliver Koehr
September 19, 2021,
8:15 pm
ProSieben / Sat.1 / Kabel eins Linda Zervakis , Claudia von Brauchitsch

More television duels in Germany

In Germany, the following television duels took place in state election campaigns:

TV debates in other countries

Television debates in election campaigns are not only common in the United States, but now in many democratic countries. The debate formats in some countries are based on the US model: often only the candidates from the two largest parties compete against each other (in Europe, for example, in France and Spain ). The details of how the rules are structured differs considerably from that of the American formats. In many other countries, candidates from all parties represented in parliament take part. These are therefore not duels, but usually larger rounds in which the participants discuss with each other. Examples of this are Australia, Canada or Switzerland, where there are also a number of different formats.


TV confrontation between Matthias Strolz ( Neos ) and Christian Kern ( SPÖ )

In Austria this type of broadcast is called “TV confrontation”. The first of this kind already existed in 1970 between Bruno Kreisky (SPÖ) and the top candidate of the ÖVP Josef Klaus . However, it reached so few viewers that today the duel between Kreisky and ÖVP challenger Josef Taus in 1975 is considered the original duel. It went without a moderator, without rules and thus different from the Presidential Debates in the USA, from which the format had been adopted. In Austria Kreisky was the clear winner of the duel.

Today, a whole series of programs with this title is broadcast in National Council elections , with two of the top candidates from all parties represented in the National Council facing each other. As a conclusion, there is a discussion a few days before the election, in which all candidates take part. Such a round has been referred to as the " elephant round" since 2006 - when it was taken over from Germany . As part of the 2008 elections , the top candidates of all other nationwide competing parties were invited to such a confrontation for the first time.

There are always TV confrontations in the context of the elections for the Austrian Federal President .

Great Britain

In Great Britain, a television debate was held for the first time in the run-up to the British general election in 2010 , in which topics were given to a representative audience, but inquiries and applause were forbidden. Participants were Gordon Brown (Labor), David Cameron (Conservatives) and Nick Clegg (LibDems).


Scientific research

Television duels have long been investigated in the United States. In Germany, the scientific investigation began with the first TV duel at the federal level in 2002.

Subsequent to the TV duels, there were retrospective surveys on behalf of the broadcasting television companies, in which viewers were asked over the phone for their opinions and views according to prepared questionnaires. A presentation and interpretation of these results shortly after the duels can lead to a distortion of the audience's opinion, as they can be influenced in their opinion by the surveys.

In 2002, 2005 and 2009, the perception and effect of the television duel in 2009 were examined by communication scientists, communication and media psychologists and political scientists from the University of Koblenz-Landau, the LMU Munich, the University of Mainz, the University of Mannheim and the University of Hohenheim. All of the studies currently being carried out in Germany on the Merkel-Steinmeier television duel have in common that they measure the perception and evaluation of politicians in real time. RTR is a method of measuring audience perception. A study of the German television duels since 2002 asked how one could measure political media impact at the moment of communication (“ real-time ”). One method (real-time response measurement, or RTR for short) is intended to measure the recipient's perception and assessment of the course of the duel via input devices of the test subjects and make it possible to identify what really influences the voter. Result: Viewers particularly valued general statements and what a large part of the audience demonstrably wanted to hear. They perceived attacks on their political opponents and the naming of facts and truths by politicians as particularly negative in principle. However, this happens with viewers who, for a fee, do not watch the program at home, but usually in a university lecture hall.

A current publication from these studies shows that the effects of visual elements in TV duels are clearly overestimated. This is in contrast to the myth of the superiority of images in TV duels, which is also repeatedly rumored in the media (Nixon-Kennedy myth).


The communication scientist Wolfgang Donsbach repeated on Deutschlandfunk his earlier criticism that the format of the TV duel did not fit the German political system. The duel promotes the personalization of politics by focusing everything on the two top candidates. In addition, it is pretended that there are only two parties. In contrast to the USA, where there is a presidential system, all other parties fell by the wayside. He also doubted that such discussions would determine the outcome of the election. The format promotes depoliticization insofar as many viewers base their judgment on the political positions of the parties on the external representation of the two discussants and on their appearance on the television program. Quite a few viewers also revised their own impartial opinion about the recognized outcome of such "duels" based on the reports on the television program.


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  • Knut Bergmann : The TV duels in the federal election campaign 2002. In: ZParl , 36th year, issue 1/2005
  • George Farah: No Debate: How the Two Major Parties Secretly Ruin the Presidential Debates (Paperback), Seven Stories, 2004, ISBN 1583226303
  • Tomas Jerkovic: TV duels 2002. Theatrical politics in the adventure society '. Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-86573-141-4 .
  • Thomas Knieper, Marion G. Müller (ed.): Visual election campaign communication. Herbert von Halem, Cologne 2004
  • Jürgen Maier, Thorsten Faas: TV duels . Baden-Baden: Nomos. 2019.
  • Marcus Maurer, Friederike Nagel, Carsten Reinemann: Is there a visual dominance in political communication? How verbal, visual, and vocal communication shape viewers' impressions of political candidates. In: Journal of Communication , 62, 2012, doi : 10.1111 / j.1460-2466.2012.01670.x
  • Marcus Maurer, Carsten Reinemann: Schröder versus Stoiber. Use, perception and effect of the TV duels. Wiesbaden 2003
  • Marcus Maurer, Carsten Reinemann, Jürgen Maier, Michaela Maier: Schröder against Merkel. Perception and effect of the TV duel 2005 in an east-west comparison. Wiesbaden 2006
  • Marcus Maurer, Carsten Reinemann: TV duels as instruments of election campaign communication: Myths and facts. In: Jackob, Nickolaus (ed.): Election campaigns in Germany. Case Studies on Campaign Communication 1912–2005 . Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag 2007, pp. 317–331.
  • Daniel Valente: Political Language in the Chancellor's Duel: A Politolinguistic Analysis. Saarbrücken 2010, ISBN 3639289714

Web links

Wiktionary: TV duel  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Marcus Maurer, Friederike Nagel, Carsten Reinemann: Is there a visual dominance in political communication? How verbal, visual, and vocal communication shape viewers' impressions of political candidates. Journal of Communication, 62, 2012, doi: 10.1111 / j.1460-2466.2012.01670.x .
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  5. The television duel . In: Der Spiegel . No. 37 , 1976 ( online ).
  6. Majority against TV duel . In: Der Spiegel . No. 35 , 1980 ( online ).
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  34.  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as broken. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
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  43. See Regina Köpl 2007: 127.
  44. Brown and Cameron argue - Liberal scores Spiegel Online from April 16, 2010
  45. see also French Wikipedia
  46. Macron and Le Pen have a tough duel
  47. Macron attacks Le Pen: "Nationalism is war"
  48. lefigaro: Un débat présidentiel qui a rapidement tourné à la confusion
  49. Un dernier round télévisé pour les candidats (mais sans débat). In: . April 20, 2017, accessed April 22, 2017 (French).
  50. May 3, 2017: Le Pen and Macron have a hard exchange of blows
  51. / Michaela Wiegel : "You tell nonsense!" - "You are arrogant!" (May 4, 2017)
  52. ^ A b c Marcus Maurer, Carsten Reinemann: Schröder against Stoiber. Use, perception and effect of the TV duels. Wiesbaden 2003
  53. ^ A b Marcus Maurer, Carsten Reinemann, Jürgen Maier, Michaela Maier: Schröder against Merkel. Perception and effect of the TV duel 2005 in an east-west comparison. Wiesbaden 2006
  54. Maurer, Marcus / Nagel, Friederike / Reinemann, Carsten: Is there a visual dominance in political communication? How verbal, visual, and vocal communication shape viewers' impressions of political candidates. Journal of Communication, 62, 2012, doi : 10.1111 / j.1460-2466.2012.01670.x .
  55. Wolfgang Donsbach: On the political evaluation of a media production: Six reasons against television duels (PDF; 124 kB) . In: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (Ed.): The political opinion. No. 396 November 2002. pp. 19-25. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
  56. (Self) presentation of Merkel and Steinbrück - Interview with Wolfgang Donsbach  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (MP3; 10.2 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /   . In: Information and Music. Interview with Birgid Becker. Deutschlandfunk. August 25, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.