Berlin House of Representatives

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Berlin House of Representatives
logo Parliament building
logo building
Basic data
Seat: Building of the former Prussian Parliament
Legislative period : five years
First session: January 11, 1951
MPs: 160
Current legislative period
Last choice: 18th September 2016
Next choice: 2021
Chair: President Ralf Wieland (SPD)
       
Distribution of seats:
  • SPD 38
  • CDU 31
  • Left 27
  • Green 27
  • AfD 22
  • FDP 11
  • non-attached 4
  • Website
    www.parlament-berlin.de

    The Berlin House of Representatives in accordance with Article 38, paragraph 1 of the Constitution of Berlin (VVB) the representation of the people or the state parliament of Berlin and their top constitutional body .

    history

    Establishment of the Berlin House of Representatives

    Between 1947 and 1950, the Berlin city council of the post-war period had the task of drafting a new constitution for Berlin (cf. Art. 35, Paragraph 2, Provisional Constitution of the City of Greater Berlin of August 13, 1946). After the first free election in (all of) Berlin on October 20, 1946 , the city council was constituted on November 26, 1946.

    At the time, the city council was composed of city councilors from the SPD , CDU , SED and LDP .

    Due to the political situation in September 1948 and the division of Berlin and the split in the Berlin City Council, which led to the (new) election on December 5, 1948 in West Berlin, the adoption of a new constitution was delayed. On August 4, 1950, the new Berlin constitution was finally passed in the Berlin City Council (West Berlin). When the Berlin Constitution came into force on October 1, 1950, the Berlin House of Representatives existed (formally) and replaced the previous (communal) city parliament, the City Council (West Berlin), in the western part of the city. The first election for the Berlin House of Representatives took place on December 3, 1950 (only in West Berlin ).

    On January 11, 1951, the Berlin House of Representatives was constituted in its first session and began its work as a representative body or state parliament.

    The election to the House of Representatives in 1990 (for the 12th electoral term), after reunification , was the first election in all of Berlin since 1946. Since then, there has been an all-Berlin state parliament in Berlin again. The constituent meeting took place on January 11, 1991 in the Nikolaikirche . The day of the "constituent meeting of the entire Berlin House of Representatives" is regularly commemorated with a ceremony in the Nikolaikirche.

    On January 11, 2001, the Berlin House of Representatives celebrated the 10th anniversary of the constituent session of the first freely elected Berlin Parliament after the reunification of the city with a ceremony in the Nikolaikirche. The opening address was given by the senior president of the 12th electoral term, Klaus Franke . The parliamentary reporter of the Tagesspiegel , Brigitte Grunert , held the keynote address .

    On January 11, 2011, a ceremony in the Nikolaikirche in Berlin commemorated the 20th anniversary of the constituent session of the first freely elected Berlin Parliament. The keynote speakers were the former President of the Constitutional Court, Professor Klaus Finkelnburg , former Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and the then incumbent President of the Berlin House of Representatives, Walter Momper .

    On January 11, 2016, a ceremony in Berlin's Nikolaikirche commemorated the 25th anniversary of the constituent session of the first freely elected Berlin Parliament. The speech was given by the President of the German Bundestag, Norbert Lammert .

    Name "House of Representatives"

    On December 5, 1946, the city council set up a constitutional committee to draw up a constitution for Berlin. At the 41st meeting on September 2, 1947, the Constitutional Committee reported to the City Council on the status of its work so far; the draft constitution of the parliamentary groups SPD, CDU and SED, which were submitted to the city council, were referred to the constitutional committee for further discussion. The parliamentary group's drafts were then discussed in the constitutional committee. Among other things, the question of the name of the future parliament arose. During the negotiations, the terms “City Parliament”, “State Parliament”, “People's Chamber”, “People's Day” and “House of Representatives” were proposed. There was also the suggestion to keep the (traditional) term “city council” as a designation or name for the future parliament. First of all, the constitutional committee agreed to use the designation “House of Representatives” as a “working title” for the representative body during further negotiations on the constitution. Finally, the name of the House of Representatives prevailed as the final name for the Berlin parliament . The term “House of Representatives” can be traced back to the Prussian constitution. There the Prussian state parliament consisted of two chambers. These were known as the Prussian mansion and the Prussian House of Representatives until 1918 .

    Parliament reform 2020

    On September 26, 2019, the Berlin House of Representatives passed the “Law on the Legal Relationships of the Members of the Berlin House of Representatives (State Representatives Act - LAbgG)”. The aim of the reform and thus the conversion to a so-called full-time parliament is to react to the increased workload of the members of the parliament. This goes hand in hand with the increase in the monthly compensation, which has been 6,250 euros since January 1, 2020 (an increase of 58 percent). The amount is adjusted annually. On the other hand, the House of Representatives will in future meet until 10 p.m. instead of the previous 7 p.m. It is also planned to schedule two additional meetings per year, so that the total number will increase to 18. The meetings of the committees will in future last three instead of two hours.

    According to its historical development and since its existence, the Berlin House of Representatives was a part-time parliament or, colloquially, also called the after -work parliament. The mandate was designed as a part-time job. In practice, however, parliamentary work often left no room for other professional or entrepreneurial activity. The MPs also received a monthly allowance for their work . Up to December 31, 2019 this was 3498 euros . This amount was adjusted annually.

    choice

    2011House election 20162021
    Final result
     %
    30th
    20th
    10
    0
    21.6
    17.6
    15.6
    15.2
    14.2
    6.7
    2.0
    1.9
    1.7
    3.6
    Gains and losses
    compared to 2011
     % p
     16
     14th
     12
     10
       8th
       6th
       4th
       2
       0
      -2
      -4
      -6
      -8th
    -6.7
    -5.7
    +3.9
    -2.4
    +14.2
    +4.9
    +1.1
    +0.4
    -7.2
    -2.4

    General

    The seating arrangements for members of the parliament in Berlin as of October 27, 2016.

    The Berlin House of Representatives is elected every five years in a general, equal, free, secret and direct election (Art. 39 para. 1 VvB). It consists of at least 130 members (Art. 38 Para. 2 VvB), of which 60% are elected directly in their constituencies and 40% indirectly via state or district lists. The proportion of members elected via lists can increase as a result of overhang and compensatory mandates .

    House election 2016

    In the 2016 election to the Berlin House of Representatives , six parties exceeded the threshold of 5 percent of the vote and entered the House of Representatives. A total of 160 MPs were elected in the election on September 18, 2016.

    The MP Kay Nerstheimer (AfD) declared on September 21, 2016 that he was renouncing membership of the AfD parliamentary group in the Berlin House of Representatives.

    The House of Representatives for the 18th electoral term was constituted on October 27, 2016. The constituent session was opened by the senior president Bruni Wildenhein-Lauterbach (SPD).

    In July 2017, the AfD parliamentary group in the Berlin House of Representatives excluded Andreas Wild (AfD). On October 11, 2017 , the Constitutional Court of the State of Berlin rejected an application for the issuance of an interim order against the faction exclusion (VerfGH 130 A / 17) . Also in the main proceedings of the Organstreit proceedings (VerfGH 130/17), the Constitutional Court of Berlin rejected the application as unfounded on July 4, 2018.

    As a result of the exclusion of MP Wild, the AfD parliamentary group lost a seat in the 1st investigative committee of the 18th electoral term by resolution of the plenary of the Berlin House of Representatives on November 16, 2017. The AfD parliamentary group and members of the parliamentary group turned against this decision of the plenary and appealed to the Constitutional Court of Berlin . On April 12, 2018, the Constitutional Court of Berlin declared the reduction in the number of seats on the investigative committee to be lawful. On November 6, 2018, the AfD expelled Jessica Bießmann .

    The MP Markus Klaer (CDU) died on May 21, 2020 . On May 28, 2020, Johannes Werner (CDU) replaced the deceased Markus Klaer in the Berlin House of Representatives. On July 3, the FDP expelled the MP Marcel Luthe.

    In the 18th electoral term, the parties have the following parliamentary groups:

    MPs

    Minimum number of MPs

    Article 38 (2) of the Berlin Constitution stipulates a minimum of 130 members in the Berlin House of Representatives. The minimum number of MPs prescribed by the Berlin constitution can also be exceeded and this is generally done through so-called overhang and equalization mandates .

    Free mandate

    According to Art. 38 Paragraph 4 Clause 2 VvB, Berlin MPs are neither bound to orders nor to instructions; one also speaks of the so-called free mandate .

    Rights / office equipment

    The official name addition for the members of the house is MdA . More details on the rights of the (parliamentary) mandate are regulated in particular in Article 45 VvB. For example, according to Article 45 Paragraph 2 VvB, every member of parliament has the right to request the administration to inspect files. More details on the official appointments of a Berlin deputy are regulated in the law on the legal relationships of the members of the Berlin House of Representatives (State Parliament Act - LAbgG) of October 9, 2019 in its respective version.

    Lists of members of the House of Representatives

    Reference is made below to the lists of the last three terms:

    tasks

    legislation

    One of the three most important tasks is legislation . The legislative procedure is laid down in Articles 59 to 65 of the Berlin Constitution (VvB). After that, the procedure is divided into the following steps:

    • Initiative (Article 59 Paragraph 2 VvB)
    • Advice (Article 59 Paragraph 4 VvB)
    • Adoption (Article 60 Paragraph 1 VvB)
    • Copy (Article 60 Paragraph 2 VvB)
    • Proclamation (Article 60 Paragraph 2 VvB)

    Within the legislation, a constitutionally highlighted task of the Berlin House of Representatives is the financial legislation (Article 85 ff VvB) for the State of Berlin, which is also referred to as ( budget law ). All income and expenditure must be entered in the budget for each financial year. This budget is passed as a law by the Berlin House of Representatives ( budget law ). The budget law is called the Landeshaushaltsordnung (LHO) .

    Election of the Governing Mayor of Berlin

    The House of Representatives also elects

    but also

    • the President of the House of Representatives (Article 41 paragraph 2 VvB)
    • the members of the presidium (Article 41 paragraph 2 VvB)
    • the data protection officer (Article 47 VvB)
    • the presidents of the upper regional courts of Berlin (Article 82 paragraph 2 VvB) and
    • the nine members of the Constitutional Court (Article 84 paragraph 1 VvB).

    Control of the Senate (state government)

    As a third task, the House of Representatives controls the government, the Berlin Senate . To this end, MPs have various options for raising a topic in Parliament. According to the rules of procedure of the House of Representatives (GO Abghs), there are various right to ask questions:

    Furthermore, the MPs have the so-called right to quote (Article 49 VvB), according to which the presence of the Senate members at the meetings of the Chamber of Deputies can be required. The right of the delegates to inspect all files of the administration according to Article 45 Paragraph 2 VvB is also a possibility of verification. The ongoing control of the government in the parliamentary specialist committees is particularly important. The so-called main committee, which is responsible for controlling the budget, i.e. the state budget, should be emphasized. In addition, the parliament has the possibility to control the government by means of investigative committees (Art. 48 VvB).

    organs

    plenum

    The plenum , i.e. the full assembly of all members of parliament, is the highest decision-making body in the House of Representatives. Further details are regulated in Art. 38 ff. VvB and in §§ 56 ff. GO Abghs.

    president

    Ralf Wieland Walter Momper Reinhard Führer Herwig Haase Hanna-Renate Laurien Jürgen Wohlrabe Peter Rebsch Heinrich Lummer Peter Lorenz Walter Sickert (Politiker) Otto Friedrich Bach Willy Henneberg Kurt Landsberg Willy Brandt Otto Suhr

    According to Art. 41 Para. 2 VvB i. V. m. § 11 sentence 2 GO Abghs elected in the constituent session of the newly elected House of Representatives for the duration of the electoral period (§ 11 sentence 1 GO Abghs). The tasks and responsibilities of the President are regulated in § 14 GO Abghs. Among other things, he manages the business and represents the House of Representatives externally, unless otherwise stipulated by law (§ 14 I GO Abghs). He also chairs the plenary sessions of the House of Representatives (§ 14 Paragraph 2 GO Abghs) and chairs the meetings of the Presidium and the Council of Elders (§ 14 Paragraph 3 GO Abghs). Further tasks are regulated in § 14 Paragraph 4 - 6 GO Abghs.

    The previous Presidents of the Berlin House of Representatives are listed below.

    Surname fraction Beginning of the term of office Term expires
    Otto Suhr SPD January 11, 1951 January 11, 1955
    Willy Brandt SPD January 11, 1955 October 2, 1957
    Kurt Landsberg SPD October 19, 1957 March 4th 1958
    Willy Henneberg SPD March 20, 1958 17th September 1961
    Otto Friedrich Bach SPD September 29, 1961 April 6, 1967
    Walter Sickert SPD April 6, 1967 April 24, 1975
    Peter Lorenz CDU April 24, 1975 December 10, 1980
    Heinrich Lummer CDU December 10, 1980 June 11, 1981
    Peter Rebsch CDU June 11, 1981 March 2, 1989
    Jürgen Wohlrabe CDU March 2, 1989 January 11, 1991
    Hanna-Renate Laurien CDU January 11, 1991 November 30, 1995
    Herwig Haase CDU November 30, 1995 November 18, 1999
    Reinhard Führer CDU November 18, 1999 November 29, 2001
    Walter Momper SPD November 29, 2001 October 27, 2011
    Ralf Wieland SPD October 27, 2011

    Vice President

    The vice-presidents support the president and represent him in case of absence (§ 15 GO Abghs). According to Art. 41 Para. 2 Sentence 1 VvB, two Vice-Presidents are elected.

    Bureau

    According to § 13 Paragraph 1 GO Abghs, the Presidium has to resolve the task of all internal affairs of the House of Representatives, unless the President is solely responsible. It drafts the budget of the House of Representatives (Section 13 (2) GO Abghs); decides on the premises in the House of Representatives (Section 13 (3) GO Abghs).

    According to Article 12 (1) GO Abghs, the Presidium consists of the President, 2 Vice-Presidents and the assessors.

    Council of Elders

    The council of elders supports the president in running the business, in particular in drawing up the work plan. The Council of Elders distributes the positions of committee chairmen, secretaries and their deputies to the parliamentary groups according to their strength, whereby the appointment of the committee chairs takes place according to the principles of proportional representation according to the maximum number procedure ( d'Hondt ) (§ 19 Abs. 1 GO Abghs). Pursuant to Section 17 (1) GO Abghs, it is composed of the President, the Vice-Presidents and a number of members to be determined by the House of Representatives.

    Factions

    According to Art. 40 Para. 2 VvB, the parliamentary groups are independent organs of the House of Representatives and have their own rights and duties. Among other things, you have the task of participating in parliamentary work and supporting parliamentary decision-making. Further details are regulated in the law on the legal status of parliamentary groups in the Berlin House of Representatives (Fraktiongesetz - FraktG) of December 8, 1993, in accordance with Art. 40 (2) sentence 3 VvB.

    There are 6 political groups in the (current) 18th electoral term. The parliamentary groups of the SPD and CDU have consistently been represented in Berlin since 1951.

    Committees

    A distinction is made between permanent and non-permanent committees. According to Art. 59 Para. 4 i. V. m. §§ 31 ff GO Abghs have the task of advising them on the submissions and motions referred to them by the House of Representatives, i.e. the plenum. The result of the deliberations of a committee is communicated in writing to the President of the House of Representatives as a recommendation for a resolution (cf. Art. 44 Par. 5 VvB in conjunction with Section 27 GO Abghs).

    Standing committees

    The House of Representatives is fundamentally free to set up committees in accordance with Art. 44 Para. 1 VvB. The committees are set up for an entire electoral period, ie "permanently", and basically parallel - mirror-inverted - to the business areas of the Senate Administration (cf. Art. 44 Paragraph 5 VvB in conjunction with Section 20 Paragraph 1 Clause 1 GO Abghs). An exception applies to the Petitions Committee (Art. 46 p. 1 VvB) and the Committee for the Protection of the Constitution (Art. 46a p. 1 VvB), which the House of Representatives must set up according to the Berlin Constitution.

    Temporary committees

    Temporary committees are special committees (see Section 20 (2) GO AGH of December 20, 2016) and investigative committees (see Section 23 GO AHG in conjunction with the law on the investigative committees of the Berlin House of Representatives). They can be used for individual matters.

    The last special committee, chaired by the deputy Claudio Jupe (CDU), was the special committee "water contracts" of the 17th electoral term.

    In the 18th electoral term, the Berlin House of Representatives set up three committees of inquiry.

    Study commissions

    In addition, in accordance with Section 24 GO AGH of October 16, 2016, the plenum can also set up inquiry commissions "to prepare decisions on extensive or significant issues in an area of ​​life". They differ from the committees because, in addition to the members of the House of Representatives, they also include experts, i.e. not elected officials.

    The last study commission chaired by the member of parliament Jörg Schroedter (SPD) was the study commission “New Energy for Berlin - Future of Energy Management Structures” of the 17th electoral term.

    Working method

    The plenary sessions take place every two weeks on Thursdays and are convened by the President. Sessions start at 10:00 a.m. and usually end at 10:00 p.m. Agenda items not dealt with up to then have been postponed to the next meeting.

    The council of elders agrees on the agenda two days before the plenary session . The plenary session usually begins with the current hour on a predetermined topic. This is followed by question time, reports, legal advice, recommendations for resolutions, templates and motions. Occasionally, two meeting days are scheduled. The plenary sessions can be followed by up to 120 visitors and up to 58 journalists from the stands, and there are several camera locations and speaker booths for television broadcasts.

    In addition to the plenary, there are 16 (standing) committees and 6 sub- committees in the 18th electoral term  , in which the majority of the technical, detailed work is carried out. The most important committees include the Main Committee , which is responsible for finances and the state budget, the Interior Committee , which deals with questions of public safety and order, and the Petitions Committee , to which citizens can address their concerns.

    On July 6, 2017, the House of Representatives decided on an application for the appointment of an investigative committee in accordance with Article 48 of the Berlin Constitution to investigate the investigation into the terrorist attack on Breitscheidplatz on December 19, supported by the SPD, CDU, Die Linke, Greens and FDP parliamentary groups 2016 ( case A. ). The constituent meeting of this committee took place on July 14, 2017. The chairman of the committee was MP Burkard Dregger (CDU) until his election as chairman of the CDU parliamentary group . At the suggestion of the CDU parliamentary group, the Berlin House of Representatives elected Stephan Lenz (CDU) as chairman of the committee on June 28, 2018 .

    On June 28, 2018, the House of Representatives decided to set up the 2nd committee of inquiry "BER II", chaired by MP Melanie Kühnemann-Grunow (SPD). The committee was constituted at a meeting on July 6, 2018.

    On February 20, 2020, the House of Representatives decided to set up the 3rd committee of inquiry "Hohenschönhausen Memorial", chaired by MP Sabine Bangert (Bündnis90 / Die Grünen). The constituent meeting of this committee took place on March 24, 2020.

    administration

    Like every other parliament in Germany, the Berlin House of Representatives has a parliamentary administration. The administration of the Berlin House of Representatives is a supreme state authority (cf. §§ 3 I No. 2, 4 II State Officials Act Berlin of March 19, 2009). The President of the House of Representatives is the highest employer of the administration (Art. 41 V VvB) and the director heads the administration. Parliament's administration is structured as follows: the Presidential Area, the Director, the Press, Public Relations, the Protocol, Division I (General Administration), Division II (Scientific Service) and Division III (Plenary and Committee Service). The administration of the House of Representatives has a variety of tasks. For example, she organizes and coordinates the plenary and committee meetings.

    Field Office

    Schöneberg Town Hall (1949–1993)

    Due to the division of Berlin, the Berlin House of Representatives had its (longer provisional) seat in the Schöneberg Town Hall in the western part of the city.

    Building of the Prussian Parliament (from 1993)

    Shortly after the reunification of Germany, the House of Representatives decided unanimously in 1990 to move its seat to the building of the (former) Prussian Landtag .

    The historic building was, among other things, the seat of the Prussian House of Representatives as the second chamber of the (constitutional) Prussian Landtag (1899-1918). During the Weimar Republic (1918 to 1933) the building was the seat of the Prussian Landtag of the Free State of Prussia.

    After 1933, the building lost its function as the seat of parliament. In order to make the building usable for the Berlin House of Representatives, it had to be converted. The restoration of the building was carried out from 1991 to 1993 by the architectural association Rave Stankovic Krüger.

    The cost of converting the building was estimated at around DM 40 million at the time  . Overall, however, the cost of the conversion rose to 163 million DM.

    On April 28, 1993, the move from Schöneberg Town Hall to the restored building of the (former) Prussian Landtag took place with a ceremony. The 47th plenary session of the House of Representatives on April 29, 1993 was the first session at the New Parliament Seat.

    The building of the (former) Prussian Landtag is located at Niederkirchnerstrasse No. 5 in the immediate vicinity of Potsdamer Platz . Opposite is the Martin-Gropius-Bau . In the same street (Niederkirchnerstraße 8) is the site of the Topography of Terror today .

    Gallery in Parliament

    Since 1975 art exhibitions have been held in the House of Representatives under the heading “Gallery in Parliament”. In some cases, small exhibition catalogs are also published for the exhibitions.

    Permanent exhibition

    Since 1999 there has been a permanent exhibition in the foyer of the House of Representatives on the history of democracy in the house An open house - a house with a history .

    Honorary Citizens Gallery of Berlin

    In addition, the "Gallery of Berlin Honorary Citizens " is located in the House of Representatives . In February 2020 it comprised 57 portraits. The honorary citizenship is the most important award of the state of Berlin. As a rule, it should be awarded while still alive. So far there have been four exceptions: Otto Nagel , Heinrich Zille , Marlene Dietrich and, most recently, Nikolai Bersarin were made posthumous honorary citizens.

    See also

    Web links

    Commons : Berlin House of Representatives  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. According to racist statements. Berlin AfD parliamentary group excludes Andreas Wild . In: rbb-online.de. June 18, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
    2. AfD excludes MP Jessica Bießmann after "Hitler-Wein" photos . Berliner Morgenpost , November 6, 2018, archived from the original on November 7, 2018 .;
    3. FDP parliamentary group excludes Marcel Luthe. In: berliner-zeitung.de November 6, 2018. Accessed July 4, 2020
    4. City Council of Greater Berlin, 1st electoral period, 1st (ordinary) session ( Memento from September 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    5. Constitution of Berlin - Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, 11th edition, pp. 8-11. (PDF) 2014, accessed May 8, 2019 .
    6. verfassungen.de
    7. Ceremony on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the constituent session of the first freely elected full Berlin parliament after the reunification of the city on January 11, 2001. (PDF) January 11, 2001, accessed on November 21, 2016 .
    8. ^ Ceremony on the 20th anniversary of the constituent session of the entire Berlin House of Representatives. January 12, 2011, accessed June 7, 2020 .
    9. 25th anniversary of the constituent session of the first freely elected full Berlin parliament after the reunification of the city. January 11, 2016, accessed January 30, 2016 .
    10. City Council of Greater Berlin, 1st electoral period, 3rd (ordinary) session ( Memento from September 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    11. City Council of Greater Berlin, 1st electoral period, 41st (ordinary) session ( Memento from September 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    12. ^ Breunig: Constitution of Berlin 1945–1950 . P. 240.
    13. ^ Breunig: Constitution of Berlin 1945–1950 . P. 265.
    14. a b Minutes of the 20th meeting of the constitutional committee on September 24, 1947. In: Hans J. Reichhardt (Hrsg.): The emergence of the constitution of Berlin . 1990, Doc 102, p. 832.
    15. ^ Breunig: Constitution of Berlin 1945–1950 . P. 273.
    16. ^ Archives for Christian Democratic Politics (ACDP), holdings of the CDU parliamentary group in the Berlin House of Representatives, 05-006-067.
    17. ^ Breunig: Constitution of Berlin 1945–1950 . P. 281.
    18. Driehaus, Art. 38, Rn. 3.
    19. Printed matter 18/2147: Motion of the parliamentary group of the SPD, the parliamentary group of the CDU, the parliamentary group Die Linke, the parliamentary group Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the parliamentary group of the FDP (Drs. 18/2147). (PDF) September 4, 2019, accessed on January 2, 2020 . Changes according to printed matter 18/2214: resolution recommendation of the main committee of September 18, 2019 on the motion of the parliamentary group of the SPD, the parliamentary group of the CDU, the parliamentary group Die Linke, the parliamentary group Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the parliamentary group of the FDP printed matter 18/2147 Twenty-fifth law amending the State Representatives Act (Drs. 18/2200). (PDF) September 19, 2019, accessed on January 2, 2020 .
    20. ^ Minutes of the plenary session, 47th meeting. (PDF) September 26, 2019, accessed on January 2, 2020 .
    21. The House of Representatives becomes an all-day parliament. In future, MPs will receive 6,250 euros in diets instead of 3,900 euros - plus lump sums. August 29, 2019, accessed January 2, 2020 .
    22. see § 6 paragraph 1 LAbgG
    23. see § 6 paragraphs 3 and 4 LAbgG
    24. House of Representatives resolves reform with increased diet. September 26, 2019, accessed January 2, 2020 .
    25. House of Representatives resolves reform with increased diet. September 26, 2019, accessed January 2, 2020 .
    26. House of Representatives resolves reform with increased diet. September 26, 2019, accessed January 2, 2020 .
    27. Parliament President Ralf Wieland wants all-day parliament. June 24, 2018, accessed January 2, 2020 .
    28. Berlin's mid-term parliament is suffocating in the backlog of applications. May 18, 2019, accessed January 2, 2020 .
    29. cf. Announcement on the adjustment of benefits to members of parliament in accordance with the State Members' Act of November 27, 2013, Law and Ordinance Gazette for Berlin, p. 647
    30. gesetze.berlin.de
    31. State electoral committee determines the final result of the House of Representatives election. (PDF) Final result. The regional returning officer for Berlin, accessed on October 5, 2016 .
    32. Election to the Berlin House of Representatives on September 18, 2011. Final result. The regional returning officer for Berlin, accessed on September 18, 2016 .
    33. Nerstheimer does not belong to the AfD parliamentary group. Der Tagesspiegel , September 21, 2016, accessed on November 1, 2016 .
    34. AfD throws Andreas Wild out of the parliamentary group. Der Tagesspiegel , July 18, 2017, accessed December 7, 2017 .
    35. ^ Application for a temporary injunction against exclusion from the AfD parliamentary group of the House of Representatives rejected. Constitutional Court of Berlin, October 13, 2017, accessed December 7, 2017 .
    36. ↑ Organ dispute proceedings of MP Andreas Wild unsuccessful - exclusion from the AfD parliamentary group in the Chamber of Deputies is constitutional. July 4, 2018, accessed June 7, 2020 .
    37. ^ Minutes of the decision of the 17th plenary meeting. (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, November 16, 2017, accessed on April 12, 2018 .
    38. ^ Downsizing of the investigation committee "Terrorist attack Breitscheidplatz" according to the constitution. Constitutional Court of the State of Berlin, April 12, 2018, accessed on April 12, 2018 .
    39. Member of parliament died. www.berliner-woche.de, May 26, 2020, accessed on June 7, 2020 .
    40. ^ President Ralf Wieland on the death of CDU member Markus Klaer. Berlin House of Representatives, accessed on June 7, 2020 .
    41. Acceptance of a mandate. Berlin House of Representatives, accessed on June 7, 2020 .
    42. Berlin FDP parliamentary group excludes Marcel Luthe. Retrieved August 20, 2020 .
    43. Seating plan (as of 2018) ( Memento from November 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
    44. ^ Report of the Special Committee “Water Contracts” - 17th electoral term -. (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, January 7, 2013, accessed on July 23, 2017 .
    45. Final report of the Enquete Commission "New Energy for Berlin - Future of Energy Industry Structures". (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, April 11, 2015, accessed on July 23, 2017 .
    46. Decision Minutes 18/13, 25 B, p. 16. (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, July 6, 2017, accessed on July 14, 2017 .
    47. ↑ Appointment decision according to Minutes of the decision of the 29th session of the Berlin House of Representatives on June 28, 2018 (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, June 28, 2018, accessed on June 7, 2020 .
    48. ↑ Appointment decision according to Minutes of the decision of the 29th session of the Berlin House of Representatives on June 28, 2018 (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, June 28, 2018, accessed on June 13, 2019 .
    49. ↑ Appointment decision according to Minutes of the decision (plenary session 18/54) plenary session on February 20, 2020 (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, February 20, 2020, accessed on June 7, 2020 .
    50. Organization chart of the administration of the Berlin House of Representatives ( Memento from February 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
    51. ^ Welcome of the President of the Berlin House of Representatives Walter Momper on the occasion of the book presentation "The Prussian State Parliament 1899–1947" by PD Dr. Siegfried Heimann. June 30, 2011, accessed October 3, 2015 .
    52. A historical foray - a house with history. Berlin House of Representatives, June 30, 2011, accessed October 29, 2016 .
    53. The house - architecture by Guido Brendgens. (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, accessed on October 29, 2016 .
    54. The parliamentarians rarely meet behind soundproof walls in the House of Representatives - otherwise it is an open house: in the secret protection room. In: Berliner Zeitung . June 23, 2004, accessed November 7, 2016 .
    55. The new Berlin House of Representatives in the old parliament: glass, history and symbolism . In: Die Zeit , No. 20/1993
    56. Plenary Minutes 12/47, page 3909, A11. (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, April 29, 1993, accessed October 3, 2015 .
    57. Overview of the exhibitions in the “Gallery in the Parliament” in the Berlin House of Representatives since 1993 ( Memento from November 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) The common authority file indicates the start of the exhibition as 1975, see second footnote.
    58. Common authority file (GND) of the "Gallery in Parliament" in the German National Library; the GND only covers part of the catalogs
    59. Das Haus - permanent exhibition. Berlin House of Representatives, accessed on October 29, 2016 .
    60. Gallery of Honorary Citizens, 5th edition (February 2020). (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, February 5, 2020, accessed on June 7, 2020 .
    61. Gallery of Honorary Citizens, 5th edition (February 2020), page 4th (PDF) Berlin House of Representatives, February 5, 2020, accessed on June 7, 2020 .

    Coordinates: 52 ° 30 ′ 28.7 "  N , 13 ° 22 ′ 53.7"  E