The national list is in Germany , the list of candidates of a party for election to the Bundestag , the elections that diets with a so-called personalized proportional representation and European elections when a party for a national rather than a federal list decides. In contrast to voting on candidates from constituencies who are directly elected ( direct mandate), voters can usually only vote in full on the candidates on the state list by choosing a party with the second vote. Depending on the distribution of seats in parliament, the corresponding number of candidates in the order of the list of the respective party is considered to be elected.
The ability to distribute votes to specific candidates on a country list is called cumulation and variegation and can change the order. This has been introduced in some countries , such as Bavaria , Bremen and Hamburg , but has only been discussed in others.
Almost all applicants from the top positions on the state list, including those from the established, smaller parties, are running in one constituency at the same time. Their entry into parliament is therefore likely even if they do not win their constituency. That is why established politicians or politicians who are promoted by the party for various reasons (age, gender, origin, career changers, etc.) almost always occupy the top positions on the respective state list. If the applicants win the constituency in this case, the candidate on the next place on the state list will be considered who could not win any constituency or who did not stand as a candidate in any constituency.
The state list is drawn up at the parties' election congresses in accordance with the Political Parties Act . Federal lists (in the sense of nationwide candidate lists) do not exist in federal elections. The list places are distributed here according to the second vote results in the respective countries.
Parties that do not belong to the established parties must submit their nomination, i. H. support a state list filled with people, after its announcement to the state returning officer by collecting signatures. In the case of a federal election, the minimum number of signatures depends on the number of persons eligible to vote in the state in the last federal election and is a maximum of 2,000. Different provisions apply to the elections to state parliaments . A party that wishes to represent a recognized minority is exempt from this regulation at both federal and state level.
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