Bundestag election

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Results of the federal elections and subsequently formed governments
Participation in the federal elections

The Bundestag election serves to determine the members of the German Bundestag . According to Art. 39 of the Basic Law , it takes place every four years; however, the electoral term can be shortened in the event of the dissolution of the Bundestag ( Art. 63 and Art. 68 GG) or extended in the event of a defense ( Art. 115h GG). The date of a Bundestag election is set by the Federal President in consultation with the Federal Government and the Länder .

The federal election law , which is laid down in the Federal Election Act, is based on the principle of personalized proportional representation with a five percent threshold . The number of MPs is at least twice as large as the number of Bundestag constituencies and variable due to possible overhang mandates ; the current minimum number is 598 MPs (as of 2019).

The last election took place on September 24, 2017. The next federal election is expected to take place in 2021.

official final result
Ballot for the first federal election in 1949


Election posters during the 1961 federal election campaign

In Art. 38 . 1, paragraph 1, sentence constitution is set that the elections have to be "generally, free, immediately, and the same secret".

  • Universality of choice means that every citizen from age of majority has the right regardless of race, religion, political opinion or gender, to vote and to be elected.
  • Freedom of choice means that the voter should come to his decision in a free process of forming an opinion and can express it in an unadulterated manner. Furthermore, “freedom of choice” means that every person entitled to vote can freely decide whether to vote at all. In Germany there is no compulsory voting, as for example in Belgium.
  • Immediate means that the people who are entitled to vote elect their representatives directly and are not represented by electors , as is the case, for example, in the election of the Federal President , who is elected by the Federal Assembly.
  • According to the established case law of the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG), equality meansfor the existing federal election law "that all citizens can exercise the active and passive right to vote in the same formal manner as possible and the votes of those entitled to vote in the proportional representation system not only have the same count value, but basically also the same success value That is why the count and success value must not be dependent on property, income, tax payments, education, religion, race, gender, political attitude or on constituencies that are too different in size.
  • A choice must be secret so that freedom of choice is guaranteed. So it has to be ensured that nobody can take note of the decision of a particular voter.

Germans living abroad are entitled to vote who have lived in Germany for at least three consecutive months after the age of 14 and no more than 25 years have passed since moving away. Other Germans abroad are only allowed to vote if they “have acquired personal and direct familiarity with the political conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany for other reasons and are affected by them”.

According to Article 38.3 of the Basic Law, a federal law regulates everything in detail about the election. This is the Federal Election Act (BWahlG). Thereafter, all eligible voters may vote ( active right to vote ) and also be elected ( passive right to vote ). According to Article 38.2 of the Basic Law, all who are Germans within the meaning of Article 116.1 of the Basic Law and who have reached the age of 18 on election day are entitled to vote . You can run as a party candidate - even without being a party member - in the constituency or on the state list , or run as an independent candidate in the constituency.

Before the election

Admission to election

According to § 27 BWahlG need for elections to the German Bundestag parties that are not already (based on their own nominations) in the Bundestag or in a state parliament are represented continuously with at least five members, and inside collect single applicant / supporting signatures in order to participate in the general election. In every federal state in which the party wants to run its own state list , it needs the signatures of 0.1% of the number of eligible voters in the last federal election or of 2,000 eligible voters, whichever is lower. To submit a nomination for district elections, 200 signatures are required from those eligible to vote in the district.

Chancellor candidate

Overview of the candidates for chancellor of the two largest parliamentary groups from 1949 to 2017 in
bold: Candidate successful, * official
year CDU / CSU SPD
1949 Konrad Adenauer Kurt Schumacher
1953 Konrad Adenauer * Erich Ollenhauer
1957 Konrad Adenauer * Erich Ollenhauer
1961 Konrad Adenauer * Willy Brandt
1965 Ludwig Erhard * Willy Brandt
1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger * Willy Brandt
1972 Rainer Barzel Willy Brandt *
1976 Helmut Kohl Helmut Schmidt *
1980 Franz Josef Strauss Helmut Schmidt *
1983 Helmut Kohl * Hans-Jochen Vogel
1987 Helmut Kohl * Johannes Rau
1990 Helmut Kohl * Oskar Lafontaine
1994 Helmut Kohl * Rudolf Scharping
1998 Helmut Kohl * Gerhard Schröder
2002 Edmund Stoiber Gerhard Schröder *
2005 Angela Merkel Gerhard Schröder *
2009 Angela Merkel * Frank-Walter Steinmeier
2013 Angela Merkel * Peer Steinbruck
2017 Angela Merkel * Martin Schulz

The unofficial office of candidate for chancellor, which is not provided for in the Basic Law or the Federal Election Act, has emerged in political practice. So far, the opposition People's Party has determined this personality before the start of the election campaign ; the incumbent Chancellor has always stood as candidate for the ruling party. The candidate for chancellor often travels abroad to the USA , France , Great Britain , Israel , Russia and the country of the EU Council President before the election campaign . With regard to the trip to the USA, the so-called “Presidential minutes” are attracting attention from the German public. This is the amount of time the American president takes to talk to the candidate for chancellor, which is also taken as an indication of how likely the American president considers a change of government to be.

There is no set procedure for listing the candidate for chancellor.

  • The selection process at the CDU and CSU is determined by the basic constellation of two independent sister parties . In 1979, for example, the joint parliamentary group between Lower Saxony's Prime Minister Ernst Albrecht and the Bavarian Prime Minister Franz Josef Strauss voted on the candidacy for chancellor for the 1980 federal election .
  • With the exception of 2002 (Guido Westerwelle (FDP)), the small parties represented in the Bundestag do not have a candidate for Chancellor, but only a top candidate. By contrast, it is widespread among splinter parties to put up their own candidates for chancellor.
  • While Helmut Kohl (CDU) and Erich Ollenhauer (SPD) ran again after one and Willy Brandt (SPD) even after two failed candidacies, no unsuccessful applicant ran a second time as a top candidate after 1983.

Of the 20 candidates for chancellor, 16 were elected chairmen of their parties in the course of their careers, two others, Johannes Rau and Frank-Walter Steinmeier, were only provisional. Only Helmut Schmidt and Peer Steinbrück were never party leaders. Thirteen candidates for chancellor have worked as federal ministers in the course of their careers , ten as heads of government of a federal state . At the time of the candidatures, the opposition party was represented four times by the chairman of the respective parliamentary group, nine times by the incumbent head of government of a federal state and once by an incumbent federal minister. The chancellor candidates most frequently came from North Rhine-Westphalia ( Konrad Adenauer , Rainer Barzel , Erich Ollenhauer , Willy Brandt , Johannes Rau , Peer Steinbrück , Martin Schulz , Guido Westerwelle ) and from Bavaria ( Franz Josef Strauss , Hans-Jochen Vogel , Edmund Stoiber ) . With Helmut Kohl and Rudolf Scharping , two people from Rhineland-Palatinate competed, and two candidates for chancellor were also candidates in Baden-Württemberg ( Ludwig Erhard , Kurt Georg Kiesinger ) and Lower Saxony ( Kurt Schumacher , Gerhard Schröder ). Berlin (Willy Brandt), Hamburg ( Helmut Schmidt ), Saarland ( Oskar Lafontaine ), Brandenburg ( Frank-Walter Steinmeier ) and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ( Angela Merkel ) were each the political home of a candidate for chancellor.

Before the nomination, the topic receives a lot of public attention as a so-called " K question ". In the 2017 Bundestag elections , the incumbent Chancellor and CDU Chairwoman Angela Merkel ran for the Union parties and Martin Schulz stood as candidate for the SPD .

Election campaign and decision support

In the course of its development towards a media election campaign , the Bundestag election campaign is increasingly tailored to the voters on TV and on the Internet , as more people can be reached with it than with the street election campaign , which is still going on . Posters with the top candidates and television advertisements are intended to convince citizens to vote for a particular party .

According to a study by the Foundation for Future Issues, this election advertising on posters and at stands in the city center has almost completely lost its significance in the 2013 federal election campaign and no longer plays a role in the voting decision.

In addition to posters, the various discussions with leading candidates from the ruling and opposition parties serve as decision-making aids for voting, for example on television . In the print media, short summaries of the respective party programs are often offered. The same applies to the " Wahl-O-Mat ", which wants to give the citizen a decision-making aid based on selected theses. Both the short summaries and the Wahl-O-Mats website save voters from reading the election programs of all parties. There is also the possibility to ask parliamentarians questions on various websites.


Election date

The provisions in Art. 39 Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Basic Law on the election of the German Bundestag are in the version of the Basic Law of July 16, 1998 ( Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1822 ), which was first applied for the 2002 Bundestag election :

(1) Subject to the following provisions, the Bundestag is elected for four years. His electoral term ends with the assembly of a new Bundestag. The new election will take place at the earliest forty-six and at the latest forty-eight months after the beginning of the electoral term. If the Bundestag is dissolved, new elections will take place within sixty days.
(2) The Bundestag shall meet no later than the thirtieth day after the election.

Election item

Proportional election in the election to the Bundestag

Only the members of the Bundestag are elected . There are two ways to get a mandate from the Bundestag :

First vote
The first is direct candidacy in one of the currently 299 constituencies . Any German over the age of 18 can stand for election as a member of the Bundestag . Most of these are members of political parties , but people who do not belong to any party can also be elected. The one who has the most first votes in an electoral district moves to the Bundestag as an elected direct candidate.
Second vote
The second option is to move in via the state lists of the parties. The second vote determines the proportion of the parties' seats in parliament; If a party nationwide receives at least 5% of the second votes or at least 3 direct mandates ( threshold clause ), exactly as many candidates come into the Bundestag as this corresponds to the proportion of votes among all parties that have exceeded the five percent threshold or basic mandate clause mentioned above to have. The MPs are made up of the party's elected direct candidates and, if the proportion has not yet been exhausted, some of the state list candidates. If a party wins more direct mandates than it should receive according to the percentage calculation, it may keep these as overhang mandates ; however, in this case it does not send any list candidates to parliament.

A direct candidate can also be entered on the state list of his party in order to get into parliament without winning the constituency. The aforementioned threshold clauses are intended to prevent Parliament from being fragmented ; however, parties of national minorities , currently only the SSW , are not affected.

The complicated system of determining the allocation of seats not via a nationwide list, but rather via state lists , but using the nationwide result and not the state result as the relevant variable, led to the problem of a " negative voting weight ". The Federal Constitutional Court had declared this effect unconstitutional and instructed the legislature to revise the regulation by June 30, 2011 at the latest, but this did not happen until May 9, 2013.

Electoral process

Example: Ballot papers for constituency 126 for the election to the 17th Bundestag

All citizens who are entitled to vote will receive a voting notification by post, stating the location of their polling station and the time of the election. In Germany there is no compulsory voting as in some other countries. At the polling station, the voter identifies himself with his voting notification and must be able to show his identity card or passport on request . The election workers distribute the official election documents ( ballot papers ). On the ballot paper, the voter crosses in a voting booth so that nobody can see the desired direct candidate ( first vote ) and the desired political party or association ( second vote ). People who cannot read or are physically impaired can use a helper. After that, the voter would go to the table with the documents of his constituency , and an election worker hooked after identity verification the person concerned in the electoral roll on what to entitle the voters, his folded ballot in the ballot box to cast.

However, the above order in accordance with the official regulations of Section 56 of the Federal Electoral Regulations (BWO) is not necessarily adhered to in the polling stations.

In Germany, elections usually take place on Sundays between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. (the polling station opens and closes). The polling stations are mostly set up in public buildings such as schools, sports halls, town halls. If a voter wishes to vote in a different constituency than the one specified on the voting notification card, he or she can obtain a ballot from his local government for this purpose. If the citizen entitled to vote does not want to vote personally at the polling station (e.g. in the event of absence or illness), they can cast their votes by postal vote, which can be requested after receiving the voting rights. In many municipalities it is possible to apply for postal voting documents electronically.

special cases

In some electoral areas, special electoral districts or movable electoral boards with “moving ballot boxes” are set up, for example for prisons , larger retirement and nursing homes, hospitals or monasteries. Like all electoral districts, these special electoral districts must be determined by the local authority (electoral office, electoral authority). In general, special electoral districts are created in cases in which it is not possible for those entitled to vote for legal or physical reasons to go to a regular polling station .

After the election

Election evaluation

After the polling stations are closed, the votes are counted in every polling station (including the special electoral districts and postal voting districts) and the result is reported to the district returning officer, who determines the election district result with the winner of the direct mandate and reports this to the state returning officer. This determines the state result and reports it to the federal returning officer, who combines the state results, announces the winners of the direct mandates in the 299 constituencies and the distribution of the mandates among the parties. Up to and including 1983, the seat allocation procedure according to d'Hondt was used. This procedure, which favored large parties and - in the case of party-internal distribution to the federal states - large state lists, was replaced by the neutral Hare / Niemeyer process . Since the Bundestag election in 2009, this has been replaced by the likewise neutral procedure according to Sainte-Laguë / Schepers , which eliminates some of the possible paradoxes of the Hare / Niemeyer procedure.

Coalition negotiations and formation of a government

If a party cannot achieve an absolute majority in the Bundestag on its own, it must either form a coalition or venture into a minority government if it wants to participate in government. In the negotiations that precede the formation of one of the two options, in addition to the objective objectives of intergovernmental cooperation, the composition of the federal government is also determined in a coalition agreement. As a rule, the Federal Chancellor is elected in a secret ballot only after a coalition agreement has been concluded . Most of the time, the Federal Chancellor's deputy comes from one of the smaller coalition parties.


The federal government reimburses the states for their municipalities in accordance with § 50 BWahlG the costs for sending the election notification cards and the postal voting documents as well as the refreshment money for the approx. 630,000 volunteers in the amount of 21 euros each ( § 10 para. 2 BWO). In addition, there is a flat rate of up to 0.70 euros per person entitled to vote for the additional costs of the municipalities - for example for renting, setting up and cleaning the polling stations - as well as the costs for producing the voting slip templates , which are reimbursed to the blind associations. The reimbursement of the costs for the 2005 Bundestag election totaled almost 63 million euros.

Individual applicants will be reimbursed for election campaign costs of EUR 2.80 per vote, provided they have received at least 10% of the valid first votes in the constituency ( Section 49b BWahlG). The parties will not be reimbursed for election campaign costs, but will receive partial state funding , which may a. from the obtained second votes depends on the election. Since the funds are capped, voter turnout plays practically no role in the costs.

Criticism of the electoral system

In political science , the evaluation of the electoral system is controversial. Political scientist Dieter Nohlen is of the opinion that personalized proportional representation has proven its worth, as it achieves the desired target functions of representation, concentration and participation. Criticism comes on the one hand from advocates of proportional representation, who describe deviations from the exact proportional representation as questionable and therefore only see the representative function as fulfilled to a limited extent, and on the other hand from supporters of majority elections , who complain that the party system is usually not as strong as a result of personalized proportional representation What is concentrated is that no government is possible without the strongest party.

The complexity of the electoral system is also often criticized. Even if one accepts the interplay of representation and concentration as a compromise, it must be criticized that the effects resulted less from the complex interplay of first and second votes, but more from other factors such as the five percent threshold. A simpler voting system - e.g. B. a proportional representation system with an additional blocking clause - could just as well fulfill the representation and concentration function, but is more understandable and does not deal with the problem of overhang mandates and negative weighting of votes.


As a percentage of the valid second votes (except in 1949, when there was only one vote). Results of parties that did not move into the Bundestag are written in italics.

election day voter turnout CDU / CSU SPD FDP Green 1 Left 2 AfD DP GB / BHE 3 Others 4
August 14, 1949 78.5 31.0 29.2 11.9 - - - 4.0 - KPD 5.7; BP 4.2; Z 3.1; WAV 2.9; DKP-DRP 1.8; Week 0.3; independent individual candidates 4.8
September 6, 1953 86.0 45.2 28.8 09.5 - - - 3.3 5.9 KPD 2.2; BP 1.7; GVP 1.2; DRP 1.1; Z 0.8
September 15, 1957 87.8 50.2 31.8 07.7 - - - 3.4 4.6 DRP 1.0
17th September 1961 87.7 45.3 36.2 12.8 - - - GDP 2.8 DFU 1.9
September 19, 1965 86.8 47.6 39.3 09.5 - - - - a NPD 2.0; DFU 1.3
September 28, 1969 86.7 46.1 42.7 05.8 - - - - GPD 0.1 NPD 4.3
November 19, 1972 91.1 44.9 45.8 08.4 - - - - -
3rd October 1976 90.7 48.6 42.6 07.9 b - - - -
5th October 1980 88.6 44.5 42.9 10.6 01.5 - - - -
March 6, 1983 89.1 48.8 38.2 07.0 05.6 - - - -
January 25, 1987 84.3 44.3 37.0 09.1 08.3 - - - -
2nd December 1990 77.8 43.8 33.5 11.0 05.1 02.4 - - - REP 2.1
October 16, 1994 79.0 41.4 36.4 06.9 07.3 04.4 - - - REP 1.9
September 27, 1998 82.2 35.1 40.9 06.2 06.7 05.1 - - - REP 1.8; DVU 1.2
September 22, 2002 79.1 38.5 38.5 07.4 08.6 04.0 - - -
September 18, 2005 77.7 35.2 34.2 09.8 08.1 08.7 - - - NPD 1.6
September 27, 2009 70.9 33.8 23.0 14.6 10.7 11.9 - - - PIRATE 2.0; NPD 1.5
22nd September 2013 71.5 41.5 25.7 04.8 08.4 08.6 04.7 - - PIRATES 2.2; NPD 1.3
September 24, 2017 76.2 32.9 20.5 10.7 08.9 09.2 12.6 - -
11983 to 1987 the Greens, 1990 Greens (West) and Alliance 90 / Greens (East) separated, since 1994 Alliance 90 / The Greens
21990 to 2005 PDS , since 2009 Die Linke; 2002 two direct mandates for the PDS, no parliamentary group
31961 after the merger with the DP as GDP , in 1965 after the DP split again as GPD
4th Other parties over 1% or with elected MPs
a Members of the GPD ran on lists of other parties, the GPD thereby achieved four seats
b0.1 percent for the AUD , which went up in the Greens in 1980
election day Mandates CDU / CSU SPD FDP Green PDS / Left DP Z Others
August 14, 1949 402 139 131 52 - - 17th 10 KPD 15; BP 17; WAV 12; DKP-DRP 5; Week 1; Independent 3
September 6, 1953 487 243 151 48 - - 15th 03 GB / BHE 27
September 15, 1957 497 270 169 41 - - 17th -
17th September 1961 499 242 190 67 - - - -
September 19, 1965 496 245 202 49 - - - -
September 28, 1969 496 242 224 30th - - - -
November 19, 1972 496 225 230 41 - - - -
3rd October 1976 496 243 214 39 - - - -
5th October 1980 497 226 218 53 - - - -
March 6, 1983 498 244 193 34 27 - - -
January 25, 1987 497 223 186 46 42 - - -
2nd December 1990 662 319 239 79 08th 17th - -
October 16, 1994 672 294 252 47 49 30th - -
September 27, 1998 669 245 298 43 47 36 - -
September 27, 2002 603 248 251 47 55 02 - -
September 18, 2005 614 226 222 61 51 54 - -
September 27, 2009 622 239 146 93 68 76 - -
22nd September 2013 631 311 193 - 63 64 - -
September 24, 2017 709 246 153 80 67 69 - - AfD 94

Legal changes in the past

Election date

The original specification for the election date was:

(1) The Bundestag is elected for four years. His term ends four years after the first meeting or when it is dissolved. The new election takes place in the last quarter of the electoral period, in the case of dissolution after sixty days at the latest.
(2) The Bundestag shall meet no later than the thirtieth day after the election, but not before the end of the electoral term of the last Bundestag.

The relevant paragraphs were redrafted through the 33rd law amending the Basic Law ( Art. 29 and Art. 39 GG) of 23 August 1976 ( Federal Law Gazette I, p. 2381 ), which was first applied to the 1980 Bundestag elections :

(1) The Bundestag is elected for four years. His electoral term ends with the assembly of a new Bundestag. The new election takes place at the earliest forty-five and at the latest forty-seven months after the beginning of the electoral term. If the Bundestag is dissolved, new elections will take place within sixty days.
(2) The Bundestag shall meet no later than the thirtieth day after the election.

The last change came with the law amending the Basic Law ( Art. 39 GG) of July 16, 1998 ( Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1822 ), which was first applied in the 2002 Bundestag election .

Parliamentary enlargements during current legislative periods


The first enlargement of the parliament, which had no effect on the number of members of the Bundestag with voting rights, took place on February 1, 1952. By increasing the number of West Berlin members of the Bundestag from eight to 19, the total number of Bundestag seats increased from 410 to 421 - the number of parliamentarians with voting rights remained unchanged at 402.


Due to the accession of the Saarland , ten more MPs joined from January 4, 1957, who had previously been determined by the Saarland Landtag . This increased the number of members of the Bundestag with full voting rights from 487 to 497. Of these ten members, initially three each belonged to the CDU and the DPS and two each to the SPD and CVP .

1990 I.

As a result of the reunification process, the 22 West Berlin members of the Bundestag (CDU 11, SPD 7, FDP 2, AL 2) received full voting rights from June 8, 1990 , which increased the number of Bundestag members with voting rights from 497 to 519.

1990 II

On October 3, 1990, 144 parliamentarians from the former GDR entered the Bundestag; they had previously been determined by the GDR People's Chamber . The number of members of the Bundestag (with full voting rights) increased from 519 to 663. Of the 144 members appointed by the People's Chamber, 63 belonged to the CDU, eight from the DSU , 33 from the SPD, nine from the FDP, 24 from the PDS and seven from Alliance 90 / Greens (East) (including the Green Party in the GDR ).

Changes in electoral law brought about by court decisions

After the Federal Constitutional Court initially on July 3, 2008 and - after an initial change by the government coalition of the CDU / CSU and FDP in 2011 - again on July 25, 2012 relevant parts of the Federal Election Act (more precisely: the mechanism for assigning seats or converting Votes in seats in § 6 BWahlG) was declared unconstitutional , the parliamentary groups of the Union , SPD , FDP and Greens agreed in October 2012 on an amendment to the federal electoral law, which includes the introduction of compensatory mandates. Depending on the number of overhang seats and different levels of voter turnout at state level, the total number of seats can increase considerably. The change came into effect on May 9, 2013. The right to vote for Germans abroad was also reorganized from May 3, 2012, after the Federal Constitutional Court declared the rule in force since 2008 to be unconstitutional.

See also


Web links

Wiktionary: Bundestag election  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. more precisely: no earlier than 46, at the latest 48 months after the meeting of the German Bundestag
  2. Preliminary final result of the 2017 federal election , bundeswahlleiter.de
  3. BVerfG, decision of November 24, 1988 , Az. 2 BvC 4/88 - ( BVerfGE 79, 169 ), 170.
  4. Draft of a twenty-first law amending the federal electoral law, retrieved from the website of the German Bundestag (PDF; 126 kB)
  5. ^ Foundation for Future Issues - an initiative by British American Tobacco : What the voting decision depends on: Wahl-o-Mat instead of Chancellor duel ( Memento from October 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Forschungs aktuell , 250, vol. 34, September 12, 2013 .
  6. www.wahl-o-mat.de - The Wahl-O-Mat […] is a product of the Federal Agency for Political Education / bpb with the support of the Instituut voor Publiek en Politiek (IPP) in Amsterdam. The theses and contents of Wahl-O-Mat were developed by an editorial team of 21 young voters. They were advised by the scientists Prof. Stefan Marschall, Prof. Christoph Strünck, Wolf Dittmayer, Christian K. Schmidt and Tanja Binder.
  7. See in particular www.abektivenwatch.de . (In the meantime, the website www.kandidatenwatch.de ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) has been updated for some state elections. Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. published.) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.kandidatenwatch.de
  8. BVerfG, judgment of July 3, 2008 - 2 BvC 1/07, 2 BvC 7/07 -, margin no. 144
  9. Properties of the divisor method with rounding (d'Hondt)
  10. Paradoxes of the Hare / Niemeyer process
  11. ^ "Reimbursement of election costs" in the ABC election ( memo of September 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) of the Federal Returning Officer .
  12. ^ Dieter Nohlen: Suffrage and party system . 3. Edition. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2000, pp. 325-326.
  13. Volker von Prittwitz: Complete personalized proportional representation - reform considerations on the basis of a performance comparison of the electoral systems in Germany and Finland , Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 52, 2003, pp. 12-20.
  14. Gerd Strohmeier: Electoral systems considered again: Why the majority election is more just than proportional representation , Zeitschrift für Politik 16, 2006, pp. 405-425.
  15. Eric Linhart: Possible effects of trench voting systems in the Federal Republic of Germany. Theoretical considerations and simulations , Journal for Parliamentary Questions 40, 2009, pp. 637–660.
  16. ^ Spiegel Online parliamentary groups agree on new voting rights
  17. Spiegel Online Bigger than North Korea
  18. ^ Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of July 4, 2012 (Ref .: 2 BvC 1/11, 2 BvC 2/11 - decision of July 4, 2012)