Ludwig Erhard

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ludwig Erhard 1957 with his book Prosperity for All
Ludwig Erhard signature.svg

Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (born February 4, 1897 in Fürth ; † May 5, 1977 in Bonn ) was a German politician ( CDU ) and economist . From 1945 to 1946 he was Minister of Economics in Bavaria, from 1948 to 1949 Director of Economics in the United Economic Area and from 1949 to 1963 Federal Minister of Economics . He is considered the father of the "German economic miracle " and the economic system of the Federal Republic of Germany known as the social market economy . From 1957 to 1963 he was Vice Chancellor and from 1963 to 1966 the second Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany . 1966 to 1967 he was Adenauer's successor as CDU federal chairman.

Life and work until 1945

Youth, training and military service

Bust of Ludwig Erhard, erected in his native Fürth

Ludwig Erhard was born on February 4, 1897 in his parents' residential and commercial building at Sternstrasse 5 in Fürth. His father was the Catholic textile goods dealer and white goods shop owner Wilhelm Philipp Erhard, who came from Rannungen , and his mother Augusta (née Hassold) was a Protestant. Ludwig was the second of four children who were all baptized Protestants. At the age of two he became ill with spinal polio ; from that time he retained a deformed foot. Erhard attended elementary and secondary school in Fürth; then he began an apprenticeship as a white goods dealer . In the spring of 1916 he completed this as a retail salesman.

After that Erhard took the soldier as a Bavarian army at the First World War in part. In 1916/17 he was deployed with the 22nd Field Artillery Regiment in Romania and in 1918 on the Western Front, where he was seriously wounded by a hand grenade near Ypres at the end of September 1918 and was only able to recover after seven operations. He processed this physically, but not mentally. Long standing behind the counter in his father's shop was no longer possible, so Erhard went into science.

In 1919 he left the army as a non-commissioned officer and officer candidate .

Scientific career

From 1919 to 1922 Erhard studied without a high school diploma at the newly founded Nuremberg Commercial College and obtained a degree in business administration . He then completed a degree in business administration and sociology at the University of Frankfurt . In December 1925 he was awarded the title of Dr. rer. pole. PhD with Franz Oppenheimer , whom he particularly valued as an academic teacher alongside Wilhelm Rieger . The dissertation was a critical reflection on the work value theory of the doctoral supervisor, the grade was "good".

From 1925 to 1928 Erhard worked as managing director in his parents' company. In 1928 Erhard became an assistant at the Institute for Economic Monitoring of German Finished Goods at the Nuremberg Commercial College and later rose to become deputy director (until 1942). The institute was founded three years earlier by the economist Wilhelm Vershofen , who was a member of the National Assembly . The model was the American National Bureau of Economic Research , but the Berlin Institute for Economic Research soon developed into its German counterpart . It goes back to Erhard, among other things, that the Nuremberg Institute switched to market research for industrial customers in the Third Reich. In October 1932 he called for the production of consumer goods to be promoted and, in contrast to the protectionism prevailing at the time, advocated a competitive economy and free market pricing.

From 1933 Erhard worked as a lecturer at the Nuremberg Commercial College. In the institute's newspaper, Erhard made positive comments about the Nazi compulsory cartelization , as it prevents the damage caused by the “alien price war”.

The commercial college had the right to habilitation since 1931 , and Erhard tried his hand at the subject of "Overcoming the economic crisis by influencing economic policy". Erhard later said that the National Socialists prevented him from doing his habilitation. According to Hentschel , the National Socialists would have seen no problem with the content, even if Erhard had submitted the manuscript without an apparatus .

Ludwig Erhard with his wife Luise

In 1935 organized Erhard as an assistant to Wilhelm Vershofen the first marketing seminar in Germany, at that time as " paragraph Economic designated course", at the Institute of observation (IfW) of the Nuremberg Commercial College, which later became the Nuremberg Academy of distributive trades (NAA) and the Society for Consumer research (GfK eV) emerged.

During the war years, Erhard worked as an economic policy advisor for the integration of the annexed areas of Austria , Poland and Lorraine . From 1942 to 1945 he headed the Institute for Industrial Research he founded and which was financed by the Reichsgruppe Industrie . From the end of 1942 Erhard dealt with post-war economic planning here. In 1944 he wrote his memorandum “War Financing and Debt Consolidation” on behalf of the Reichsgruppe Industrie for the institute, in which he thought about rebuilding the economy after the war and, among other things. a. recommended a currency cut. He handed the final version of the memorandum over to SS-Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf , who, under the protection of Himmler, had been in charge of planning for the post- war economy in the Ministry of Economic Affairs since the end of 1943 . It is a matter of dispute whether a copy of the text that he sent to Carl Friedrich Goerdeler in July 1944 came into his hands.

Private life

Ludwig Erhard had been married to the economist Luise Schuster (1893–1975), née Lotter, from Langenzenn since December 1923 , who was widowed and had a daughter from her first marriage. Her daughter Elisabeth Friederike Marie (1925–1996) emerged from her marriage to Ludwig Erhard. In 1952 she married the sports official Hans-Jörg Klotz . The Erhard family lived in Gmund am Tegernsee (Bavaria) from 1953 until his death . The cigar smoking was trademark since 1930 Erhard. According to statements from those around him, in some phases of his political work he consumed around fifteen to twenty cigars a day.

Political activity from 1945

First positions in economic policy (1945–1949)

After the war, the non-party economist quickly got into high political offices. Ludwig Erhard was an economic advisor in his hometown of Fürth for a few months before he was appointed Minister of State for Trade and Industry to the Bavarian State Government led by Prime Minister Wilhelm Hoegner (SPD) in October 1945 . After the elections in December 1946, he had to resign from this office.

Ludwig Erhard on the reverse of a two DM coin

In 1947 he headed the expert commission special office money and credit in the administration of the finances of the British-American bizone and was entrusted in this function with the preparation of the currency reform . In 1947 he became an honorary professor at the University of Munich and in 1950 also at the University of Bonn .

On March 2, 1948, Erhard was elected director of the Administration for Economy of the United Economic Area at the suggestion of the FDP and was thus responsible for economic policy in the western occupation zones. Erhard was only informed by the Western Allies about the date of the impending currency reform on June 20, 1948 five days before the planned date. One day before the reform, he announced on the radio that compulsory management and price fixing had been lifted for a first area of ​​industrial finished products. The successive removal of price fixing by Erhard was designed by his colleague Leonhard Miksch.

After parts of the CDU early 1947 in Ahlen Program had set to an economic and social policy direction as " Christian Socialism was paraphrased," Adenauer Erhard invited to congress of the CDU in the British zone on 28 August 1948 in Recklinghausen in order there to make his party known for the first time with its positions on the social market economy. The Düsseldorf guiding principles as a program for the 1949 federal election contained elements from both concepts. In retrospect, Ludwig Erhard drew the following two decades later: "In that first election campaign, the social market economy and the CDU had become one identity."

Erhard's economic policy was initially highly controversial and not immediately crowned with success, as the cost of living rose by 14 percent in the first four months after the price was released. On November 12, 1948, the unions called a general strike. In 1949, however, the initially excessive prices declined again.

As director of the economic administration, Erhard tried to prevent the return of the porcelain company Rosenthal Porzellan AG , which had been " Aryanized " by the Nazis , to the family of the company founder Philipp Rosenthal by intervening in the US military authorities . In addition to his public office, Erhard had a consulting contract with Rosenthal AG endowed with DM 12,000 annually since 1947. From this point on, the US secret service classified him as corruptible. The Ludwig Erhard Foundation confirmed Erhard's advisory activities for Rosenthal as early as 1940/41.

Erhard was a member of the neoliberal Mont Pèlerin Society .

MP

Erhard was a member of the German Bundestag from 1949 until his death in 1977 . From 1949 to 1969 he moved into parliament as a directly elected member of the Ulm constituency for the CDU, in 1972 and 1976 via the CDU state list of Baden-Württemberg . Both 1972 and 1976 he was responsible as presiding the opening of the German Bundestag.

Economics Minister

As Minister of Economic Affairs, April 25, 1963
With this letter, Konrad Adenauer indicates to Ludwig Erhard that he is making use of his guideline competence in the upcoming pension legislation .

After the federal election in 1949 , Erhard was appointed Federal Minister of Economics to the federal government led by Chancellor Adenauer on September 20, 1949 .

Ludwig Erhard is considered to be a representative of ordoliberalism , which was essentially shaped by Walter Eucken in his work Fundamentals of National Economy from 1939. In ordoliberalism, the state has the task of creating a regulatory framework for free competition in which the freedom of all economic subjects (including from each other) is protected. From this school, Wilhelm Röpke and Leonhard Miksch in particular had a direct influence on economic policy in the first decade of the Federal Republic, but the influence of Eucken and Miksch on Erhard is considered by some to be rather minor. As a second economic policy concept, the social market economy designed by Alfred Müller-Armack had a fundamental influence on the policy of the young federal government, although Erhard's view of this concept differed considerably from that of Müller-Armack.

The major electoral victories of the CDU in the federal elections of 1953 and 1957 were due in large part to the successful strategy of linking the (actually international) economic upswing with the Union's model of the social market economy in the public consciousness. In his popular book Prosperity for All (1957) he presented his ideas in a generally understandable way. Erhard advocated the liberalization of foreign trade, which also earned him the reputation of a dogmatist in his own ranks.

Far-reaching decisions from his time as Minister of Economics were, for example, the reorganization of antitrust law with the Act against Restraints of Competition of 1957 or the Bundesbank Act from the same year that established a German central bank independent of political instructions. Furthermore Erhard began with the privatization of companies, which until then were still owned by the state ( Preussag AG in 1959, Volkswagen AG in 1960, VEBA 1965), the proportions each time as people's shares were acquired. These actions should promote wealth creation for private individuals.

From the beginning of his activity as minister, Erhard was exposed to severe criticism from the Chancellor. Adenauer's main allegations were frequent absenteeism, lack of control by the ministry, and careless speeches. His supporters were jokingly called " Brigade Erhard " - after a naval unit from the Kapp Putsch of 1920. One of the high points of the differences was in 1957 with the pension reform, which Adenauer enforced with his policy-making authority as Chancellor. Erhard rejected the pay-as-you-go system that has existed since then (so-called intergenerational contract) as not sustainable. However, Adenauer defied these concerns with the well-known saying “People have children anyway”.

After the federal election in 1957 , Adenauer appointed Ludwig Erhard as Vice Chancellor . On February 24, 1959, Adenauer proposed Erhard's candidacy for the office of Federal President , but this was finally rejected by Erhard on March 3. After the general election in 1961 , Erhard was again Vice Chancellor and Minister of Economics. When he could have won the chancellorship during the Spiegel affair in 1962 , he disappointed his supporters with his hesitation.

Chancellor

Lyndon B. Johnson and Ludwig Erhard (December 1963)
Charles de Gaulle and Ludwig Erhard (1965)
Ludwig Erhard as a campaigner in North Rhine-Westphalia in 1966 with a cigar

After Adenauer had tried in vain to prevent Erhard as his successor, he was elected Chancellor on October 16, 1963, one day after Adenauer's resignation. It was viewed by the majority as a kind of interim solution with the main task of winning the next federal election.

With his Foreign Minister Gerhard Schröder , he was one of the Atlanticists who gave priority to relations with the USA over those with France. From the ranks of the CDU, he was accused, among other things, of being responsible for cooling German-French relations .

Erhard initiated - without a formal cabinet decision - the start of negotiations to establish diplomatic relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and Israel , which were concluded in May 1965; it was the only policy decision of his tenure. After the exchange of ambassadors, numerous Middle East countries broke off relations with the Federal Republic.

In the federal elections on September 19, 1965, Erhard had the second largest election victory in the history of the Union, but even when the government was formed he was no longer able to assert his views in the CDU / CSU. In order to assert himself and to slow down his competitor, the CDU / CSU parliamentary group leader Rainer Barzel , Erhard had himself elected as Adenauer's successor as chairman of the CDU on March 23, 1966.

Erhard's reputation as an economic politician was shaken when the second economic recession set in in 1966 (after a first that followed immediately after the currency reform of 1948), which was accompanied by a sharp rise in unemployment. Its designation as "wanted recession" by the then Federal Minister of Economics, Kurt Schmücker , Erhard's successor in this office, subsequently developed into a battle term that was used against the Union.

In addition, a state election was held in North Rhine-Westphalia in July 1966 . In the most populous federal state, the hard coal mining had to struggle with an existential crisis for years, which was joined by a crisis in the steel industry . During the election campaign, Erhard's public appearances in the Ruhr area were sometimes accompanied by unfamiliar, strong protests, to which he reacted with little confidence. The CDU suffered great losses in the election , but was still able to form the state government again with the narrowest majority, together with the FDP. Shortly after his resignation as Chancellor, the CDU finally had to give up government participation in North Rhine-Westphalia in early December 1966. In the election to the Hessian state parliament in November 1966, the opposition CDU also lost votes.

Negotiations on the foreign exchange compensation agreement (offset agreement), with which the costs of stationing US troops on German soil, were supposed to offset the costs of stationing US troops on German soil, were a severe test of endurance for the German-American relationship. While in the first two agreements concluded by the Adenauer government the fulfillment of the demands was subject to the German budget reservation, Erhard committed himself to unconditional payment in the follow-up agreement in May 1964, according to Wesel a "reckless promise". When Germany was unable to fulfill its obligations on schedule in 1966, Erhard tried in vain to obtain concessions from US President Lyndon B. Johnson in Washington in September 1966 ; the trip turned out to be "a total failure". This financial burden, along with others, jeopardized the preparation of the budget for the following year and contributed significantly to the break of the ruling coalition. The subsequent grand coalition was finally able to solve the offset problem in April 1967 with an "astonishingly smooth regulation".

In the course of the second half of 1966, the Chancellor's dramatic loss of authority became apparent, which was also noticed by the allies; leading Union politicians withdrew their support. After the ministers of the FDP had resigned from the federal cabinet because they refused to compensate for the existing budget deficit through tax increases, as intended by Erhard, Erhard formed a minority government made up of CDU and CSU on October 27, 1966, but declared his own on November 2 Willingness to resign. The CDU / CSU parliamentary group then elected Kurt Georg Kiesinger , Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg, as candidate for chancellor, who brought about a grand coalition with the SPD. Erhard finally resigned on November 30, 1966, and Kiesinger was elected his successor the following day. In his government declaration on December 13, 1966, Kiesinger stated about the past: "The formation of this federal government [...] was preceded by a long, smoldering crisis, the causes of which can be traced back for years."

Ludwig Erhard was in 1964 in the park of Palais Schaumburg to Kanzlerbungalow as a residential and reception building of the Federal Chancellor build.

Party membership

Federal Party Congress 1971

At the beginning of his political career, Erhard tended to join the FDP, but its chairman Heuss advised him to join a larger party. In an interview, the journalist Günter Gaus asked Erhard about the reasons why he decided to join the CDU:

“Gaus: 'You only announced yourself to the CDU in mid-1949, before the election to the first Bundestag. That was your first ever entry into the party. Why did you choose the CDU? '
Erhard: 'Because the aim was to implement a liberal, free policy like the one I had in mind in practice. This did not mean that I should strengthen a liberal party again, but rather that I win the big people's party, the CDU, for myself, for my thoughts and then commit to it. '"

- On April 10, 1963

From March 1966 to May 1967 he was federal chairman, from 1967 honorary chairman of the CDU. It is unusual for a long-standing top politician to have no other party positions in his political career.

Despite his political activity since 1949, which he has exclusively done for the CDU, the question of Erhard's formal party membership has not been conclusively resolved. In 2002, the deputy head of the archive for Christian-Democratic Politics of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , Hans-Otto Kleinmann , stated that the question of party membership for Erhard actually only arose when he was elected CDU chairman, as this office was only can be exercised by a party member. Erhard therefore joined the CDU in 1966, but the date of entry was dated back three years in the CDU's books and was therefore formally set to 1963. In fact, Erhard would have been non-party when he took office as Federal Chancellor in 1963. In contrast, Horst Friedrich Wünsche, managing director of the Ludwig-Erhard-Stiftung in Bonn, declared in 2007 that Erhard had never been a party member of the CDU, which Kleinmann's colleague Güntherletter confirmed. Although a membership card from 1968 that was backdated to 1949 can be verified with the CDU district association in Ulm, Erhard did not sign it; a declaration of membership was not available and membership fees paid could not be proven. In the archive of the Ludwig-Erhard-Stiftung there are two inquiries dated November 27, 1956 and February 14, 1966 from the incumbent CDU chairman Adenauer to Erhard regarding party membership. In response to the second request, Erhard, referring to his great achievements for the CDU, admitted an "alleged blemish" that he had "paid no attention to the possession of the party book ..."

On February 13, 1966, according to the diary of his son Paul , Konrad Adenauer reported to the family that Fritz Burgbacher had told him how difficult it had been to find Erhard as a member of the CDU in a small town near Heidelberg about one or two years ago "cost a lot of money".

reception

Ludwig Erhard, portrait of Günter Rittner , 1974, Kanzlergalerie Berlin

Initially, Erhard's economic policy met with skepticism and sometimes fierce criticism. Marion Countess Dönhoff commented in the summer of 1948: “If Germany weren't already ruined, this man with his completely absurd plan to abolish all cultivation in Germany would certainly manage it. God protect us from becoming minister of economics one day. That would be the third catastrophe after Hitler and the dismemberment of Germany. ”Erhard later became one of the most popular politicians. For many he was the creator of the “German economic miracle”, whose trademark was the always cigar-smoking minister of economics.

Erhard's time as Federal Chancellor, on the other hand, is considered "unlucky". The model of a “formed society” that he set up, which he presented to the party “completely by surprise” in March 1965 at the CDU's 13th congress, hardly met with approval. His political failure as Chancellor was attributed not least to the fact that he lacked assertiveness as a "lateral entrant" in politics and that his collegial style was interpreted as weak leadership. Added to this was his health, which was already very poor compared to Adenauer, who was two decades older than him. The discomfort with his administration is expressed in a report from his first year in office in the news magazine Der Spiegel :

“The Chancellor is one of those apparently thick-skinned and thick-skinned pycnics who need recognition [...] Even the cool breeze that Erhard has blown into Erhard's face now and then since he stepped on the command bridge in Palais Schaumburg is enough to keep him going to disturb mental balance. "

Erhard's advisor Johannes Gross also pointed out his shyness and hesitation in a small group; it was in contrast to the publicly displayed optimism in his rousing speeches.

Erhard evidently found opposition political engagement by intellectuals to be an unreasonable expectation, which he rejected in a problematic manner: By dismissing the literary work of SPD campaigner Günter Grass as "unsavory signs of degeneration", in a similar way to Rolf Hochhuth , who described the "economic miracle" critically illuminated as a "pinscher".

Like Adenauer, many others believed that he was unsuitable as Chancellor. In the more recent historical research it is pointed out in particular that Adenauer humanely rejected his Minister of Economics:

“Adenauer's dislike of Erhard was abysmal and absolute. The elderly chancellor was not too bad to attack Erhard in public or behind his back in party circles. [...] He hated Erhard's long monologues on economic issues. He didn't like Erhard's casual clothes and disapproved of the cigar smoke that Erhard liked to smoke himself with, as well as the cigar ash that accumulated on his lapel. He regarded Erhard's alcohol consumption as a moral affront. And finally Erhard's tendency towards self-pity was unbearable. "

Late years

Ludwig Erhard's grave in Gmund am Tegernsee
Aluminum bronze on stainless steel picture support (2003) by Otto Wesendonck , total height 3 m, Gmund am Tegernsee
Postage stamp from 1997 on the occasion of the 100th birthday

Erhard remained a member of the Bundestag for eleven years after his time as Federal Chancellor. In 1967 he founded the Ludwig-Erhard-Stiftung , which was supposed to cultivate his economic and economic system ideas scientifically and journalistically. He was also the first chairman of the board of trustees of the Hermann Art Foundation for the Promotion of New Testament Text Research (1964–1977), which promotes the work of the Institute for New Testament Text Research in Münster.

In retrospect, shortly before his death, he commented on his economic policy work, in particular on preventing the inflation of the public sector and the rapidly growing national debt: "As Federal Minister, I had to use 80 percent of my energy to fight economic mischief, unfortunately not consistently with success . "

Erhard was a member of the Evangelical Church. He died on May 5, 1977 of heart failure in Bonn. On May 11, 1977, on the occasion of his death, a state act took place in the plenary hall of the German Bundestag. He was buried in the mountain cemetery in Gmund am Tegernsee . There, in the center of the village, a bust by the sculptor Otto Wesendonck commemorates the famous citizen.

Awards

Culture of remembrance

The Ludwig-Erhard-Preis is awarded annually on the basis of the EFQM model to companies that show special achievements in quality management .

The Ludwig-Erhard-Initiativkreis Fürth awards the Fürth Ludwig-Erhard-Preis for dissertations in economics, "in which the factors innovation, practical relevance, feasibility, economic benefit and the effects on people in our society are increasingly taken into account".

The Ludwig Erhard Foundation awards the Ludwig Erhard Medal for services to the social market economy and the Ludwig Erhard Prize for business journalism .

Erhard's birthplace in Fürth is part of the Ludwig Erhard Center to commemorate his life and work.

On the occasion of his 110th birthday in 2007, a bust made by the Aachen sculptor Wolf Ritz was placed in the entrance area of ​​the Federal Ministry of Economics in Berlin.

In many German cities streets, paths and squares are named after Ludwig Erhard.

Works

  • Essence and content of the unit of value. Dissertation. 1925.
  • War Financing and Debt Consolidation. Memorandum. 1944. Propylaea, 1977, ISBN 3-550-07356-9 .
  • Germany's return to the world market. 1953.
  • Prosperity for All 1957. 8th edition: 1964.
  • German economic policy. 1962.
  • Limits of democracy? Düsseldorf 1973.

literature

  • Erwin von Beckerath , Fritz W. Meyer , Alfred Müller-Armack (ed.): Economic issues of the free world. [For the 60th birthday of Federal Minister of Economics Ludwig Erhard]. Knapp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1957.
  • Jan Berwid-Buquoy: The father of the German economic miracle - Ludwig Erhard. Quotes, analyzes, comments. From the Czech, BI-HI-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-924933-06-5 .
  • Christian Gerlach : Ludwig Erhard and the "economy of the new German eastern region". A report from 1941 and Erhard's work as a consultant on the German annexation policy 1938–43. In: Matthias Hamann, Hans Asbeck (Hrsg.): Contributions to the history of National Socialism . Issue 13: Reason Halved and Total Medicine. Schwarze Risse Verlag, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-924737-30-4 , pp. 241-276.
  • Volker Hentschel : Ludwig Erhard. A politician's life. Olzog Verlag, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-7892-9337-7 . Review by Fritz Ullrich Fack
  • Volker Hentschel: Ludwig Erhard, the "social market economy" and the economic miracle. Historical lesson or myth? Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-416-02761-2 .
  • Ulrike Herrmann : Germany, an economic fairy tale . Why it's no wonder we got rich Westend Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2019, ISBN 978-3-86489-263-9 , pp. 53-80.
  • Peter Hoeres : Foreign Policy and the Public. Mass media, opinion polls and arcane politics in German-American relations from Erhard to Brandt . (= Studies on International History. Volume 32). de Gruyter Oldenbourg, Munich 2013.
  • Karl Hohmann: Ludwig Erhard (1897–1977). A biography. Edited by the Ludwig Erhard Foundation, ST Verlag, Düsseldorf 1997 ( PDF file, approx. 3 MB ). (28-page brochure by a former ministerial director and head of the chancellor's office under the chancellor, Erhard)
  • Daniel Koerfer : Fight for the Chancellery - Erhard and Adenauer. DVA, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-421-06372-9 .
  • Volkhard Laitenberger: Ludwig Erhard - The economist as a politician. Muster-Schmidt Verlag Göttingen, Zurich 1986 ISBN 3-7881-0126-1 .
  • Bernhard Löffler : Ludwig Erhard. In: Katharina Weigand (ed.): Great figures of Bavarian history. Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-8316-0949-9 .
  • Andreas Metz: The unequal founding fathers: Adenauer and Erhard's long journey to the top of the Federal Republic. UVK, Konstanz 1998, ISBN 3-87940-617-0 .
  • Alfred C. Mierzejewski: Ludwig Erhard - the pioneer of the social market economy. From the English. Siedler, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-88680-823-8 . (Chapel Hill, the University of North-Carolina Press, 2004.)
  • Reinhard Neebe: Setting the course for globalization: German world market policy, Europe and America in the Ludwig Erhard era. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-412-10403-5 (Habilitation University Bielefeld 2003).
  • Karl Heinz Roth : The end of a myth. Ludwig Erhard and the transition of the German economy from annexation to post-war planning (1939 to 1945). Volume I. 1939 to 1943. In: 1999. Journal for social history of the 20th and 21st centuries. 10, 1995, No. 4, ISSN  0930-9977 , pp. 53-93.
  • Karl Heinz Roth: The end of a myth. Ludwig Erhard and the transition of the German economy from annexation to post-war planning (1939 to 1945). Volume II. 1943 to 1945. In: 1999. Journal for social history of the 20th and 21st centuries. 13, 1998, No. 1, ISSN  0930-9977 , pp. 92-124.

Web links

Commons : Ludwig Erhard  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Hentschel: Ludwig Erhard. P. 12.
  2. Dorlis Blume, Irmgard Zündorf: Ludwig Erhard. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
  3. ^ Hentschel: Ludwig Erhard. Pp. 17-18.
  4. ^ Hentschel: Ludwig Erhard. P. 24.
  5. The manuscript has been preserved through his estate.
  6. ^ Günter Gaus in conversation with Ludwig Erhard (1963). Accessed December 18, 2019 (German).
  7. Biographer Hentschel, himself an economic historian, thinks that Erhard was unsuited as a scientific economist, according to his habilitation attempt, because he lacked the formal rigor and the ability to formulate clear and coherent thoughts and to combine them with each other with reference to the sources used. Erhard interpreted the causes of the global economic crisis in a logically inconclusive manner, and the solution to the acute problems had failed. He demanded that the state should intervene in production and steer the economy better, since this could not be done with individual interests. How the state should do this, Erhard does not explain. "The whole thing would have to be dismissed with a tight line of thought in short diction on five pages." But this was not Erhard's thing, who wrote 141 pages and let his thoughts run free. (Hentschel: Ludwig Erhard. P. 22).
  8. . See Michael Brack man in Handelsblatt : The D-Day . June 25, 2006
  9. Michael Brackmann: Erhard's double coup. General-Anzeiger Bonn, p. 10 f, June 18, 2018.
  10. Ralf Ptak : From Ordoliberalism to Social Market Economy. VS-Verlag 2003, ISBN 3-8100-4111-4 , pp. 145-149.
  11. The escape to the front. In: Der Spiegel 37/1953.
  12. Elisabeth Klotz - FürthWiki. Retrieved December 9, 2019 .
  13. Interview: Ludwig Erhard's housekeeper about his life in Gmund. Merkur.de, May 2, 2017.
  14. ^ House of History: Ludwig Erhard.
  15. ^ Hans Tietmeyer: Social market economy in Germany - developments and experiences -. (PDF; 322 kB) (No longer available online.) Freiburg Discussion Papers on Ordnungsökonomik 10/4. Walter Eucken Institute / Institute for General Economic Research, Department of Economic Policy at the Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg i. Br. , September 13, 2010, archived from the original on March 9, 2012 ; accessed on December 1, 2016 .
  16. ^ Volkhard Laitenberger: Ludwig Erhard. 1986, p. 77.
  17. ^ Karl Hohmann: Ludwig Erhard (1896-1977) - A biography. P. 11.
  18. ^ Markus Lingen: History of the CDU: The Düsseldorf guiding principles , Konrad Adenauer Foundation.
  19. ^ Völker Hentschel: Ludwig Erhard. A politician's life. Ullstein, Berlin 1998, p. 87.
  20. ^ A b c Daniel Koerfer: Learn from Erhard. In: Die Zeit , May 21, 2005.
  21. The escape to the front. In: Der Spiegel 37/1953.
  22. ^ A b Jürgen Lillteicher : The restitution of Jewish property in West Germany after the Second World War. A study of the experience of persecution, the rule of law and politics of the past 1945–1971. Dissertation University of Freiburg 2002, pp. 114 ff., Especially pp. 125, 130; Text online (PDF; 3.3 MB)
  23. Constantin Goschler , Jürgen Lillteicher (Ed.) (2002): "Aryanization" and Restitution. The restitution of Jewish property in Germany and Austria after 1945 and 1989. pp. 141–142.
  24. ^ History in the first: Our economic miracle. The true story. Documentary by Christoph Weber, broadcast on ARD on July 15, 2013.
  25. Andreas Schirmer: The true story of the economic miracle? Ludwig Erhard Foundation, April 24, 2015, accessed on August 24, 2016 .
  26. Horst Friedrich Wünsche: The spiritual foundations of Ludwig Erhard's social market economy: Claims and findings. Ludwig Erhard Foundation 2015.
  27. Andreas Schirmer: The invention of the social market economy. Ludwig Erhard Foundation 2017.
  28. Federal Archives: Timeline 1963
  29. ^ Karl Hohmann: Ludwig Erhard (1897–1977). A biography. Düsseldorf 1997, p. 24.
  30. ^ Volkhard Laitenberger: Ludwig Erhard. 1986, p. 204.
  31. Gisela Stelly: A little consumption, not a little possession. In: The time. September 12, 1969.
  32. Time mirror. In: The time. October 8, 1971.
  33. Ludwig Erhard's slap on the Ruhr. In: The time. 29/1966, July 15, 1966.
  34. Graf Bismarck colliery in Gelsenkirchen-Erle.
  35. ^ Uwe Wesel : Legal history of the Federal Republic of Germany. From the occupation to the present. Munich 2019, p. 43.
  36. Harald Rosenbach : The Price of Freedom - The German-American Negotiations on Foreign Exchange Equalization (1961–1967). Quarterly books for contemporary history 46 (1998) pp. 709–746, here p. 738 ( PDF ).
  37. Harald Rosenbach: The Price of Freedom - The German-American Negotiations on Foreign Exchange Equalization (1961-1967). Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 46 (1998) pp. 709–746, here p. 710 ( PDF ).
  38. ^ Prospects for change in West German foreign policy. (PDF; 481 kB) Central Intelligence Agency , September 6, 1966, accessed January 5, 2020 .
  39. a b Sacrifice for the people. In: Der Spiegel 43/1966, October 17, 1966, accessed January 4, 2020.
  40. ^ Volkhard Laitenberger: Ludwig Erhard. 1986, pp. 215-216.
  41. Federal Archives: Timeline 1966
  42. ^ Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Government Declaration of the Grand Coalition, December 13, 1966
  43. About the person: Günter Gaus in conversation . rbb-online, accessed April 19, 2017.
  44. ^ Gerhard Haase: Ludwig Erhard was apparently as a non-party Federal Chancellor. (No longer available online.) In: Welt Online. May 4, 2002, archived from the original on October 30, 2013 ; Retrieved October 9, 2013 .
  45. ^ Hans Ulrich Jörges, Walter Wüllenweber: CDU-Former Chancellor: Ludwig Erhard was never a CDU member. (No longer available online.) In: Stern. April 25, 2007, archived from the original on October 26, 2013 ; Retrieved October 7, 2013 .
  46. ^ Andreas Schirmer: Ludwig Erhard and the CDU Ludwig Erhard Foundation, July 27, 2016.
  47. Günter letter : “Shall I fill out registration forms?” In: Die Politik Demokratie No. 462, May 2008, pp. 71–75 (with further versions on this matter).
  48. Konrad Adenauer - the father, power and inheritance. Monsignor Paul Adenauer's diary 1961–1966 , edited and edited by Hanns Jürgen Küsters . Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2017, p. 450 f.
  49. ^ Volkhard Laitenberger: Ludwig Erhard. 1986, pp. 193-195.
  50. The breath of ice is gone. In: Der Spiegel. 18/1964
  51. Ludwig Erhard - The Optimist. Television documentary
  52. The Chancellor's Words - A current collection of quotes on the subject: The state and the intellectuals. Die Zeit , July 30, 1965.
  53. Erhard - In the style of the time. Der Spiegel , July 21, 1965.
  54. ^ Alfred C. Mierzejewski: Ludwig Erhard. The pioneer of the social market economy. Biography. Pantheon Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-570-55007-9 , p. 268f.
  55. ^ The Fürth Ludwig-Erhard-Preis accessed on ludwig-erhard-initiative.de on June 6, 2014.
  56. ^ Inauguration of Ludwig-Erhard-Büste, p. 82 ( Memento of March 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  57. "Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse" in Germany
  58. ^ "Ludwig-Erhard-Ways" in Germany
  59. "Ludwig-Erhard-Platz" in Germany
  60. The breath of ice is gone . In: Der Spiegel . No. 18 , 1964 ( online - 29 April 1964 ).