Sociology ( Latin socius , companion and logic ) is a science that deals with the empirical and theoretical research of social behavior, i.e. examines the conditions, processes and consequences of human coexistence . As a systematic-critical science of the social , sociology emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and, as a social science , occupies a middle position between the natural and human sciences . It got its name from Auguste Comte before it established itself as an independent university discipline in the second half of the 19th century . Ferdinand Tönnies , Georg Simmel and Max Weber are considered to be the founders of German-speaking sociology.
Subject matter and definition
Sociology forms the core of the social sciences that emerged from the humanities . While other social science disciplines such as political science or economics examine certain areas of the social under specific aspects (politics: legitimate exercise of power; economy: scarcity), sociology researches all aspects of the social coexistence of people in communities and societies . It asks about the meaning and structures of social action ( action theory ) as well as the values and norms that regulate actions . The objects of investigation are society as a whole as well as its sub-areas: social systems , institutions , organizations and groups . In addition, sociology deals with social integration and disintegration , with social inequality , social conflicts and social change .
Other topics that sociology deals with are social structures , work , genders , social networks , groups, means of communication ( mass media ), migration , everyday life , technology and the environment . For many of these topics special sociologies have been established ( see below ), others - such as the general question of the interactions between action and structure - are topics of general sociology. Issues in sociology often overlap with those in social psychology and other social and human sciences, sometimes also with those in natural sciences such as neurobiology .
There is no standardized definition of sociology . A common definition comes from Max Weber , which focuses on “social action”.
“Sociology should mean: a science which interprets social action and wants to explain its course and effects causally. 'Action' should mean human behavior [...] if and to the extent that the actor or actors associate it with a subjective meaning. 'Social' action, however, should mean such action, which, according to the meaning intended by the agent, is related to the behavior of others and is based on this in its course. "
Sociology was only recognized as an independent science at the end of the 19th century . During this time it broke away from philosophy, economics, political science and ethnology as a single science . The history of its origins is closely linked to the development of civil society in Europe in the 19th century and to advancing industrialization .
Forerunners of sociology can be seen in history, economics , but also in journalism and police science . Early and mid-19th century thinkers such as Henri de Saint-Simon , Karl Marx and Herbert Spencer are also considered sociological classics today .
The eponym of sociology was Auguste Comte with his four-volume work Système de politique positive, ou Traité de sociologie, instituant la religion de l'humanité, published 1851-1854 . Since then she has tried, partly in further development, partly in contrast to older authors who also dealt with social interactions - such as Xenophon in antiquity in the 4th century BC. BC, Polybios two centuries later, Ibn Chaldun in the 14th century, Giambattista Vico at the beginning and Adolph Freiherr Knigge at the end of the 18th century - to formulate their claim to “their own subject of knowledge ”.
For Comte, this subject is “social physics” ( physique sociale ), which he differentiates according to the laws of social statics and social dynamics. For Émile Durkheim it is the “ social fact ” ( fait social ) or - in René König's translation - “sociological fact” that exists outside the individual consciousness and is of a compelling character. For Ferdinand Tönnies , the “social beings”, that is, the social connections based on the “ will to social affirmation ”, form the specific sociological object. For Max Weber it is “social action” (see above).
Sociological understanding, sociological explanation
In sociology as a science of the social, theory and experience are related to one another. Empirically substantial and following the rules of logic , it aims to understand what is observed and to develop explanations for it with the help of general propositions ( axioms ). This corresponds to the duality of the research approaches: hermeneutically interpreting on the one hand and causal analytical methods on the other, the former taking the participant's perspective, the latter taking the observer's perspective.
Sociological theories in competition
Sociological theories never followed "the same" paradigm ; that is, they did not relate to just one way of thinking in their scientific approach. This is due to their theoretical level of difficulty - their subject is highly complex.
In addition: Already methodologically , but also often for moral reasons, the - often clarifying - experiment is usually out of the question ; The questioning , which is possible instead, implies conceptual and interpretation problems: For example, interviewers bring in subjective aspects, are swindled, in individual cases they even falsify the statements. So sociology always remains dependent on observation . Also, depending on the specific questions, the paradigms appear to have different promises of success if the results are to be 'simple' and objective in terms of presentation logic, fast or cost-saving due to financing.
Two main epistemological approaches are to be distinguished, whereby completely independent research results independent of ideological motives cannot be achieved, but can be aimed for:
- If theories axiomatically assume that “individual actors act socially ” (blanket: “people make society”), and all sociological questions can be dealt with on this basis, they need a biological, anthropological and especially a biosociological foundation highly complex personal principles of action such as the will or the rationality of an actor. Such theories are problematic insofar as socially acting actors are both acting subjects and objects of the social action of other actors - unlike the researching subjects in the natural sciences (cf. the self-fulfilling prophecy ).
- If theories instead assume axiomatically based "supra-personal units", in general: "It is not the individuals that make the difference" (e.g. from units such as the individual " societies ", the six residuals , the "four fundamentally possible" modes of communication , the two sexes or “the one human race ”), their socio-philosophical initial definition must be axiomatically based. This proves to be extremely difficult. In addition, there are problems of demarcation between, for example, collectives , motives , systems , women and men or humans and non-humans (e.g. animals or robots).
These two main concepts and their overlap are the foundations for the large number of different sociological theories ( see below the examples under Macrosociology and Microsociology ). In addition, “with limited questions” in everyday sociological life, researchers with different epistemological orientations - thanks to an extensive mathematical to social-historical method kit developed in sociology - collect similar to the same, both reliable and valid findings.
Some central terms in sociology
The term society refers to the sum of relationships and relationships between individuals. What is meant is not the mere spatial and quantitative number of individuals, but their sociality. This denotes structures made up of relatively stable behavior patterns that have their origin in interactive human action and that achieve their effect in this area. The most general term of society is “the most comprehensive system of human coexistence”. There is no agreement in sociology on more specific characteristics for a society.
The process by which individuals become members of society is called “ socialization ”.
Institutions such as the state, the family, the law or education are now understood as subcategories (also: subsystems) of society. The distinction between state and society established the beginning of sociology.
The terms “the social” or “sociality” mean the subject of research in sociology and their meaning corresponds to the term “society”.
In sociology according to Max Weber , the term action means “ action ” that is associated with “meaning” for the agent. According to Max Weber, "social action" is defined by the fact that it relates to others and is meaningfully oriented towards the behavior of others.
According to Émile Durkheim, a “social fact” ( fait social ) is “any more or less fixed type of action which has the ability to exert an external coercion on the individual; or that occurs in the realm of a given society in general, whereby it has a life of its own independent of its individual expressions. "
Integration - disintegration
Since Auguste Comte, sociology has been asking: what separates, what connects people, what ensures progress and order at the same time? This topic was dealt with above all in structural functionalism - according to Talcott Parsons. At present , among other things, Wilhelm Heitmeyer's theory of disintegration is widely received.
Sociology has been concerned with social change as the comprehensive change in relatively stable social structures since the time of its creation; it already plays an important role in the thinking of Henri de Saint-Simon and Marx . It received its conceptual version from Ogburn 's Social Change (1922). In recent times, social change has been the focus of modernization theories .
Social norms are behavioral expectations of individuals and groups in specific social situations with different levels of commitment , which are enforced through positive and negative sanctions (see also social desirability ). The norm-relatedness of social behavior is an early topic in sociology. Émile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons have dealt with it in particular, and Ralf Dahrendorf and Heinrich Popitz in German post-war sociology .
Subdivision of sociology
Breakdown according to the units examined
A common subdivision in sociology distinguishes between
- the starting point of whole societies as units ( macrosociology ) and
- the starting point for social action and interaction between the actors ( microsociology ).
Dissatisfied with this scientifically theoretically strict alternative are representatives of a view of intermediate levels known as "mesosociology" (emphasis on "back and forth") and of an approach recently called "macro-micro-sociology" which, in terms of process analysis, deals with the one-sidedness of exclusive macro and micro- Overcoming contemplation claims (emphasis on “neither-nor”).
Macrosociology (society, collective, structure, system, discourse)
- Marxist sociology
- Structural functionalism , s. u.
- Critical theory , s. u.
- Systems theory , s. u.
- Cultural theory , s. u.
- Actor Network Theory
- Network research , complex network , (social network)
- Discourse theory, see discourse
Microsociology (actor, individual, action)
- Sociology of conflict
- Symbolic interactionism
- Phenomenological Sociology
- Methodological individualism (especially the theory of rational decision , see below)
- Figuration (sociology) (controversial assignment)
- Hermeneutics in particular the hermeneutic sociology of knowledge and objective hermeneutics
- Constructivism especially social constructivism
- Practical theory
Mesosociology (group, figuration, organization, institution, situation, ritual, subsystem, etc.)
- Figuration (sociology)
- Organizational sociology
- Practical theory
- Sociological neo-institutionalism
- Structuring theory , s. u.
Norbert Elias ' approach , the sociology of figuration (also process sociology ), claims a flow-structural (figurative) foundation that goes beyond actor analysis, but rejects macro-sociological reifications of society as a whole. A second approach is the socialization theory of Klaus Hurrelmann, which conceives personality development as a permanent productive process of processing inner reality (body, psyche) and outer reality (social and physical environment).
Breakdown according to the range of the theorems
Furthermore, subject areas of sociology can also be differentiated according to whether they are to be assigned to “general” sociology, i.e. claim general validity, or whether they are subjects of a “special” sociology. In theory, the sociological “methods” belong to the general theory, but in university practice they are often operated separately.
“General sociology” includes the categories and hypotheses that explain social behavior in various areas of life. This includes subject areas such as the relationship between actor and society or person and social system, as well as the structure and change of societies or social systems. The methods of empirical research can also be classified here.
The main topics of general sociology are for example: deviance , elites , functional differentiation , groups , rule , communication , power , socialization , social action , social interaction , classes , social mobility , social roles , social exchange , social inequality , social change , social structure , technology .
“Special sociologies” - informally also called “hyphenated sociologies” - deal with the structures and processes of social subsystems or institutional areas of society.
Among the most important special sociologies include sociology of work , economic sociology , sociology of technology , family sociology and policy sociology . Due to the increasing differentiation of sociology itself, further special sociologies are constantly being formed.
Empirical Social Research
The extensive methodological tools of empirical sociology can be broken down as follows:
There are also combinations of the various approaches, which are called mixed methods . The so-called objective hermeneutics , on the other hand, claims to formulate a comprehensive research methodology of the social sciences, which is used equally for quantifying data as for naturally recorded expressions of concrete life practice (whereby protocols are already "historical" per se). The method distinction mentioned above is criticized and rejected by this methodology.
Pure and Applied Sociology
Although the distinction is made between a pure theory and its application in many sciences and also belongs to the area of everyday preconceptions in sociology, there is a strict and a less fixed use here.
In the strict sense, Ferdinand Tönnies made a distinction between an axiomatically supported and conceptually developed "pure sociology" and an "applied sociology" based thereon, in which these terms are deductively applied to historical social processes. In the first case one moves in the "realm of ideas", in the second in the "realm of reality".
In a less strict sense, applied sociology is the handling of theoretical principles for processing research assignments. The success of a sociological theory not only depends on the intellectual ability and scientific significance of its founders, but - in terms of the sociology of science - also on the demand for sociological advice from the market or from social associations or politics , but rarely more sustainably also from social ones Movements .
Market and election research offer the most lucrative jobs for sociologists, which relatively favors the development of quantitative methods ( statistics ) and theoretical approaches based on the natural sciences . Because the questions are mostly limited and related to the very near future. Many ceteris paribus conditions can therefore be assumed without significantly impairing the results. It was here that survey firms and opinion research institutes were founded, first in the USA (and since the late 1940s also in Germany).
Some special sub-areas ( military , medical , sports and disaster sociology ) ask for sociological advice, but not industrial sociology , since the subject in Germany moved from the economics and social science faculties to the philosophical faculties in the 1970s ; the sociology of organizations will be continued, especially in the United States. The sociology of law often also has an advisory role . a. conducts impact and evaluation research in advance of planned laws; it can also provide structuring in areas with “soft” legal relationships ( arbitrage , good faith , “at reasonable discretion”). Social spatial structures are examined by community and urban sociology for planning purposes .
Breadless arts , on the other hand, are numerous special sociologies that are difficult to market and not accessible to quantitative methods, such as the sociology of art , literature or religion . So their research progress is heavily dependent on the freedom of research in university sociology, on the motives of the scientists themselves and on the relatively low third - party funding from non - profit -minded sponsors ( patrons ).
Dictatorships reject a sociology - especially one that takes into account the mentality of the population and provides information about it; if there is a special (then often secret) need for advice, they also allow temporary sociological questions (for example in the GDR in the 1980s in the field of applied urban and youth sociology ).
Some particularly important sociological thinkers since its founder Auguste Comte are listed here. Such a list is of course contestable.
as well as the list of 150 sociological classics on Wikibooks.
Contemporary sociological approaches
Only a selection can be addressed here.
- A large number of works, especially sociological classics like Max Weber , can be roughly assigned to an "interpretative and qualitative-reconstructive" paradigm. Often based on phenomenology , pragmatism and historiography, the focus is on subjective qualities of meaning and the reconstruction of the conditions of origin, processes and consequences of social practices (modes of action).
- The microsociological theory of the rational decision (well-known representative: Hartmut Esser ) traces so-called aggregate phenomena back to the decisions and the corresponding actions of individual actors and assumes that here rational choices can be found. There are certain affinities between the rational choice approach, quantitative methodology and neoclassical economic theory . The rational choice approach can be up to Ferdinand Tonnies traced, but not the ratio , but the will has made social action to the starting point (cf .: voluntarism ).
- The " critical theory " (so by Jürgen Habermas and Axel Honneth ), which is now characterized by a proximity to (French) post-structuralism , but in its dialectical conception of science and methods on Georg is of central importance in Central Europe and has an influence as far as the USA Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud fall back.
- A fourth large school that is particularly influential in the German and Japanese-speaking countries is the “ sociological system theory ” in the wake of Talcott Parsons (see: structural functionalism ) and Niklas Luhmann . “Sociology” is tailored here to a conception of society that is defined by characteristic communications and non-communications in social subsystems.
- The Cologne School of Sociology was founded around René König . Your publication organ, the Cologne journal for sociology and social psychology, is still one of the most important sociological journals.
- Objective hermeneutics : From the end of the seventies, the reconstruction-logical research methodology of objective hermeneutics - shaped primarily by Ulrich Oevermann - developed, which, in accordance with Hegel's principle of an alternation of content and method, claims to be both dialectical research methodology and constitutional theory of the social sciences and has led a broad research practice of numerous scientists from various disciplines for almost forty years. It has its origins in the sequential analysis of interaction transcripts of the project “Parents and Schools” led by Oevermann at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin in the early 1970s.
There are also:
- The process sociology is especially by Norbert Elias been revived. Elias understands it not only as a theory of civilization , but also as a counter-concept to action theory and systems theory. For him there are neither pure individuals without society nor pure societies without individuals. He also doesn't know any states. Movement in social interrelationships ( figurations ) is always real . Following Elias, the works of Dieter Claessens should be mentioned. But there have been process-sociological approaches - not under this name - with different derivations since Giambattista Vico , Karl Marx , Ludwig Gumplowicz and Vilfredo Pareto .
- From the 1970s to the turn of the millennium, Pierre Bourdieu developed a combinatorial “theory of practice” on an empirical basis, including philosophical, sociological, ethnological and economic theories, which is often subsumed under cultural sociology .
- The socialization theory , which focuses on the human personality development in interaction with social and internal personal factors and builds a bridge to psychology and behavioral biology (see handbook socialization research, edited by Klaus Hurrelmann, Ullrich Bauer, Matthias Grundmann and Sabine Walper, 8th edition 2015).
- Hans Paul Bahrdt : Key Terms in Sociology. An introduction with teaching examples. 10th edition, Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-65863-1 .
- Dieter Claessens and Daniel Tyradellis: Concrete Sociology. Comprehensible introduction to sociological thinking . West German Verlag, Opladen 1997, ISBN 3-531-13001-3 . In keeping with the subtitle, the typical sociological problem view, treatment and way of thinking is introduced here using concrete and well-pointed material from the social structure of Germany.
- Michael Corsten : Basic questions in sociology . UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz 2011, ISBN 978-3-8252-3494-2 . Explains basic sociological questions and shows connections between different technical terms.
- Oliver Dimbath : Introduction to Sociology . Fink (UTB), Paderborn 2011, ISBN 978-3-8252-3708-0 . Provides an overview of basic sociological terms and theories.
- Norbert Elias : What is sociology? . Juventa, Weinheim 11th edition 2009, ISBN 978-3-7799-0102-0 . Original introduction by an author who is now a classic of sociology
- Wolfgang Eßbach : Study of Sociology . Fink, Paderborn 1996. ISBN 3-8252-1928-3 . Overview of the history of the origins of sociology, its fields of application today, the sociology studies and important basic terms.
- Hartmut Esser : Sociology. General principles , Frankfurt am Main and New York, 3rd edition 1999. ISBN 3-593-34960-4 . Introduction to the general fundamentals of the subject, circumstances in which sociology came about and work areas, formal and content-related requirements for a sociological explanation, etc. v. m.
- Anthony Giddens . Sociology . Ed. by Christian Fleck / Hans Georg Zilian, Nausner & Nausner, Graz ²1999, ISBN 3-901402-22-5 (from the English). Standard work in English-speaking countries.
- Horst Jürgen Helle : Understanding Sociology. Textbook , Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-486-24767-0 . Spinoza , Kant , Dilthey ; Georg Simmel, Max Weber, George Herbert Mead , Hans Freyer , Anselm Strauss , Tamotsu Shibutani , Erving Goffman .
- Hans Joas (Ed.): Textbook of Sociology . 3rd, revised. and exp. Ed. Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2003, ISBN 978-3-593-37920-3 . Dedicated to the subject areas of sociological research, working out the current state of knowledge in addition to the sociological perspective.
- Hermann Korte: Introduction to the History of Sociology . 8th edition, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 978-3-531-14774-1 . Well understandable history of sociology.
- Heinz Maus : Introduction to Sociology . In: Yearbook for Sociological History 1992 , Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1994, pp. 195–240 (ed. With an introduction by Georg Ahrweiler ). Unorthodox approach in the context of critical theory
- Heiner Meulemann : Sociology from the beginning. An introduction to topics, results and literature . 2., revised. Edition. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 978-3-531-33742-5 . The focus on scientific results pleasantly sets this book apart from some of the other introductions.
- Richard Münch : Sociological Theory. Volume 1: Foundation by the classics , ISBN 3-593-37589-3 . Volume 2: Action Theory . ISBN 3-593-37590-7 . Volume 3: Social Theory . Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2004, ISBN 3-593-37591-5 . Three-volume, comprehensive introduction to central perspectives of sociological theory.
- Armin Nassehi : Sociology. Ten introductory lectures. VS-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2008. ISBN 978-3-531-15433-6 . Introduction to the basic concepts of sociology, presented in realistic episodes.
- Sighard Neckel et al. a. (Ed.): Great moments of sociology. Groundbreaking theoretical models of sociological thinking , Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2010 ISBN 978-3-593-39181-6
- Manfred Prisching : Sociology. Topics - theories - perspectives . 3rd, added and revised Edition. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 1995, ISBN 3-205-98386-6 . Well-structured introductory book that explains central concepts of sociology based on the stages of life.
- Annette Treibel : Introduction to contemporary sociological theories . 7th, updated edition. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 978-3-531-15177-9 . 3rd volume of her 4-part series of publications introductory course in sociology . Selected theories are presented, their structure is worked out, and the interweaving of their different approaches is made more transparent by the author's connecting lines.
- Friedhelm Kröll : Sociology. In the labyrinth of models. An orientation , new academic press, Vienna 2014. ISBN 978-3-7003-1779-1 .
- Jörn Lamla , Henning Laux , Hartmut Rosa , David Strecker (eds.): Handbuch der Soziologie , UVK, Konstanz 2014. ISBN 978-3-8252-8601-9 .
- Hans Peter Henecka : Basic Sociology Course UVK Konstanz / UTB Stuttgart 2015 (10th updated edition), ISBN 978-3-8252-4468-2 (Korean translation by Theory Publishing, Seoul 2016)
- Reinhold Zippelius : Basic concepts of legal and state sociology , 3rd edition 2012, ISBN 978-3-16-151801-0 , Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen
- Lewis Coser : Masters of Sociological Thought . Ideas in Historical and Social Context . Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York et al. a. 1971, ISBN 0-15-555128-0 . A brilliant introduction to the sociological classics.
- Günter Endruweit , Gisela Trommsdorff (Hrsg.): Dictionary of Sociology . 2. verb. and exp. Ed., Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8252-2232-2 . A knowledgeable overview in the form of a manual with numerous employees.
- Sina Farzin, Stefan Jordan (Ed.): Lexicon of Sociology and Social Theory. A hundred basic terms . Reclam, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-15-010661-7 . Concepts of sociology and social theory
- Werner Fuchs-Heinritz , Rüdiger Lautmann , Otthein Rammstedt , Hanns Wienold (eds.): Lexicon of sociology . 4th edition, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 3-531-11417-4 . The sociological subject lexicon with the largest number of keywords and employees worldwide.
- Karl-Heinz Hillmann : Dictionary of Sociology (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 410). 5th, completely revised and enlarged edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-520-41005-4 . The classic among German sociological dictionaries. Around 2500 material and personal entries, extensive literature.
- Klaus Hurrelmann, Ullrich Bauer, Matthias Grundmann, Sabine Walper (eds.): Handbook Socialization Research . Weinheim: Beltz 2015.
- Dirk Kaesler (Ed.): Classics of Sociology . Volume I: From Auguste Comte to Alfred Schütz . 5th edition Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54749-4 . Volume 2: From Talcott Parsons to Anthony Giddens . 5th edition, Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-406-42089-3 . Volume 1 deals with the sociologists who are internationally considered classics and who were born before 1900, and volume 2 deals with the later ones. All are presented in their life and the contemporary context, then in their work and their most important terms and finally in their effect on contemporary sociological thought and on contemporary international sociology. The volumes help to briefly recapitulate the classics and to place them in a historical context.
- Dirk Kaesler (Ed.): Current theories of sociology . Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52822-8 . Well-founded overview of current developments in sociological theories.
- Dirk Kaesler, Ludgera Vogt (ed.): Major works of sociology (= Kröner's pocket edition. Volume 396). 2nd, revised edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-520-39602-0 . The proven reference work opens up 107 major works of international sociology. With chronological catalog raisonné, subject and title index.
- Georg W. Oesterdiekhoff (Hrsg.): Lexicon of sociological works . Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-531-13255-5 . 174 specialist representatives present 750 sociological works.
- Gerd Reinhold (Ed.): Sociology Lexicon , 3rd revised. and exp. Edition, Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-486-24176-1 Numerous collaborators, 4th edition i. E. 
- Bernhard Schäfers , Johannes Kopp (ed.): Basic concepts of sociology . 9th edition, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 978-3-531-14686-7 . 104 articles on key terms.
- Sociology Today - the first popular science magazine for sociology in German-speaking countries (online)
Trade journals (selection)
- Acta Sociologica
- American Journal of Sociology
- American Sociological Review
- L'Année Sociologique
- Berlin journal for sociology
- British Journal of Sociology
- Comparative Sociology
- European Journal of Sociology
- European Sociological Review
- International Sociology
- Cologne Journal of Sociology and Social Psychology
- Leviathan - Berlin journal for social science
- Mens en Maatschappij
- Middle way 36
- Austrian journal for sociology
- Procla. Journal of Critical Social Science
- Swiss Journal of Sociology (trilingual)
- Social forces
- Sociologia Internationalis
- sociology today
- Social systems
- Social world
- Sociological Revue (German review magazine)
- Tönnies forum
- WestEnd. New journal for social research
- Critical Theory Journal
- Journal of Sociology
- Journal of Theoretical Sociology
- 50 classics of sociology
- Link collection of the German institutes and research facilities for sociology, archived April 28, 2015 ( Memento from April 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- extensive link and article collection from the magazine sociology today
- Regine Gildemeister : Introduction to Sociology Video recording on the Tübingen Internet Multimedia Server
- TU Berlin : What is sociology
- DGS - German Society for Sociology
- BDS - Professional Association of German Sociologists
- ÖGS - Austrian Society for Sociology
- GESIS - Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences
- ESA European Sociological Association
- ASA American Sociological Association
- ISA - International Sociological Association
- TASA - The Australian Sociological Association
- Emile Durkheim: Rules of the Sociological Method , Neuwied 1961, p. 106.
- Cf. on this: Jürgen Habermas: On the logic of social science, Frankfurt am Main 1982, especially Chapter 4; Anthony Giddens: Interpretative Sociology, Frankfurt am Main 1984, especially p. 191 ff.
- See already Karl Marx : Grundrisse der Critique of Political Economy , 1857; then Georg Simmel : Sociology. Studies on the forms of socialization. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1908, chap. I, pp. 1–21 - The problem of sociology, online ( Memento from February 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- For the whole complex of society cf. also: Schäfers, Kopp (ed.): Basic concepts of sociology . VS-Verlag, 2006, 9th edition.
- Cf. Jörg Ebrecht (with Frank Hillebrandt), Contours of a Sociological Theory of Practice . In this. (Ed.): Bourdieu's theory of practice. Explanatory power - application - perspectives , Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen / Wiesbaden.
- Werner Fuchs-Heinritz , Rüdiger Lautmann , Otthein Rammstedt , Hanns Wienold (Eds.): Lexicon for Sociology , Article Society , 4th edition, VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Wiesbaden 2007, p. 233 f.
- Hauke Brunkhorst : Hegel - Philosophy of Law. University of Flensburg, archived from the original on October 22, 2007 ; accessed on September 18, 2018 .
- Cf. on the concept of “civil society” Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel : Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts , 1821.
- Werner Fuchs-Heinritz u. a. (Ed.), 1995. Cf. u. a. Leopold von Wiese .
- Emile Durkheim: Rules of the sociological method . Sociological Texts Volume 3, Luchterhand, Neuwied 1961, p. 114.
- Werner Fuchs-Heinritz, Rüdiger Lautmann, Otthein Rammstedt, Hanns Wienold (eds.): Lexicon for Sociology , Lemma Sociology, general , 4th edition, VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Wiesbaden 2007, p. 635.
- Relative Ranking of a Selected Pool of Leading Scholars in the Social Sciences by Number of Citations in the Social Science Citation Index, 2000–2007 * ( Memento from April 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 56 kB).
- Sociological classics on Wikibooks.