# validity

Validity is the quality in which something has validity.

## General

The term “validity” is ambiguous. It means truth , correctness and being recognized in different contexts. What is valid is “what is valid and must be recognized as correct”. Invalidity is the negation of the word validity.

## Validity in the sense of truth

On the one hand, validity is used in the sense of truth or proven truth. It is said that a term is valid if it applies to an object.

In addition, one speaks of the validity of a statement (a judgment / a sentence ) or a theory if they are true.

A conclusion procedure is valid in formal logic if the conclusion is true if the premises are true.

## Validity in the sense of correctness

Above all, validity stands for correctness . The validity in the sense of logic is independent of the truth of the premises or the conclusion: it simply states that if the premises are true, the conclusion is necessarily true. The validity of a conclusion or an argument is not based on the truth of the premises, but on the logical form , on the logical relationship between premises and conclusion. Even if the premises and / or the conclusion are wrong, the conclusion / argument can (formally) be valid. Conversely, the premises and conclusion may be true, but the argument / conclusion may be invalid.

### Logical validity (= logical truth)

A statement, a conclusion or an argument is valid in the sense of logically true if they are instances of a statement, a conclusion or argument form that are true solely because of their logical form - regardless of the existence or non-existence of the Issues to refer to.

#### Logical validity of a statement

A statement form (schema) is “valid if and only if every sentence of this form (and i.e. every sentence in which the variables of the schema are replaced by content expressions of the corresponding type) is analytically true”. Or in other words: "A statement A of a language L is (generally) valid if A is true under all possible truth value assignments or with regard to all possible models for L" (see also: Tautology ).

#### Logical validity of an inference

A conclusion is logically valid if it is impossible for reasons of logical form of the conclusion that the premises but the conclusion (true conclusion ) is wrong.

When it comes to propositional logic particles, one speaks of propositional logic valid, for predicate logic particles of predicate logic etc.

#### Logical validity of an argument

An argument is logically valid "if no argument with the same logical form has true premises, but a wrong conclusion". The validity of an argument must be independent of the factual truth or untruth of the sentences involved; because correct conclusions can also be drawn from wrong premises.

Validity and invalidity are “purely formal characteristics of arguments”; H. “Two arguments of exactly the same form are either both valid or both invalid, however different objects they may refer to.” An argument is invalid if there is an interpretation that makes all the premises true and the conclusion false.

### Validity in terms of ethics

If one speaks of a valid norm in ethics , this means either that it is sanctioned or that it is generally and objectively justified.

### Validity in empirical social research (validity)

In empirical social research , validity describes the scientific quality of the results. A certain approach becomes valid because it captures what is actually to be proven. One also speaks of validity .

### Validity in data processing

In data processing , validity is used in various contexts , often only apparent from the context . It is:

• Validity of data
current - as opposed to out of date if the values ​​change; There is a period of validity of the type "valid since ... until revoked" or "valid from ... to ..." (for example personal data, timetables )
• Correctness of data
right, exactly - as opposed to wrong, imprecise (e.g. measurements )
• Presence of data
present, consistent, readable - as opposed to not present, garbled or illegible ( e.g. data transmission )
• Validity of data within programs
legal access to data / variables within programs. By dividing a program into program and internal subroutines, a validity hierarchy is created. Declared variables are only valid in the enclosed and lower contained areas. The validity of variables is not to be confused with the visibility of variables. A variable can be valid but not visible. Conversely, a visible variable is always valid (see also variable (programming) ).

## Validity in the sense of effectiveness and being recognized

Validity also stands for effectiveness and being recognized.

### Validity in law

In law , validity also means legal validity or mandatory recognition ( legal force , official recognition ). Example: The court ruling , the contract , the identity card is valid. With regard to a legal norm, however, legal philosophy speaks of legal validity, while the validity of a legal norm arises with its legal force .

### Validity in terms of recognition

In the field of action and communication theory, valid should mean that the claim to truth or correctness is worthy of recognition and that an "intersubjective agreement" is brought about through recognition.

## Validity and scope

Validity denotes the correctness or existence within a necessary area of validity with simultaneous invalidity outside of it. Validity is also used imprecisely to describe the mere existence, consistency, correctness or usefulness without the existence of a scope.

Determination of the scope

The area of ​​validity results either directly from assertions made , for example in the case of physical laws, or the determination is arbitrary, for example in the case of agreements between people . Often the area of validity is limited in terms of space or time, but it can also be personal or determined by any other boundary conditions .

In order to be able to designate or accept something as “valid”, an agreement between at least two individuals is required or the validity is system-dependent, i. H. it is specified by a system for which the parameters to be used have been defined beforehand and which are largely accepted by the community using the system :

Wiktionary: Validity  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

## Individual evidence

1. Anton Hügli / Poul Lübcke, Philosophy-Lexicon , 3rd edition, 2000
2. Anton Hügli / Poul Lübcke, Philosophy-Lexicon , 3rd edition, 2000
3. Armin Regenbogen / Uwe Meyer, Dictionary of Philosophical Terms , 2005
4. Anton Hügli / Poul Lübcke, Philosophy-Lexicon , 3rd ed., 2000. However, this seems to be a shortened, analogous way of expressing a corresponding statement that predicates the term to a fact.
5. Anton Hügli / Poul Lübcke, Philosophy-Lexicon , 3rd edition, 2000
6. ^ Peter Prechtl / ​​Franz P Burkard, Metzler-Philosophie-Lexikon , 2nd edition, 1999
7. ^ Peter Prechtl / ​​Franz P Burkard, Metzler-Philosophie-Lexikon , 2nd edition, 1999
8. Ernst Tugendhat / Ursula Wolf, Logisch-semantische Propädeutik , 1983, p. 45
9. Hadumond Bußmann, Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft , 3rd edition, 2002
10. Armin Regenbogen / Uwe Meyer, Dictionary of Philosophical Terms , 2005
11. Anton Hügli / Poul Lübcke, Philosophy-Lexicon , 3rd edition, 2000
12. Wolfgang Stegmüller, The ABC of modern logic and semantics , 1969, p. 42
13. Irving M. Copi, Introduction to Logic , 1998, p. 132
14. Wolfgang Stegmüller, The ABC of modern logic and semantics , 1969, p. 42
15. ^ Peter Prechtl / ​​Franz P Burkard, Metzler-Philosophie-Lexikon , 2nd edition, 1999
16. Armin Regenbogen / Uwe Meyer, Dictionary of Philosophical Terms , 2005
17. ^ Gerhard Wahrig , German Dictionary , 1968, p. 1605
18. ^ Peter Prechtl / ​​Franz P Burkard, Metzler-Philosophie-Lexikon , 2nd edition, 1999