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The term statement is ambiguous. He specifically designates

In terms of aesthetics too

  • the artistic statement; “That which a work expresses”, “the expression of the inner content”.

Statement as a statement

It is widespread that a statement is equated with a statement , e.g. B. in the definition "statements are sentences that are true or false".

Synonyms for the declarative sentence are declarative sentence or descriptive sentence.

From a semantic point of view, a propositional sentence is a declarative sentence , i.e. a linguistic formulation with which either a fact , a presumption , a thesis or a personal position such as an opinion is expressed. From a grammatical point of view, a statement in the Indo-European languages ​​is a sentence in the indicative mode .

In the grammar school, the declarative sentences are the question sets and instruction sets faced as sets with a fundamentally different meaning and usage.

However, there is a fundamental difference between the statement and the statement: A statement is only typically expressed by a statement . Not all statements are used to implement statements and not all statements are implemented by statements.

  • Example: "I would have liked to have won the lottery" is a statement that expresses a wish rather than a statement.
  • Example: “I promise to marry you” is not a statement, but a promise of engagement.

Statement as an assertion

The term statement also denotes the asserting utterance , i.e. H. the assertion (also: the constative utterance, the determination, etc.). What is meant is a certain type of speech act.

So one speaks z. B. from the testimony (in the sense of an act).

The assertion as a speech act is usually made in the form of a statement. But this is not mandatory. A rhetorical question can, for example, be a (rhetorically covered) assertion.

Statement as a truthful sense

A statement, that is, what is typically said in a propositional sentence in an asserting utterance, is that which one can meaningfully say is either true or false. This is the concept of statement as used in the logic ( proposition (logic) used) and in linguistics, especially in the speech act theory , proposition is called.

In a (colloquial / linguistic) sense that is not as strict as that in logic, what contains a sentence or - apparently - assertive utterance is also called a statement.

  • Example: The expression “It is raining” is an abstract grammatical statement that has a meaningful content in colloquial language, but due to a lack of truthfulness (when ?, where?) Does not represent a statement in the logical sense; however, in the context of the specific utterance (place, time) is a truth-defining statement.
  • Example: A witness does not say anything concrete, verifiable or falsifiable in his “testimony”, he just keeps talking about the bush. His "statement" is not a statement in the logical sense (if only it should be).

The justification of the distinction between a statement and a statement (sentence) content becomes clear from the fact that a statement (a proposition) can be made (stated) by different statements:

  • Example:
    1. Berlin is the capital of germany.
    2. The capital of Germany is Berlin.
    3. Germany's capital is Berlin.
    4. Germany has a capital and it's called Berlin.
    5. Berlin is the capital of Germany.

or in other sentences than statements:

    1. Berlin is the capital of Germany, or do you have a different opinion?

See also

  • Interpretation , a process that is used to talk about the content of a work of art, for example.

Web links

Wiktionary: statement  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikibooks: Math for Non-Freaks: Statement  - Learning and Teaching Materials

Individual evidence

  1. as here Peter Hinst: Logische Propädeutik . W. Fink, Munich 1974, p. 21 ff .: Statements - assertive utterance - proposition;
    • Helmut Glück (Ed.): Metzler Lexicon Language. 4th edition. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010: Statement practically only refers to proposition and for statements to declarative clauses ;
    • according to Hoyningen-Huene: Logic , 1998, p. 32 f. the expression statement has at least 5 meanings connected to it: [1] the utterance of the statement; [1.1] the scheme of the utterance; [2] an act of judgment; [2.1] the scheme of the act of judgment; [3] the sense of meaning.
  2. statement.
  3. statement. In: Digital dictionary of the German language . Retrieved October 8, 2019
  4. ^ So Brun, Hirsch, Hadorn: Textanalyse. 2009, p. 196.
  5. After Robert Wall: Logic and set theory. Scriptor, Kronberg Ts. 1974, p. 31.