Stanley Kubrick

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Stanley Kubrick in a self-portrait (1949)
Signature of Stanley Kubrick

Stanley Kubrick ([ ˈkuːbɹɪk ]; born July 26, 1928 in New York ; † March 7, 1999 in Childwickbury Manor near London ) was an American director , producer , screenwriter and photographer . His films are primarily praised for their deep intellectual symbolism and technical perfection. Kubrick tried to explore the medium himself, analytically breaking down each genre to put its constituent parts back together into something new. But the director was also notorious for perfecting every scene down to the smallest detail, taking the actors to their psychological and physical limits. His films oscillate between order and chaos and thus result in a cinematic conditio humana .

Her main themes are the inaccessibility of reality and the failure of humanity, expressed by simply accepting, ignoring or wrestling the protagonists with their dark, inner forces or drives. Authenticity, coldness, honesty, reality, dream, urges are the most important keywords in connection with Kubrick's works. Filmmakers and critics consider him one of the most important filmmakers of all time, although he never received an Oscar for best director.

Life and artistic work

Kubrick with his father Jacques

Stanley Kubrick was born in New York on July 26, 1928 and was the first of two children. His parents, Jacob Leonard Kubrick (1902–1985), a surgeon, and Sadie Gertrude Kubrick (née Perveler; 1903–1985), came from Jewish families; all of their grandparents had immigrated from Austro-Hungarian Galicia . In 1934 Kubrick's younger sister, Barbara Mary, was born.

Beginnings and breakthrough

Kubrick's photo of Chicago posted in The Look

His early passions were excessive reading, cinema and chess. From 1941 he attended William Howard Taft High School in New York City, where he was a photographer for the school newspaper. After graduating from school, he began his career as a photographer. After initially selling amateur photos to the New York magazine Look , he got a permanent position there at the age of 18. A photo story that he wrote about a boxer led him deeper into the subject matter.

As a photographer, he was familiar with investigative reporting ; accordingly, in 1950 he directed his first documentary Day of the Fight , a sensational study of individual performance in the boxing ring, although it was only 16 minutes long. Motivated by the success and recognition he had received from his first work, he then shot the documentary Flying Padre and the union advertising film The Seafarers .

His first feature films, Fear and Desire (1953), an allegorical, temporally and geographically indefinite war drama, and The Tiger of New York (Killer's Kiss) (1955), however, already attracted Hollywood's attention . The Tiger of New York is Kubrick's last film with a happy ending . Against Kubrick's original intention, the production company United Artists , which bought the film for US $ 100,000, claimed that the plot would end well. Later, the studios gave him almost unlimited free rein. Only with his last film, Eyes Wide Shut , is the ending open and ambivalent again .

Film connoisseurs, he was with the classic film noir The Killing (The Killing) a term before him with Paths of Glory (with Kirk Douglas succeeded in the lead role), the final breakthrough. The during the First World War, playing film Paths of Glory (original title: Paths of Glory ) deals with the cruelty and senselessness of war only in passing. It is definitely an anti-militarist film, but above all a bitterly angry parable on structures of power and a commitment against the death penalty .

Almost all of Kubrick's essential stylistic elements can be found in these films: the camera alternating between distance and involvement, which seems to be more interested in the course of action than in the subjects' motives; the reduction of characters to pawns on a symbolic chess board ; the emotional and moral equanimity of the narrative. According to his own statements, the passionate chess player Kubrick planned many films and the characters involved in analogy to the conflicts and movements on a chessboard. Again and again one sees checkerboard patterns as flooring in his films, as is the case in the French castle where the road to fame plays, where the soldiers often look like life-size chess pieces.

Kirk Douglas , lead actor and executive producer of the monumental film Spartacus , hired Kubrick as a director after the original director Anthony Mann was fired after a few days of shooting. The film became a box office hit, which provided Kubrick with the funding for his subsequent films. However, he himself was very dissatisfied due to his little influence on the script and production conditions, which is why he described Spartacus as a "necessary evil". Kubrick made up his mind never to make a movie again without having full control over the production from scriptwriting to editing. He left the Hollywood system and remained for the protagonists there until the end of his life a publicly shy outsider.

Retreat to England and the first Kubrick films

Stanley Kubrick's guest house in Abbots Mead, Borehamwood , where he edited his most important films

From 1948 to 1955 Kubrick was married to his childhood sweetheart Toba Metz, and from 1955 to 1957 to the Austrian ballet dancer Ruth Sobotka. While filming Paths to Fame , he met Christiane Harlan , whom he married in 1957. Together with her, the two common daughters Anya Renata (1959-2009) and Vivian (* 1960) and his stepdaughter Catherine (* 1953), he moved to England in the early 1960s where he initially settled near the Elstree Studios in London down; he later bought Childwickbury Manor in the St. Albans District, where he set up studio and editing rooms in the former stables. For the press and in Hollywood he was considered someone who lived extremely withdrawn; However, acquaintances said that he spent most of his time in the vicinity of family, friends and acquaintances.

His first film shot in England was Lolita (1962). Kubrick worked closely with Vladimir Nabokov , the author of the novel of the same name. The several hundred pages long screenplay, which Nabokov wrote himself, changed Kubrick decisively so that the act, which was received as a scandal book, could be filmed without the film ending up on the index worldwide. While working on Lolita , the director discovered the actor Peter Sellers . Sellers disguises himself to deceive Humbert already in Lolita in his role as Quilty as the school psychologist Dr. Zemph.

Kubrick asked if Sellers would like to see Dr. Strange or: How I learned to love the bomb could play four roles at once. He agreed, but then played “only” three pieces. The fourth, the bomber's commander, was taken over by Slim Pickens . Sellers didn't want to play it and promptly broke his leg trying. The great risk with Dr. Strange or: How I learned to love the bomb, to portray the Cold War-era confrontation as a black comedy, paid off. The film can also be seen as a smart answer to the James Bond films.

Equally famous were his two following films in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and A Clockwork Orange (1971). All three films provoked heated public controversy through an ironic theatricalization when they were released and are still discussed in film studies , both in terms of themes and plot as well as the symbolism they contain.

In contrast, his 1975 film Barry Lyndon based on the novel by William Makepeace Thackeray (1844) was a commercial failure. To make the beauty of baroque painting and music tangible on film and to authentically reproduce the life of that time using a fictional biography of Barry Lyndon, through natural candlelight in all indoor shots, did not bring any success at the box office. However, the film influenced other directors who later also devoted themselves to the subject, from Peter Greenaway ( The Draftsman's Contract ) to Lars von Trier ( Dogville ) to Peter Webber ( The Girl with the Pearl Earring ) and Yorgos Lanthimos ( The Favorite )

The later work

After Barry Lyndon , Kubrick's production pace decreased. In the last 25 years of his life he produced three other films. However, his fame and the "mystery" surrounding him were so great that every release worldwide was received with great expectations. More important for Kubrick and probably unique in the history of Hollywood was that he was given a largely free hand and an almost unlimited time budget for each film from the big studios.

With Jack Nicholson , Kubrick directed the film Shining (1980), an adaptation of the book by Stephen King . King fans in particular were dissatisfied with the film, although Kubrick literally unleashed floods of blood as he took great liberties with the plot of the book. The focus of the film is the design of a luxurious modern space. In the film, history becomes the eternal return of the same: the violence that no order can withstand. King himself described Kubrick's Shining as the worst film adaptation of one of his books. Although not as enthusiastically received by contemporary critics as earlier works, Shining is now considered a classic of the mystery thriller .

The film Full Metal Jacket (1987), set in the Vietnam War , was Kubrick's only film that came too late in his opinion. Despite the strictest secrecy, the subject became known to the public shortly before the film was finished. As a result, Oliver Stone finished his film Platoon faster than planned and released it a few weeks before Full Metal Jacket . In Germany, the film premiere of Full Metal Jacket was half a year after that of Platoon .

After Kubrick completed Full Metal Jacket , he worked on a film adaptation of the novel Lies in Times of War by Louis Begley and the science fiction story AI under the working title Aryan Papers. When Steven Spielberg published Schindler's List in 1993 , Kubrick abandoned his Aryan Papers project so as not to get into a situation similar to that which had arisen with Full Metal Jacket . The project was already well advanced and shooting was about to start. He assumed that audiences would probably not want to see another film on the Holocaust for the foreseeable future . He initially continued to work on AI and at the same time began work on a film adaptation of Arthur Schnitzler's dream novel , which he had been planning since the late 1960s. Finally, since he feared that the story of a robot who wants to become a real person might become too philosophical in his hands, he entrusted the project to Steven Spielberg and from then on devoted his full attention to editing the dream novel . After two years of shooting, Kubrick presented the cut version of the film adaptation on March 5, 1999 under the title Eyes Wide Shut (1999). During this time, a con man named Alan Conway posed as Kubrick while the real Kubrick was busy filming. This story was filmed in 2006 under the title Color Me Kubrick with John Malkovich .

On March 7, 1999, Stanley Kubrick died in his home of complications from a heart attack.

The perfectionist Kubrick

One of the Zeiss lenses used in the Barry Lyndon movie . Originally developed for NASA by Carl Zeiss .
Zeiss Planar ƒ / 0.7 50mm lens for Kubrick's own Mitchell BNC 35mm camera, exhibited by the London Art Museumin San Francisco

Kubrick was famous and infamous for repeating each scene so many times that it was perfect in his eyes. A famous example is a scene from his film Shining in which Shelley Duvall finds a stack of over three hundred sheets of paper with the same sentence repeatedly written on it: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy . Kubrick refused to make copies of each page, even if it was impossible to see clearly. Several scribes were busy typing every page in the original. In the making-of for the film Shining , the harshness towards the young Shelley Duvall becomes visible, which Kubrick uses specifically so that she can better empathize with her role.

Kubrick interprets his urge for perfectionism not only as a strength, but also partly as a weakness. His wife said of him that although he did an excellent job, he often worked very slowly. In addition to some unrealized projects, Kubrick got into financial difficulties with Full Metal Jacket ; the film could only be released after platoon .


Short documentaries

Feature films

R: director, D: screenwriter, P: producer

Unrealized film projects

  • 1956 Kubrick submitted to MGM a script, written together with Calder Willingham , for a film adaptation of Stefan Zweig's novella Burning Secret . However, the project was not implemented. In 1988 Kubrick's longtime assistant Andrew Birkin filmed the material with Faye Dunaway and Klaus Maria Brandauer in the leading roles.
  • Stanley Kubrick spent several years preparing a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte . The preparations had progressed so far that Kubrick could have started production at any time. However, the release of Waterloo and its poor financial results dissuaded him and the film studio from the venture. Several materials of the preparation were later used for Barry Lyndon .
  • Kubrick began to deal intensively with the subject of the Holocaust and wanted to make a film about it. After the publication of Schindler's list , however, he rejected these plans on the grounds that Spielberg had already told everything essential with his film.
  • After extensive research on the short story Supertoys Last All Summer Long by Brian Aldiss , Kubrick decided against a cinematic realization. Instead, he invited his colleague Steven Spielberg over. He asked him to make this film and gave him the documents he had prepared. Kubrick justified this decision with the fact that Spielberg would fit this topic much better. In 2001, Spielberg finally released the film AI - Artificial Intelligence in cinemas.


Films in the top 250 of the IMDb
space Movie
60 Ways to fame
61 Shining
67 Dr. Strange, or how I learned to love the bomb
90 2001: A Space Odyssey
99 Full metal jacket
103 Clockwork Orange
205 Barry Lyndon

Academy Awards

Golden Globe Award

BAFTA Film Award

Venice International Film Festival

  • 1962: Nomination in the Golden Lion category for Lolita
  • 1972: Award in the category Best Foreign Language Film for Uhrwerk Orange
  • 1997: Award in the Golden Lion category for his life's work
  • 1999: Award in the Film Critica "Bastone Bianco" Award for Eyes Wide Shut

David di Donatello

  • 1969: Award in the category of best foreign film for 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • 1977: Award in the European David category for Barry Lyndon
  • 1988: Award in the Best Foreign Producer category for Full Metal Jacket
  • 1988: Award in the Luchino Visconti Award category for Full Metal Jacket
  • 1988: Nomination in the category Best Foreign Film for Full Metal Jacket
  • 1988: Nomination in the category of Best Foreign Director for Full Metal Jacket

Further awards and nominations (selection)

  • 1959: Award as best director at the Locarno International Film Festival for The Tiger of New York
  • 1981: Nomination for the Golden Raspberry in the category Worst Director for Shining
  • 1985: Awarded the Nocciala d'Oro at the Giffoni Film Festival
  • 1999: Received the DW Griffith Award for life's work
  • 1999: Received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Directors Guild of Great Britain
  • 2004: Awarded the Festival Honors at the eDIT Filmmaker's Festival
  • 2004: Awarded the golden screen for special services in the film industry for his entire work
  • 2008: Awarded the Honorary Grand Prize for Lifetime Achievement at the Sitges Catalonian Film Festival
  • 2014: Induction into the Science Fiction Hall of Fame


Entrance to the Kubrick exhibit at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art
  • For the publication of his films on data carriers for private screening ( VHS , DVD ), Stanley Kubrick had contractually stipulated that they could only be made with an aspect ratio of 4: 3. Only 2001: A Space Odyssey , shot on 65mm film, was released on DVD in the original 2.20: 1 film format. Kubrick's five last films A Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket and Eyes Wide Shut are all filmed in English full-screen format of 1.37: 1 (roughly equivalent to the classic 4: 3 TV screen); for projection in cinemas, however, the image was composed during the shoot in such a way that a widescreen display of 1.85: 1 is possible. These films are now available as HD transfers on BluRay discs; the 1.85: 1 cinema format was used, with the exception of A Clockwork Orange and Dr. Strange or: How I learned to love the bomb that comes in the 1.66: 1 format.
  • Kubrick's life and work was honored in 2001 with the documentary Stanley Kubrick - A Life for the Film , for which numerous actors, directors and other companions were interviewed by Jan Harlan . Tom Cruise, the main actor in Kubrick's last film Eyes Wide Shut, is the continuous voiceover.
  • Stanley Kubrick's Boxes (2008) is a documentation by Jon Ronson about the legacy of the exceptional artist: thousands of boxes, some of which Kubrick even had specially produced, with photos, letters, notes, newspaper clippings, etc., all meticulously sorted and archived, show the attention to detail of the Workaholic Stanley Kubrick.
  • The German Film Museum in Frankfurt am Main has developed an exhibition for Kubrick's oeuvre, in which numerous objects from Kubrick's extensive estate (including photos, letters, original props, costumes and scripts) are presented. This exhibition came about in cooperation with Kubrick's widow Christiane Kubrick and his long-term close colleague and brother-in-law Jan Harlan . It was shown for the first time in Frankfurt in spring 2004 and has been on an international tour since then. Since then, further presentations have taken place around the globe several times a year.
  • In the movie Kubrick, Nixon and the Man in the Moon , it is claimed that Kubrick was involved in a pretense of the first moon landing . The actors Buzz Aldrin , Henry Kissinger , Donald Rumsfeld , Alexander Haig and Lawrence Eagleburger gave the film the appearance of seriousness. Only in the credits of the mockumentary is it resolved that the film is not a real documentary. Rather, fictitious claims were deliberately mixed up with true facts in order to manipulate the viewer and leave him in the dark about which aspects are applicable.


  • Gerrit Bodde: The music in Stanley Kubrick's films. Der Andere Verlag, Osnabrück 2002, ISBN 3-936231-35-4 .
  • Ingried Brugger, Lisa Ortner-Kreil (eds.): Eyes Wide Open: Stanley Kubrick as a photographer. Verlag für Moderne Kunst, Bad Vöslau 2014, ISBN 978-3-86984-069-7 .
  • Alison Castle: The Stanley Kubrick Archive, Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-8228-4240-0 .
  • Rainer Crone: Stanley Kubrick: Drama and Shadow. Phaidon Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 0-7148-9463-X .
  • German Filmmuseum (Ed.): Stanley Kubrick. Kinematograph No. 19, 2004. ISBN 3-88799-068-4 (German edition) and ISBN 3-88799-069-2 (English edition).
  • Paul Duncan: Stanley Kubrick. Visual poet 1928–1999. Taschen, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-8228-3112-0 .
  • Fischer, Ralf Michael: Space and time in the cinematic oeuvre of Stanley Kubrick. New Frankfurt research on art, Volume 7. Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-7861-2598-3 .
  • Andreas Jacket: Stanley Kubrick: An interpretation of the concepts of his films. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2009, ISBN 978-3-89806-856-7 .
  • Peter W. Jansen, Wolfram Schütte (Ed.): Stanley Kubrick. With contributions by Christoph Hummel, Peter W. Jansen, Hansjörg Pauli and Hans Helmut Prinzler as well as 137 illustrations. Hanser (Film series, 18), Munich 1984, ISBN 3-446-12639-2 .
  • Susanne Kaul, Jean-Pierre Palmier: Stanley Kubrick. Introduction to his films and film aesthetics. Fink, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7705-4752-4 .
  • Andreas Kilb , Rainer Rother u. a .: Stanley Kubrick. Bertz, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-929470-78-0 .
  • Kay Kirchmann: Stanley Kubrick: The silence of the pictures. Hitzeroth, Marburg 1993, ISBN 3-89398-126-8 .
  • Bill Krohn: Masters of cinema. Stanley Kubrick. Phaidon Press (cahiers du cinema), Paris 2010, ISBN 978-2-86642-572-2 .
  • Charles Martig: War and violence, fear and desire: Stanley Kubrick's cinema universe. In: Thomas Bohrmann, Werner Veith, Stephan Zöller (Eds.): Handbuch Theologie und Popular Film . Volume 2. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2009, ISBN 978-3-506-76733-2 , pp. 99-110.
  • David Mikics: Stanley Kubrick: American Filmmaker. Yale University Press, New Haven 2020, ISBN 978-0-300-22440-5 .
  • James Naremore: On Kubrick. BFI, London 2007, ISBN 978-1-84457-142-0 .
  • Frederic Raphael : Eyes Wide Open - A close-up of Stanley Kubrick. Ullstein, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-548-35951-5 .
  • Gary D. Rhodes (Ed.): Stanley Kubrick: essays on his films and legacy. McFarland, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7864-3297-4 .
  • Georg Seeßlen , Fernand Jung: Stanley Kubrick and his films. 3rd, improved and supplemented edition. Schüren, Marburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-89472-312-5 .
  • Stephan Sperl: The semantization of music in Stanley Kubrick's cinematic work. Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann 2006, ISBN 3-8260-3408-2 .
  • Rolf Thissen : Stanley Kubrick: The director as an architect. Heyne, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-453-16495-4 .
  • Alexander Walker , Sybil Taylor, Ulrich Ruchti: Stanley Kubrick: Life and Work. Henschel Verlag, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-89487-330-2 .
  • Kindler's Literature Lexicon. Edited by Heinz Ludwig Arnold. 3rd, completely revised edition, 18 volumes. Metzler, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-476-04000-8 .
  • Classic films. Edited by Thomas Koebner with the assistance of Kerstin-Luise Neumann, 4 volumes. Reclam, Stuttgart 1995. {Sec 4 Fil}
  • H. Kreitling: Stanley Kubrick, photographer: The master director was a successful photo reporter even before his career in film. The documentator's cool gaze speaks from his pictures. In: Die Welt Kompakt from Tuesday, June 12, 2018, pp. 8–9

Web links

Commons : Stanley Kubrick  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Bernd Kiefer: Stanley Kubrick 1928-1999 . In: Thomas Koebner (Ed.): Film directors: biographies, work descriptions, filmographies . 3rd, updated and expanded edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-15-010662-4 , pp. 397 .
  2. ^ Geoffrey Cocks: The Wolf at the Door: Stanley Kubrick, History, and the Holocaust. September 28, 2004, p. 19 , accessed May 4, 2014 (English, Googlebooks).
  3. Vincent LoBrutto: Chronology . In: Alison Castle (Ed.): The Stanley Kubrick Archives . TASCHEN, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-5684-2 , pp. 822 .
  4. ^ Paul Duncan: Stanley Kubrick: Complete Films. Taschen, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8365-2772-9 , p. 15.
  5. Georg Seeßlen, Fernand Jung: Stanley Kubrick and his films . Schüren Presseverlag, Marburg 1999, ISBN 3-89472-312-2 , p. 10-11 .
  6. Georg Seeßlen, Fernand Jung: Stanley Kubrick and his films . Schüren Presseverlag, Marburg 1999, ISBN 3-89472-312-2 , p. 11 .
  7. ^ Merritt, Greg: Celluloid Mavericks: The History of American Independent Film . Basic Books, 2000, ISBN 9781560252320 , p. 139.
  8. Madison Brek: The Dream State of 'Eyes Wide Shut' . Film School Rejects, February 8, 2018, accessed July 26, 2019
  9. Matthis Kepser: Paths to Fame, Analysis and Didactic-Methodical Considerations for Working with Film in Secondary Schools. A film booklet. University of Bremen 2007 on behalf of the Senator for Education and Science Bremen PDF
  10. Andreas Henn: Stanley Kubrick and the model of chess: Eternal return in fictitious games . Diploma thesis at the Institute for Theater, Film and Media Studies at the University of Vienna, 2009, accessed on July 26, 2019
  11. ^ André Schulz: Inspired by chess: Stanley Kubrick. Chessbase, accessed July 26, 2019.
  12. Thomas Allen Nelson: Stanley Kubrick . Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-453-86064-0 , p. 10 .
  13. Vincent LoBrutto: Chronology . In: Alison Castle (Ed.): The Stanley Kubrick Archives . TASCHEN, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-5684-2 , pp. 824-827 .
  14. Vincent LoBrutto: Chronology . In: Alison Castle (Ed.): The Stanley Kubrick Archives . TASCHEN, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-5684-2 , pp. 827 .
  15. ^ Cf. Christiane Kubrick: Stanley Kubrick. A Life in Pictures. London 2002. pp. 15, 73.
  16. a b Vincent Lobrutto: chronology . In: Alison Castle (Ed.): The Stanley Kubrick Archives . TASCHEN, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-5684-2 , pp. 830 .
  17. Jon Ronson: eyes open and through. In: Friday. Retrieved September 2, 2010 .
  18. Vincent LoBrutto: Chronology . In: Alison Castle (Ed.): The Stanley Kubrick Archives . TASCHEN, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-5684-2 , pp. 829 .
  19. Thomas Allen Nelson: Stanley Kubrick . Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-453-86064-0 , p. 10 .
  20. ^ Barry Lyndon - Connections . IMdB, Movieconnections, accessed July 26, 2019
  21. Michael Althen: The unspeakable pleasure of looking . Süddeutsche Zeitung, March 9, 1999, accessed July 26, 2019
  22. ^ Geoffrey Macnab: The movie that mattered to me. The Independent, November 27, 2009, accessed July 26, 2019
  23. Sven Mikulec: Cruising Around Town with Kubrick at the bakery or: How Peter Webber Acquired Stanley's Beloved Mercedes . Cinephilia, accessed July 26, 2019
  24. Daniel Kothenschulte: The Favorite - Rabbits in the bedroom. Frankfurter Rundschau, January 23, 2019, accessed on July 26, 2019
  25. cf. Gary Leva: Lost Kubrick: The Unfinished Films of Stanley Kubrick. Eyes Wide Shut (2-Disc Special Edition DVD), Warner Home Video 2007.
  26. cf. The Last Movie: Stanley Kubrick & Eyes Wide Shut, Eyes Wide Shut (2-Disc Special Edition DVD), Warner Home Video 2007
  27. Vincent LoBrutto: Chronology . In: Alison Castle (Ed.): The Stanley Kubrick Archives . TASCHEN, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-5684-2 , pp. 845 .
  28. a b c d Jan Harlan: Stanley Kubrick - A life for the film. Warner Bros., 2001
  29. Guardian article, July 15, 2018 (accessed August 9, 2020)
  30. The Top 250 of IMDb (as of May 23, 2020)
  31. ^ Stanley Kubrick. In: Science Fiction Awards Database. Retrieved November 24, 2017 .
  32. - Stanley Kubrick Boxes (accessed April 13, 2016)
  33. - exhibition tour (accessed on February 3, 2019)