The term lunar landing designated as part of the space a controlled landing is one of man made missile ( Lander ) on the earth satellites moon . Most often the term is used for the first manned moon landing on July 20, 1969 by Apollo 11 .
The first man-made spacecraft on the moon was the Soviet Lunik 2 probe , which hit the moon on September 13, 1959. The American missile Ranger 4 crashed on April 26, 1962 on the far side of the moon after a loss of contact. The space probes Ranger 7 , 8 and 9 were able to transmit thousands of images to earth in 1964 and 1965 before their impact (scheduled hard landings ). On February 3, 1966, the Soviet Luna 9 was the first missile to land softly on the moon, and with Surveyor 1 on June 2, 1966, a US probe landed for the first time.
The first manned flight to the moon (without landing on the satellite) was Apollo 8 in December 1968. Frank Borman, William Anders and James ("Jim") Lovell orbited the moon 10 times and were the first people to see the back with their own eyes saw the moon. On July 21, 1969 at 3:56 PM CET entered in the course of the mission 11 Apollo the first humans to the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin . In the following three years, five more manned moon landings of the Apollo program took place.
Presumably the Soviet Union tried to bring lunar rocks to earth before Apollo 11 . However, this only succeeded with the Luna 16 probe, which landed on September 20, 1970 . The planned Soviet manned lunar program was not implemented.
The People's Republic of China was the third nation to make a soft moon landing; the Chinese probe Chang'e-3 touched down on the moon on December 14, 2013. On January 3, 2019, Chang'e-4 landed a probe on the back of the moon for the first time .
People on the moon
A total of twelve American astronauts set foot on the moon between 1969 and 1972.
|Moon landing||Astronaut (s)|
|Exit on||Dwell time 1||on the moon||in lunar orbit|
|Apollo 11||July 21, 1969
Neil Armstrong (1930–2012)
Buzz Aldrin (* 1930)
|Michael Collins (* 1930)|
|Apollo 12||Nov. 19, 1969||1d7h 31m||
Charles Conrad (1930–1999)
Alan Bean (1932–2018)
|Richard Gordon (1929-2017)|
|Apollo 14||Feb 5, 1971||1d9h 30m||
Alan Shepard (1923–1998)
Edgar Mitchell (1930–2016)
|Stuart Roosa (1933-1994)|
|Apollo 15||July 30, 1971||2d 17h 54m||
David Scott (* 1932)
James Irwin (1930–1991)
|Alfred Worden (1932-2020)|
|Apollo 16||Apr 20, 1972||2d 23h2m||
John Young (1930–2018)
Charles Duke (* 1935)
|Ken Mattingly (born 1936)|
|Apollo 17||Dec 11, 1972||3d2h 59m||
Eugene Cernan (1934-2017)
Harrison Schmitt (* 1935)
|Ron Evans (1933-1990)|
Planned moon landings
In the USA, NASA's Artemis program is a follow-up project to Apollo that is in preparation for the first landing in 2024 with the Artemis 3 mission . The stated goals are a woman's first visit to the lunar surface and the first manned exploration of the South Pole region . China and Russia are also planning manned moon landings for the 2030s. Both countries are also considering setting up a joint research station on the moon together with the European Space Agency (ESA).
- Lunar Module
- Moon landing conspiracy theories
- Moon # research history
- List of man-made objects on the moon
- Uwe W. Jack: The dream of a flight to the moon. (= Part 2 from the sequel: 50 years of flight to the moon ). In: Fliegerrevue , Volume 67, No. 2/2019, pp. 48–51.
- Lunar Exploration Timeline . NASA website
- Neil Armstrong is the first person to step on the moon (MPG; 6.7 MB)
- Christoph Seidler: Landing of the Chinese probe: The "Jade Hare" begins its exploratory journey. In: Spiegel Online . December 14, 2013, accessed March 31, 2019 .
- China, Russia, Europe to jointly explore plan for research station on Moon. In: Xinhua.net. July 22, 2019, accessed July 22, 2019 .